nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2008‒07‒14
twelve papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Knowledge spillovers and the equilibrium location of vertically linked industries: the return of the black hole By Sylvain Barde
  2. Competencies and Institutions Fostering High-growth Firms By Henrekson, Magnus; Johansson, Dan
  3. Influence, Information Overload, and Information Technology in Health Care By James B. Rebitzer; Mari Rege; Christopher Shepard
  4. Instrumental Variables in Models with Multiple Outcomes: The General Unordered Case By Heckman, James J.; Urzua, Sergio; Vytlacil, Edward
  5. Locational Conditions, Cooperation, and Innovativeness : Evidence from Research and Company Spin-Offs By Anna Lejpras; Andreas Stephan
  6. Determinacy, Learnability, and Plausibility in Monetary Policy Analysis: Additional Results By Bennett T. McCallum
  7. Incidence and Growth of Patent Thickets - The Impact of Technological Opportunities and Complexity By Harhoff, Dietmar; von Graevenitz, Georg; Wagner, Stefan
  8. Cluster Emergence and Network Evolution: A longitudinal analysis of the inventor network in Sophia-Antipolis By Anne Ter Wal
  9. Innovation and Information Acquisition Under Time Inconsistency and Uncertainty By Sophie Chemarin; Caroline Orset
  10. The Bright and Dark Side of Cooperation for Regional Innovation Performance By Tom Broekel; Andreas Meder
  11. International spillovers of domestic reforms By Arjan Lejour; Hugo Rojas-Romagosa
  12. Human Capital, Economic Growth, and Regional Inequality in China By Fleisher, Belton M.; Li, Haizheng; Zhao, Min Qiang

  1. By: Sylvain Barde (Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Économiques)
    Date: 2008
  2. By: Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Johansson, Dan (Ratio)
    Abstract: High-growth firms (HGFs) are critical for net job creation and economic growth. We analyze HGFs using the theory of competence blocs, linking firm growth to property rights and the interaction of complementary expertise. Specifically, we discuss how the institutional framework affects the prevalence and performance of HGFs. Firm growth is viewed as resulting from the perpetual discovery and use of productive knowledge. A key element in this process is the competence bloc, a nexus of economic actors with complementary competencies that are vital in order to generate and commercialize novel ideas. The institutional framework determines the incentives for these individuals to acquire and utilize knowledge. We identify a number of institutions that foster the emergence of competence blocs and the creation of HGFs. In particular, our analysis points to the pivotal roles played by tax structures, labor market regulation, and the contestability of currently closed service markets. Finally, we characterize institutions beneficial for sclerotic or dynamic capitalism, respectively, depending on whether they provide a favorable environment for the emergence of competence blocs and the creation of HGFs.
    Keywords: Competence bloc; Dynamic capitalism; Entrepreneurship; Flyers; Gazelles; High-growth firms; Industrial policy; Innovation; Institutions; Labor security; Product market regulations; Property rights; Sclerotic capitalism; Self-employment; Tax policy.
    JEL: H32 L25 M13 O31 P14
    Date: 2008–06–30
  3. By: James B. Rebitzer; Mari Rege; Christopher Shepard
    Abstract: We investigate whether information technology can help physicians more efficiently acquire new knowledge in a clinical environment characterized by information overload. Our analysis makes use of data from a randomized trial as well as a theoretical model of the influence that information technology has on the acquisition of new medical knowledge. Although the theoretical framework we develop is conventionally microeconomic, the model highlights the non-market and non-pecuniary influence activities that have been emphasized in the sociological literature on technology diffusion. We report three findings. First, empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning suggests that computer based decision support will speed the diffusion of new medical knowledge when physicians are coping with information overload. Secondly, spillover effects will likely lead to "underinvestment" in this decision support technology. Third, alternative financing strategies common to new information technology, such as the use of marketing dollars to pay for the decision support systems, may lead to undesirable outcomes if physician information overload is sufficiently severe and if there is significant ambiguity in how best to respond to the clinical issues identified by the computer.
    JEL: D01 D8 I12 L86
    Date: 2008–07
  4. By: Heckman, James J. (University of Chicago); Urzua, Sergio (Northwestern University); Vytlacil, Edward (Yale University)
    Abstract: This paper develops the method of local instrumental variables for models with multiple, unordered treatments when treatment choice is determined by a nonparametric version of the multinomial choice model. Responses to interventions are permitted to be heterogeneous in a general way and agents are allowed to select a treatment (e.g., participate in a program) with at least partial knowledge of the idiosyncratic response to the treatments. We define treatment effects in a general model with multiple treatments as differences in counterfactual outcomes that would have been observed if the agent faced different choice sets. We show how versions of local instrumental variables can identify the corresponding treatment parameters. Direct application of local instrumental variables identifies the marginal treatment effect of one option versus the next best alternative without requiring knowledge of any structural parameters from the choice equation or any large support assumptions. Using local instrumental variables to identify other treatment parameters requires either large support assumptions or knowledge of the latent index function of the multinomial choice model.
    Keywords: treatment effects, multinomial, nonparametric
    JEL: C31
    Date: 2008–06
  5. By: Anna Lejpras; Andreas Stephan
    Abstract: This paper has two goals. First, it analyzes the extent to which the innovativeness of spin-offs, either born from a research facility or from another company, is influenced by locational conditions. Second, it provides evidence on how important local cooperation links are in comparison to nonlocal ones. Using a sample of approximately 1,500 East German firms from knowledge-intensive sectors, we estimate a structural equation model applying the partial least squares method. We find that proximity to local research institutes and universities is the most influential factor for the cooperation intensity of spin-offs. Furthermore, the higher the cooperation intensity, the greater the innovativeness of a firm. Moreover, the results indicate that it is not the local but the nonlocal cooperation ties that are more conducive to innovativeness of research spin-offs. The findings also highlight that the innovativeness of research spin-offs with solely local links is strongly depends on support from various authorities and institutions.
    Keywords: Research and Company Spin-Offs, Locational Conditions, Cooperation Intensity, Innovativeness, Structural Equation Modeling, Partial Least Squares Approach
    JEL: M13 O18 R3
    Date: 2008
  6. By: Bennett T. McCallum
    Abstract: In a very broad class of dynamic linear models, if agents possess knowledge of current endogenous variables in a least-squares learning process, determinacy of a rational expectations (RE) equilibrium is sufficient but not necessary for learnability of that equilibrium. Thus, since learnability is an attractive necessary condition for plausibility of any equilibrium, there may exist a single plausible RE solution even in cases of indeterminacy. This paper proposes and outlines a distinct criterion that plausible models should possess, termed "well formulated" (WF), which rules out infinite discontinuities in the implied impulse response functions. The paper explores the relationship between this WF property and learnability, under the information assumption mentioned above, and finds that they often agree but neither strictly implies the other. Extending the P-matrix requirement, implied for specified matrices by the WF property, to one that demands positive dominant-diagonal matrices would guarantee both WF and learnability, but a suitable rationale has not been found. Finally, under a second information assumption, which gives the agents only lagged information on endogenous variables during the learning process, the situation is less favorable in the sense that learnability can be guaranteed only under special assumptions.
    JEL: C62 E30 E52
    Date: 2008–07
  7. By: Harhoff, Dietmar; von Graevenitz, Georg; Wagner, Stefan
    Abstract: We investigate incidence and evolution of patent thickets. A theoretical model of patenting encompassing complex and discrete technologies is introduced. It is shown that decreased technological opportunities increase patenting incentives in complex technologies. This effect gets stronger as complexity grows. In contrast, lower technological opportunities reduce patenting incentives in discrete technologies. We also analyze under which conditions greater complexity increases patenting incentives in complex technologies. A new measure of technological complexity is proposed that captures the density of patent thickets. Additionally, measures of fragmentation and technological opportunities are constructed exploiting European patent citations. We employ a panel capturing patenting behaviour of 2074 firms in 30 technology areas over 15 years. GMM estimation results show that patenting conforms to our theoretical model. The results indicate that patent thickets exist in 9 of the 30 technology areas. Decreasing technological opportunities are a surprisingly strong driver of patent thicket growth.
    Keywords: complexity; patent portfolios; patent thickets; patenting; technological opportunities
    JEL: L13 L20 O34
    Date: 2008–07
  8. By: Anne Ter Wal
    Abstract: A widely held view in cluster research is that clusters are characterized by the presence of networks of local collective learning. However, with a growing number of studies indicating this is not necessarily the case, the question arises under which conditions clusters exhibit dense networks of local collective learning. Taking a longitudinal view at the high-tech cluster of Sophia-Antipolis this paper investigates whether and how networks of collective learning among inventors emerged throughout the growth of the cluster from the late 1970s onwards. On the basis of EPO and USPTO patent data we reconstructed co-inventorship networks for the cluster’s two main industries. Detecting a network of local collective learning only in Information Technology, in which growth has been increasingly based on spin-offs and start-ups, and not in Life Sciences, we suggest that the extent and nature of the local concentration of firms over time strongly affect the evolution of local collective learning networks.
    Keywords: cluster evolution, network evolution, collective learning, Sophia-Antipolis
    Date: 2008–06
  9. By: Sophie Chemarin; Caroline Orset
    Abstract: We propose to analyse the hyperbolic discounting preferences effect on the innovator's research investment decision. Investing in research allows him to acquire information, and then to reduce the uncertainty of the risks of his project. We find that whatever the innovator's preferences, that is hyperbolic or time-consistent, there exists a research investment constraint that limits the information acquisition. However, even if the information is free, while a time-consistent agent always acquires information, a hyperbolic agent may prefer staying ignorant. We also emphasize that hyperbolic discounting preferences induce and information precision constraint that leads the hyperbolic innovator to ignore the information whilethe time-consistent innovator gets it. Moreover, the possibility that the agent has a commitment power in the future strengthens this ignorance strategy. Finally, we investigate the impact of existing liability rules on the innovator's decision to acquire information.
    Keywords: Innovation, information acquisition, uncertainty, self-control, time inconsistency, liability rules
    JEL: D81 D83 D92
    Date: 2008
  10. By: Tom Broekel; Andreas Meder
    Abstract: Studies analyzing the importance of intra- and inter-regional cooperation for regional innovation performance are mainly of qualitative nature and focus strongly on the positive effects that high levels of cooperation can yield. For the case of the German labor market regions and the Electrics & Electronics industry the paper provides a quantitative-empirical analysis taking into account the possibility of negative effects related to regional lock-in, lock-out, and cooperation overload situations. Using conditional nonparametric frontier techniques and cooperation behavior measures we find positive as well as substantial negative effects of cooperation with the latter being induced by excessive and unbalanced cooperation behavior.
    Keywords: regional innovation performance, cooperation, lock-out, lock-in, cooperation overload
    JEL: R12 O18 O31
    Date: 2008–06
  11. By: Arjan Lejour; Hugo Rojas-Romagosa
    Abstract: Using the CGE model WorldScan, we assess the benefits for the EU member states of jointly reaching four of the Lisbon targets (i.e. 70% employment, skills upgrades, increased R&D expenditures and administrative burden reductions of 25%), compared with the alternative when each country unilaterally pursues these reforms. With this approach, we estimate the associated international spillovers of joint EU coordination. Spillovers associated with R&D expenditures are a key factor. When the R&D target is jointly reached in the EU, output almost doubles and consumption experiments an even greater increase. The other three targets also produce positive spillovers, but of a much lower magnitude.
    Keywords: International Policy Spillovers; CGE models; R&D spillovers
    JEL: F42 C68 O33
    Date: 2008–05
  12. By: Fleisher, Belton M. (Ohio State University); Li, Haizheng (Georgia Tech); Zhao, Min Qiang (Ohio State University)
    Abstract: We study the dispersion in rates of provincial economic- and TFP growth in China. Our results show that regional growth patterns can be understood as a function of several interrelated factors, which include investment in physical capital, human capital, and infrastructure capital; the infusion of new technology and its regional spread; and market reforms, with a major step forward occurring following Deng Xiaoping’s “South Trip” in 1992. We find that FDI had much larger effect on TFP growth before 1994 than after, and we attribute this to emergence of other channels of technology transfer when marketization accelerated. We find that human capital positively affects output per worker and productivity growth. In particular, in terms of its direct contribution to production, educated labor has a much higher marginal product. Moreover, we estimate a positive, direct effect of human capital on TFP growth. This direct effect is hypothesized to come from domestic innovation activities. The estimated spillover effect of human capital on TFP growth is positive and statistically significant, which is very robust to model specifications and estimation methods. The spillover effect appears to be much stronger before 1994. We conduct cost-benefit analysis and a policy “experiment,” in which we project the impact of increases in human capital and infrastructure capital on regional inequality. We conclude that investing in human capital will be an effective policy to reduce regional gaps in China as well as an efficient means to promote economic growth.
    Keywords: China, TFP growth, economic growth, human capital, infrastructure
    JEL: O15 O18 O47 O53
    Date: 2008–07

This nep-knm issue is ©2008 by Laura Stefanescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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