nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2008‒05‒31
thirteen papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. The impact of network structure on knowledge transfer: An application of social network analysis in the context of regional innovation networks By Michael Fritsch; Martina Kauffeld-Monz
  2. Innovator networks and regional knowledge base By Uwe Cantner; Andreas Meder; Anne ter Wal
  3. Knowledge Economics role in explaining growth and innovation By Khumalo, Bhekuzulu
  4. Measuring the Returns of Research and Development: An Empirical Study of the German Manufacturing Sector over 45 Years By Guenter Lang
  5. The Impact of Continuous Training on a Firm’s Innovations By Stefan Bauernschuster; Oliver Falck; Stephan Heblich
  7. Local Innovation Systems and Benchmarking By Uwe Cantner
  8. Past Experience, Cognitive Frames, and Entrepreneurship: Some Econometric Evidence from the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry By S. Bhaduri; H. Worch
  9. Interaction Structures in Local Innovation Systems By Uwe Cantner; Holger Graf
  10. Innovators and the Diversity of Innovation Systems By Uwe Cantner; Andreas Meder
  11. Technological change and employer-provided training: Evidence from German establishments By Ardiana N. Gashi; Geoff Pugh; Nick Adnett
  12. E-Governance in Ireland: New Technologies, Local Government and Civic Participation By Lee Komito
  13. Les technologies de l'information et de la communication :<br />Vecteurs de diversification des pratiques culturelles ? By Fabrice Rochelandet; Mohamed El Hedi Arouri

  1. By: Michael Fritsch (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW-Berlin), and Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany); Martina Kauffeld-Monz (Institute for Urban Science and Structural Policy (IfS Berlin), Germany)
    Abstract: We analyze information and knowledge transfer in a sample of 16 German regional innovation networks with almost 300 firms and research organizations involved. The results indicate that strong ties are more beneficial for the exchange of knowledge and information than weak ties. Moreover, our results suggest that broker positions tend to be associated with social returns rather than with private benefits.
    Keywords: Regional innovation networks, R+D-collaboration, knowledge exchange, social network analysis, strong ties, knowledge brokers
    JEL: D83 D85 L14 O32
    Date: 2008–05–06
  2. By: Uwe Cantner (Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena, Economics Department); Andreas Meder (Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena, Economics Department); Anne ter Wal (Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University)
    Abstract: This paper concerns the regional innovation system approach. It deals with the characteristics of three regional systems, Northern Hesse, Alpes-Maritime and Jena, and focusses on each regional network of innovators. In this context the importance of the size and homogeneity of a regional pool of knowledge spillovers for those networks is analyzed. We ï¬nd evidence that an increasing regional knowledge base in combination with an increas- ing homogeneity of this knowledge base enhances the knowledge flows and the incentives for actors to interact with each other.
    Keywords: cooperation, innovator networks, complementarity of knowledge, interaction structure
    JEL: O31 P25 Q55
    Date: 2008–05–13
  3. By: Khumalo, Bhekuzulu
    Abstract: This paper is written to show that there is a definite model that has been developed that explains the role of innovation to economic growth. This paper is based on the theorem that was built up in the paper that I wrote in 2007 entitled “Point X and the Economics of Knowledge”, as well as the so far unpublished papers concerning the long and short term properties of knowledge. This paper shall us the short term properties of knowledge to explain the relationship between growth and Knowledge. Stuart Kauffman of the university of Calgary believes that “Conventional economic theories about growth and the evolution of future wealth may be inadequate. We need a theory and historical examination of the growth of the actual economic web and of whether, in a supracritical economy, a sufficiently high diversity of the web autocatalytically drives its own growth. Furthermore, we need to understand the mutually and collectively cross-enhancing power of complementary technologies, regulatory structure and attraction of consumers in the creation of wealth.” I say this is wrong, the paper “Point X and the Economics of Knowledge”, gives an excellent framework to answer these questions. This paper will delve to be as simple as possible.
    Keywords: Knowledge Economics; growth; innovation; short term knowledge growth; knowl; research
    JEL: A20 C02 D20 O39 O31 A10 D80
    Date: 2008–05–19
  4. By: Guenter Lang (Faculty of Management Technology, The German University in Cairo)
    Abstract: Motivated by recent statistics that show significant growth in labor productivity, this paper seeks to analyze the relationship between domestic R&D, knowledge stock and productivity dynamics. Time series data of the German manufacturing industry is used to estimate a variable cost function with the stock of knowledge being dependent upon current and past R&D spending. The estimates indicate that 50 percent of the effects of R&D on the knowledge stock appear within four years. However, the rate of return on R&D are shown to be drastically declining; recent rates of return on R&D are estimated to have reached an all-time low spanning the last 45 years. Current yields of R&D are only one third compared to the sixties. In conclusion, though the productivity slowdown of the seventies seems to have been overcome, this is not attributed to R&D investments.
    Keywords: Productivity, innovation, research, development, technology, productivity slowdown
    JEL: D24 L60 O31
    Date: 2008–05
  5. By: Stefan Bauernschuster (University of Passau); Oliver Falck (Ifo Institute for Economic Research, University of Munich); Stephan Heblich (Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena)
    Abstract: Keeping up with rapid technological change necessitates constant innovation. Successful innovation depends on both incumbent workers’ knowledge, based on experience, and knowledge about the latest technologies, along with the skills needed to implement them. Both of these knowledge-based elements of innovation can be attained through moderate labor force turnover in combination with continuous training. Based on German micro data, we find empirical evidence in support of training leading to innovation within a multivariate regression framework. However, when instrumenting training by the existence of a union’s contract or a works council this impact disappears.
    Keywords: Innovation, training, unions, works councils
    JEL: J24 L11 O31
    Date: 2008–03
  6. By: Post, Colleen; Meyskens, Moriah
    Abstract: This study identifies trends and patterns of social entrepreneurs using quantitative methods in order to allow direct comparison to those of commercial entrepreneurs. It utilizes the online profiles of the Fellows in the global social venture network, Ashoka, in order to build a database of 70 social entrepreneurs. The resource-based view serves as the theoretical base by which the preliminary results are evaluated. The findings, which indicate that social entrepreneurs demonstrate similar patterns to commercial entrepreneurs, are assessed through a knowledge management lens of analyses. Statistically significant relationships were found between alliances, funding sources, innovation, and ease of replication.
    Keywords: social entrepreneurship; strategy; knowledge management
    JEL: M13
    Date: 2008–05–27
  7. By: Uwe Cantner (Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena, Economics Department)
    Abstract: This paper reviews approaches used for evaluating the performance of local or regional innovation systems. This evaluation is performed by a benchmarking approach in which a frontier production function can be determined, based on a knowledge production function relating innovation inputs and innovation outputs. In analyses on the regional level and especially when acknowledging regional innovation systems those approaches have to take into account cooperative invention and innovation - the core of the innovation system approach. To make these interactive effects visible, a method is suggested to identify the relative regional impact on cooperative innovative activities.
    Keywords: benchmarking, regional innovation systems, frontier function approaches
    JEL: O3 R11 C2 C6
    Date: 2008–05–13
  8. By: S. Bhaduri; H. Worch
    Abstract: The theoretical literature identifies three important entrepreneurial dimensions, namely discovering new opportunities, responsiveness to uncertainty, and coordination of a firm. In the empirical literature, past experience has been identified as having an important influence on organizational behavior. This literature, however, focuses predominantly on the impact of experience on new opportunities using a resource-based view and human capital perspective. In contrast, we draw upon the cognitive science literature to argue that past experience shapes an entrepreneur’s cognitive frame, and, hence, influences entrepreneurship in a more holistic manner. We provide econometric evidence of the impact of past experience on all three entrepreneurial dimensions from the small scale Indian pharmaceutical enterprises.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Past experience, Cognition, Informatione and knowledge, India pharmaceutical industry Length 42 pages
    JEL: D83 L26 M10
    Date: 2008–05
  9. By: Uwe Cantner (Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena, Economics Department); Holger Graf (Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena, Economics Department)
    Abstract: The flow of knowledge through interaction between innovative actors is central to the systemic view of innovation. We review the lite ature on interaction and innovator networks with a focus on regional aspects. To illustrate the relevance of these relations, we apply social network analysis methods to describe the evolution of the innovator network of Jena, Germany in the period from 1995 to 2001. During this period, the network is characterised by growth in the number of patents, actors and relations, with central positions of public research. The evolution is directed towards an increasing focus on core compe- tencies of the network.
    Keywords: Innovator Networks, Innovation System, R+D Cooperation. Mobility
    JEL: O31 L14 R11
    Date: 2008–05–08
  10. By: Uwe Cantner (Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena, Economics Department); Andreas Meder (Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena, Economics Department)
    Abstract: This work deals with the determinants of cooperative invention and innovation within innovation systems. Several proximity dimensions are used to identify the levels on which systemic innovation activities can be observed. To disentangle the effects of different proximity dimensions a procedure is suggested to identify the relative regional impact (RRI) on cooperative invention and innovation. Applying this method to German patent data shows that there are significant differences in the RRI of German regions. These differences are related to measures of the technological relatedness of the regions knowledge bases, and over time they show a considerable path dependency.
    Keywords: proximity concepts, cooperative innovation, innovation systems
    JEL: O31 P25 Q55
    Date: 2008–05–26
  11. By: Ardiana N. Gashi (Riinvest University and Riinvest Institute, Prishtina, Kosova); Geoff Pugh (Staffordshire University Business School, Stoke-on-Trent, UK); Nick Adnett (Staffordshire University Business School, Stoke-on-Trent, UK)
    Abstract: There is a wide range of theoretical and empirical analyses suggesting that technological change has increased the demand for skills. Since training is a mechanism to upgrade workers’ skills, it would be expected that technical progress strengthens the importance of training on account of the requirement for skills to complement new technology. However, the relationship between technical progress and firms’ (employer-funded) continuous training has been little investigated. In our research we address the theoretical gap by building upon existing models from the skillbiased technological change and training literatures. This theoretical platform supports a maintained hypothesis of a positive relationship between training and technological change, which we investigate empirically for Germany using data from the IAB establishment panel. Our empirical findings indicate that in Germany a greater share of workers undergo further/continuing training in establishments subject to technological change. An important issue we raise in our empirical analysis is the possibility of endogeneity/simultaneity between training and technological change.
    Keywords: further training, technological change, skills
    Date: 2008–05
  12. By: Lee Komito (School of Library and Information Studies, University College Dublin)
    Keywords: example keyword,example keyword, example keyword
    Date: 2007–11–12
  13. By: Fabrice Rochelandet (ADIS - Analyse des Dynamiques Industrielles et Sociales. - Université Paris Sud - Paris XI : EA); Mohamed El Hedi Arouri (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR6221 - Université d'Orléans, EconomiX - CNRS : UMR7166 - Université de Paris X - Nanterre)
    Abstract: L'actualité illustre souvent la fragilité des modèles économiques sur les réseaux numériques, et en particulier, toute la difficulté à viabiliser la distribution numérique des biens culturels. Evaluer cette viabilité économique nécessite de prendre en compte non seulement des données techniques, stratégiques et juridiques, mais également de considérer la demande potentielle pour ces services. L'objectif de ce papier consiste à apporter quelques éléments d'appréciation de cette demande en identifiant des groupes de consommateurs par le croisement de leurs pratiques de consommation culturelle, leur équipement en TIC et les utilisations qu'ils en font. Pour cela, nous combinons deux méthodes de classification (CAH et CCM) et un modèle logit pour tester les déterminants d'appartenance aux profils croisés identifiés, à savoir des variables démographiques, de localisation et, de manière inédite, d'interactions sociales. Nous identifions cinq profils distincts allant des "univores" (des non-utilisateurs de TIC dont la pratique culturelle dominante est la télévision) aux "multi-omnivores" (des utilisateurs intensifs de TIC ayant des pratiques diversifiées de consommation culturelle). Les variables d'interaction sociale ainsi que les effets générationnels expliquent relativement bien ces différents profils. Nous concluons sur quelques remarques sur le déploiement des modèles économiques de distribution numérique de biens culturels.
    Keywords: profils de consommateurs, pratiques culturelles, utilisation des TIC, omnivorité, modèle logit, classification ascendante hiérarchique, classification par les centres mobiles
    Date: 2008–05–22

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