nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2008‒01‒12
nine papers chosen by
Emanuele Canegrati
Catholic University of the Sacred Heart

  1. Driving Forces for Research and Development Strategies : An Empirical Analysis Based on Firm-level Panel Data By Martin Woerter
  2. How to have results from Conversations? By Benchimol, Guy
  3. Gestão do Conhecimento em Organizações Públicas de Saúde By Fábio Ferreira Batista; Antonio Carlos da R. Xavier; Luiz Carlos Mendes; Gerson Rosemberg
  4. Labor Market Policy Options of the Kurdistan Regional Government By Almas Heshmati
  5. From Export Promotion To Import Substitution; Comparative Experience of China and Mexico By Shafaeddin, Mehdi; Pizarro, Juan
  6. Bypassing health providers : the quest for better price and quality of health care in Chad By Wane, Waly; Gauthier, Bernard
  7. A Multivariate Band-Pass Filter By Valle e Azevedo, João
  8. Establishment of Science Parks in the Federal Region of Kurdistan By Almas Heshmati
  9. Actual versus Perceived Transparency: The Case of the European Central Bank By Carin van der Cruijsen en Sylvester Eijffinger

  1. By: Martin Woerter (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich)
    Abstract: This paper investigates empirically different ways to organise R&D within Swiss firms. Based on a longitudinal data set comprising three cross sections (1999, 2002, and 2005) of the Swiss innovation survey, four different types of R&D strategies could have been separated; firms combine in-house R&D with R&D co-operations (coop), or in-house R&D with external R&D (buy), or they conduct in-house R&D, external R&D and R&D co-operations (mixed), or they exclusively rely on in-house R&D (make). It is the aim of this paper to understand what drives firms to go for different strategies. Based on econometric estimations controlling for correlations between the dependent variables and endogeneity among the independent variables it was found that concepts related to the absorptive capacity, incoming spillovers and appropriability, the importance of different knowledge resources, the competitive environment, costs and skill aspects as well as technological uncertainty are essential factors to determine firm’s decision to choose a specific way to organise R&D.
    Keywords: Research and Development, R&D Co-operations, Empirical Analysis (Firm Panel), R&D Strategies
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2007–12
  2. By: Benchimol, Guy
    Abstract: The difficulty of emergence is not the complexity but the recursivity of its working. That is why there are so many debates to know whether structure generates strategy or strategy generates structure. In fact all we know is that networking allows conversations and that conversations help creating structure, that is a system embedding procedures and technologies; in other words, the network is the tool, the conversation the use of the tool and the structure the result of this use. The use is starting from the identification of a problem, its solving and the decision making. The system itself resulting from such a process, it will be necessary to bootstrap this process starting from a network, a conversation or a nascent or already existing structure.
    Keywords: Complexity; Emergence; Leadership; Collaborative work; Teams; Knowledge; Structures; Problems solving; Decisions making; Conversations; Goals; Roles; Strategy
    JEL: L2
    Date: 2008
  3. By: Fábio Ferreira Batista; Antonio Carlos da R. Xavier; Luiz Carlos Mendes; Gerson Rosemberg
    Abstract: This study measures the perceptions of health public organizations in Brazil about Knowledge Management (KM). Research centers (agencies linked to university hospitals and to other organizations) and member agencies of the Public Management National Program (GesPública) took part in the survey which was made of three parts: i) the method of the American Productivity and Quality Center (APQC) which assess the level of institutionalization of KM; ii) the questionnaire developed by the Institute for Applied Economic Research (Ipea) to analyze the implementation and extension of 27 KM practices; and iii) the requirements of the item 4.3 Knowledge Management of the GesPública´s Assessment Criteria, which assess how organizations identify, develop, refine, protect and share knowledge. The study was conducted by an Ipea´s and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation´s researchers team and had the endorsement by two federal agencies: the Science and Technology Department of the Strategic Input and Technology Secretariat of the Ministry of Health as well as the Management Secretariat of the Ministry of Budget, Planning and Management (Seges/MP). The research´s results show that most of the research centers as well as the member organizations of the GesPública have just begun the journey towards the KM´s institutionalization. Only 26 percent of the organizations (six out of 23) are in the most advanced stage of KM´ institutionalization according with the APQC Method (stage 5 - KM´s Institutionalization). Only three out 24 organizations have implemented more than half of the 27 KM´s initiatives. Moreover, organizations reported that few KM´s practices have been effective so far (only 2,9 initiatives per organization in average were reported to have brought important results) The results concerning the KM´s item of the GesPública Assessment Criteria were also disappointing. Only four out of the twenty organizations fulfill over 80% of the requirements. The research?s methodologies and findings can be very helpful for health organizations in Brazil to address the question of how to design strategies and policies towards the institutionalization of Knowledge Management.
    Date: 2007–12
  4. By: Almas Heshmati (University of Kurdistan Hawler, HIEPR and IZA)
    Abstract: This study is a descriptive analysis of the labor market conditions in Iraqi Federal Kurdistan Region. It explores a number of integrated factors that covariate and determine the level and patterns of the labor market outcomes in the region. In the first step, each of the determinants of unemployment is described and establishes their causal and directions of possible effects. In the second step, the characteristic of the current labor market policy is investigated. Finally, after providing knowledge about the nature of (un)employment and current policy measures, a number policy measures are proposed to reduce the rate of unemployment or to reduce the negative effects of unemployment and to promote skills, capability and development potential.
    Keywords: employment, mismatch, government policy, skills, wages, public sector, Kurdistan
    JEL: E24 I28 J24 J31 J45
    Date: 2007–12
  5. By: Shafaeddin, Mehdi; Pizarro, Juan
    Abstract: Abstract Both Mexico and China have started export orientation in some industries, through assembly operations, based on imported inputs a couple of decades ago. The literature on industrialization, has discussed the questions of import substitutions and outward-orientation mainly as alternative routes to industrialization. In both cases, it is argued that “learning” would contribute to industrial development. Proponent of import substitution argued that import substitution contributes to industrial development through “learning by doing”. Those in favour of free trade and outward orientation argue that trade contributes to the transfer of knowledge and technology. This study is the first part of a twin study in which the authors attempt to shed some light on the comparative experience of the two countries in the light of the above-mentioned literature. The present study is devoted to the establishment of facts, while in the second study an attempt will be made to provide an explanation for differences in the performance of the two countries and the role played by their government in order to see whether the process, if successful, is replicable elsewhere. China and Mexico the process of trade liberalization and development of export oriented industries started, following a period of pursuing import substitution strategy , more or less, at the same time-if not earlier in the case of Mexico. It will be shown in this study that both countries have managed to develop comparative advantage in many industries initiated through import substitution; but China has been more successful than Mexico in gradually increasing value added in export oriented industries by substituting domestic production for imported inputs in these industries. The first section is devoted to a brief survey of the literature. In the second section, we will shed some light on the general trends in development of export promotion industries and general performance of the manufacturing sector in exports and production. The third section is devoted to the analysis of processing trade and value added in assembly operations through production of domestic components. In section four we will investigate the evolution of revealed comparative advantage in exports, production and assembly operation of traded finished goods and parts and components in order to shed some light on their future export prospects. The final section will conclude the study. . 2
    Keywords: Mexico; China; Industrialization; Value added; Trade policy; Import substitution; export expansion
    JEL: F0 N6 O5 O2 O1 F1 O3 O4
    Date: 2007–06
  6. By: Wane, Waly; Gauthier, Bernard
    Abstract: This paper investigates individuals ' bypassing behavior in the health sector in Chad and the determinants of individuals ' facility choice. The authors introduce a new way to measure bypassing using the patients ' own knowledge of alternative health providers available to them instead of assuming that information as previously done. The authors analyze how perceived health care quality and prices impact patients ' bypassing decisions. The analysis uses data from a Quantitative Service Delivery Survey in Chad ' s health sector carried out in 2004. The survey covers 281 primary health care centers and 1,801 patients. The matching of facility data and patient data allows the analysis to control for a wide range of important patient and facility characteristics, such as income, severity of illness, quality of health care, or price of services. The findings show that income inequalities translate into health service inequalities. There is evidence of two distinct types of bypassing activities in Chad: (1) patients from low-income households bypass high-quality facilities they cannot afford to go to low-quality facilities, and (2) rich individuals bypass low-quality facilities and aim for more expensive facilities that also offer a higher quality of care. These significant differences in patients ' facility choices are observed across income groups as well as between rural and urban areas.
    Keywords: Health Monitoring & Evaluation,Health Systems Development & Reform,Health Law,Housing & Human Habitats,Gender and Health
    Date: 2008–01–01
  7. By: Valle e Azevedo, João
    Abstract: We develop a multivariate filter which is an optimal (in the mean squared error sense) approximation to the ideal filter that isolates a specified range of fluctuations in a time series, e.g., business cycle fluctuations in macroeconomic time series. This requires knowledge of the true second-order moments of the data. Otherwise these can be estimated and we show empirically that the method still leads to relevant improvements of the extracted signal, especially in the endpoints of the sample. Our filter is an extension of the univariate filter developed by Christiano and Fitzgerald (2003). Specifically, we allow an arbitrary number of covariates to be employed in the estimation of the signal. We illustrate the application of the filter by constructing a business cycle indicator for the U.S. economy. The filter can additionally be used in any similar signal extraction problem demanding accurate real-time estimates.
    JEL: E32 C14 C22
    Date: 2008–01–02
  8. By: Almas Heshmati (University of Kurdistan Hawler, HIEPR and IZA)
    Abstract: New growth models consider the role of technology in production. The link between product flows and information flows in international trade suggests investment in information technology as a leading sector in the developing countries growth. Several studies establish relationships between technology applications, capital formation and economic growth. Therefore establishment of Science Parks is relevant to the investment policies directed towards a rapid economic development. However, a new industrial technology policy and participation in the globalization process must be accompanied by market reforms, organizational change and comprehensive investment in human resources and other development infrastructures to raise production capacity and capability of the labour force to achieve a sustainable knowledge based economic development in the long-run. This essay proposes establishment of Science Parks in the Federal Region of Kurdistan and discusses necessary conditions for such investment to become fruitful and with expected impacts on the region’s economic development.
    Keywords: science parks, economic development, information technology, industrialization
    JEL: D83 O10 O14
    Date: 2007–12
  9. By: Carin van der Cruijsen en Sylvester Eijffinger
    Abstract: Central banks have become more and more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the central bank transparency literature the distinction between actual and perceived transparency is often lacking. However, as perceptions are crucial for the actions of economic agents this distinction matters. We investigate the mismatch between actual and perceived transparency and its relevance by analyzing data of a Dutch household survey on the European Central Bank's transparency. A discrepancy between actual and perceived transparency exists because of incomplete and incorrect transparency knowledge and other (psychological) factors. We find that respondents with relatively high transparency perceptions are more likely to have more trust in the ECB and better alligned inflation perceptions and expectations. Therefore, it might be beneficial for a central bank to increase transparency perceptions, either by improving its actual disclosure practices or by focusing on its transparency strengths in its communicationpolicy.
    Keywords: Central bank transparency; Perceptions; Survey; CentERpanel; Behavioral Economics
    JEL: D80 E52 E58
    Date: 2008–01

This nep-knm issue is ©2008 by Emanuele Canegrati. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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