nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2008‒05‒17
eight papers chosen by
Laura Stefanescu
European Research Centre of Managerial Studies in Business Administration

  1. Entrepreneurial Innovations, Competition and Competition Policy By Norbäck, Pehr-Johan; Persson, Lars
  2. Do Institutions Impact Innovation? By Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Elmslie, Bruce
  3. Usages of the internet and e-tourism. Towards a new economy of tourism By Christian Longhi
  4. "Industrial Development, Firm Dynamics and Patterns of Productivity Growth: The Case of the Cotton Spinning Industry in Prewar Japan, 1894-1924" By Tetsuji Okazaki
  5. The return to the technological frontier: The conditional effect of plants’ R&D on their productivity in Finnish manufacturing By Böckerman, Petri; Eero , Lehto; Huovari, Janne
  6. INSTITUTIONAL Change as Cultural Change. An Illustration by Chinese Postsocialist Transformation By EL KAROUNI, Ilyess
  7. Diagnosis Analysis of the Sub-Sistems of Management System By Isac, Claudia
  8. Implications of the Information and Communication Technology Development on Firms’ Performance By FRATOSTITEANU, COSMIN

  1. By: Norbäck, Pehr-Johan; Persson, Lars
    Abstract: We construct a model where an entrepreneur could either innovate for entry or for sale. It is shown that increased product competition tends to increase the relative profitability of innovation for sale relative to entry. Increased competition reduces entrants' and acquirers' profits in a similar fashion, but also reduces the profit of non-acquirers. Therefore, incumbents' valuations of innovations are less negatively affected by increased competition than entrants' profits. This, in turn, implies that the incentive for innovation for sale can increase with increased competition. Finally, we show that a stricter, but not too strict, merger policy tends to increase the incentive for innovations for sale by ensuring the bidding competition for the innovation, without reducing the total rents for innovations too much.
    Keywords: Antitrust; Competition; Competition Policy; Entrepreneurs; Innovations
    JEL: L13 L40 O31
    Date: 2008–05
  2. By: Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Elmslie, Bruce
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature on institutions and economic growth by conducting an empirical examination on the links between innovation and institutions. Using cross-country data and the instrumental variable method, this study finds that institutional arrangements explain much of the variation on patent production across countries. We find evidence that control of corruption, market-friendly policies, protection of property rights and a more effective judiciary system boost an economy’s rate of innovation. Most of the previous literature on institutional and economic performance finds a positive association between institutions and levels of income and between institutions and the transitional growth rates of per capita income; however an unambiguous empirical association between institutions and the steady state growth has not yet been established. Based on the theoretical model developed by Tebaldi and Elmslie (2006), which shows that the impacts of institutions on innovation spillover to the growth rate of GDP per capita, this paper shows evidence of a growth effect through innovation, i.e., institutions have a growth effect on income because institutional quality affects an economy’s rate of innovation, the engine of economic growth. Moreover, this study finds that controlling for institutional quality; geographic-related variables are not significant in explaining patent production. This paper also finds evidence to support the idea that in the long-run human capital accumulation is an important variable in shaping institutions.
    Keywords: Institutions; innovation; economic growth
    JEL: O43 O33
    Date: 2008–02
  3. By: Christian Longhi (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR6227 - Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of internet on the organization of industry and the market<br />dynamics in the tourism activities, focusing in the European scene. Tourism incorporates many features of<br />the contemporaneous information and communication economy. Even if e-tourism still stands for a small<br />share of the whole tourism activity, the paper establishes that the internet basically explains the<br />organization of the activities and markets that emerge today. A relevant analytical framework able to<br />apprehend these dynamics is first defined. The concept of sectoral system of production and innovation is<br />shown to provide a relevant analytical framework to grasp the basic changes of the tourism industry. The<br />paper enlightens on this basis the evolution resulting from the emergence of e-tourism and the uses of<br />internet, their impacts on the coordination of the activities and the markets, with a special focus on the<br />European case
    Keywords: Tourism; Sectoral Systems of Production and Innovation;ICT; Virtual Communities; GDS
    Date: 2008
  4. By: Tetsuji Okazaki (Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between patterns of productivity growth and the development stage of an industry, using firm-level data on the cotton spinning industry in Japan in the late nineteenth century. It is found that patterns of productivity growth depend on the development stage of the industry. In the earlier stage of industrial development, productivity growth of each firm, namely the within effect, was the sole major source of aggregate productivity growth. On the other hand, once the industry had matured, resource reallocation across firms became a major source of aggregate productivity growth, along with the within effect. This relationship between patterns of productivity growth and the development stage of an industry is considered to reflect the stage-dependent patterns of innovation and competition.
    Date: 2008–05
  5. By: Böckerman, Petri; Eero , Lehto; Huovari, Janne
    Abstract: This paper examines, through the use of plant-level data, whether R&D’s productivity impact is contingent on the distance of a plant’s productivity from the industry’s technological frontier. R&D is specified as an accumulated stock from R&D investments. We analyse the productivity effect of a plant’s own R&D as well as the productivity impact of the plant’s parent firm’s and other firms’ proximity-weighted R&D stocks. The results show that a plant’s own and a parent firm’s R&D have a positive productivity impact and that the former impact decreases as the distance from the industry’s technological frontier increases. Furthermore, the productivity effect of other firms’ proximity-weighted R&D is, on average, positive, but this impact increases in the distance from the technological frontier. Another important finding is that all the plants tend to converge towards the industry’s technological frontier despite the size of external R&D spillovers.
    Keywords: productivity; efficiency; technological frontier; spillovers; convergence
    JEL: D24 L00
    Date: 2008–05–12
  6. By: EL KAROUNI, Ilyess
    Abstract: Culture of a society reflects its social values. So, through Chinese experience, we want to show that institutional change is not only an economic or a political process but fundamentally a cultural one. It is therefore based on a change in values and mentalities. Like in a chemical reaction, we discern initial conditions, factors which triggered the reaction, catalysts and elements of synthesis. Chinese institutional change per se derived from a cultural shock induced by the Chinese economic, political and cultural opening which acts as trigger. The remain paper deals with the other elements of the process.
    Keywords: China; institutional change; culture; causality
    JEL: P21 Z10 P51 B41
    Date: 2007–11
  7. By: Isac, Claudia
    Abstract: The management system represents all the elements having an organizational, decisional, informational, and methodological character through the agency of whom the process of management is achieved with a view of attaining a maximum level of performance. The managerial machinery of a modern company has a systemic structure within which the interdependencies among the component elements determine the functioning mechanism of the management at all levels. Irrespective of company’s characteristics (profile, size, market position, etc.) the following components of the management system should be noticed: the decisional sub-system, the organizational sub-system, the methodological and managerial sub-system, and the informational sub-system. The paper deals with a profound diagnosis analysis of these sub-systems considering the case of a company which activates within the Romanian energetic industry. The decisional sub-system gathers all the decisions adopted and implemented within the company according to the established goals and to the managerial hierarchical configuration. Integrated within the methodology of managerial analysis of the company, the diagnosis analysis of the decisional sub-system has as a goal the knowledge of its components, namely of the decisions established by managers during a certain period, of the manner the authority within the company is structured, of the decisional tools employed as well as of the part played by the organisms of participative management. Organizational sub-system represents all organizational elements that provide the frame, the division, the combination, and the functionality of labor processes with a view of achieving envisaged goals. The data displayed by the organizational scheme, the organizational and functioning regulations, jobs responsibilities at the level of a machines building company have emphasized several aspects that represent the starting point of analyzing the two components of this management sub-system, namely formal organization and informal organization. Informational sub-system comprises a series of data, items of information, informational fluxes and circuits, procedures and means of approaching information meant to contribute to the settlement and achievement of the company’s goals. The analysis of the informational sub-system has in view the fact that its part is to provide the company’s inner needs of information and its quality depends on the level of development of the technologies of transmitting information. The methodological sub-system designates the group of systems (complex methods), methods, and techniques employed in conceiving and exerting managerial functions and relations within a company. The important mutations that take place within the internal and external environment of the companies determine the managerial team to employ systems, methods, and techniques characteristic to managerial activity that are continually up-dated.
    Keywords: diagnosis analysis; management system; decisional sub-system; organizational sub-system; informational sub-system; methodological sub-system
    JEL: M1 L20 M10
    Date: 2005–09–25
    Abstract: The society towards we are heading is and will be an Informational Society-Knowledge Society (IS-KS). This mainly relies on using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The syntagm which designates the new society particularly points out the means on which it will rely on its progress, which, at first sight, gives the impression of one technicist, unilateral name. The syntagms which have defined societies until now, contain a key-word (slavery, feudalism, capitalism), which synthesizes a scale of possible social situations in which people, individual or/and in group, are inevitably placed, according to certain conditions, making a specific economic-social structure. Nowadays, society is defined by the syntagm “new economy”, which clearly presents the message of some profound changes which are taking place. Of course, the new economy supposes a lasting growth, but it induces another approach of this lasting growth, different from the one which was made so far.
    JEL: L25 D83 L86
    Date: 2008

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