nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2007‒12‒15
twenty-six papers chosen by
Emanuele Canegrati
Catholic University of the Sacred Heart

  1. The knowledge filter, Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth By Carlsson, Bo; Acs, Zoltan; Audretsch, David; Braunerhjelm, Pontus
  2. Entrepreneurship, Knowledge and Economic Growth By Braunerhjelm, Pontus
  3. What Makes Foreign Knowledge Attractive to Domestic Innovation Managers? By Sofka, Wolfgang
  4. Is Distance Dying at Last? Falling Home Bias in Fixed Effects Models of Patent Citations By Rachel Griffith; Sokbae Lee; John Van Reenen
  5. Child Height and Maternal Health Care Knowledge in Mozambique By Katleen Van den Broeck
  6. R&D Accessibility and Comparative Advantages in Quality Differentiated Goods By Johansson, Sara
  7. Path-following or Leapfrogging in Catching-up: the Case of Chinese Telecommunication Equipment Industry. By Liu, Xielin
  8. Cooperation in knowledge-intensive firms By Kvaløy, Ola; Olsen, Trond E.
  9. THE LISBON AGENDA FROM 2000 TO 2010 By Johansson, Börje; Karlsson, Charlie; Backman, Mikaela; Juusola, Pia
  11. Migration, Learning, and Development By Zakharenko, Roman
  12. EXPLORING THE LINK BETWEEN LOCAL AND GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVERS By Barrios, Salvador; Bertinelli, Luisito; Heinen, Andreas
  13. Optimal Correction for Guessing in Multiple-Choice Tests. By María Paz Espinosa; Javier Gardeazabal
  14. Ecology and economy in the Arctic. Uncertainty, knowledge and precaution By Iulie Aslaksen, Solveig Glomsrød and Anne Ingeborg Myhr
  15. Les motivations des managers utilisant des critères non financiers:une analyse empirique;What are the motives of the managers using non-financial indicators?:An empirical study By Evelyne Poincelot; Grégory Wegman
  16. Foreign-owned firms and technological capabilities in the Argentinean manufacturing industry By Costa, Ionara; Marin, Anabel
  17. Internationalisation of Patent Systems and New Developments in Globalising World By Ants Kukrus; Raul Kartus
  18. On the Role of Entrepreneurial Experience for Start-up Financing: An Empirical Investigation for Germany By Metzger, Georg
  19. International Cooperation on Innovation: Empirical Evidence for German and Portuguese Firms By Faria, Pedro; Schmidt, Tobias
  20. INNOVATION POLICY INSTRUMENTS By Johansson, Börje; Karlsson, Charlie; Backman, Mikaela
  21. Evaluating Economic Theories of Growth and Inequality: A Study of the Danish Economy By Arnab Bhattacharjee; Eduardo de Castro; (Late) Chris Jensen-Butler
  22. Entrepreneurship and Local Growth - a comparison of the U.S. and Sweden By Borgman, Benny; Braunerhjelm, Pontus
  23. Discussion of scenario topics for the automotive industry to apply a Delphi method in Portugal By Moniz, António
  24. Provisional results of the 1st round of Delphi WorTiS exercise. By Moniz, António
  25. The role of R/D expenditure: a critical comparison of the two (R&S and CIS) sources of data By Poti' Bianca; Reale Emanuela; Di Fiore Monica
  26. Diffusion of the internet : a cross-country analysis By Serebrisky, Tomas; Diouf, Mame Astou; Cuberes, David; Andres, Luis

  1. By: Carlsson, Bo (Case Western Reserve University); Acs, Zoltan (University of Baltimore); Audretsch, David (Max-Planck Institute); Braunerhjelm, Pontus (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between knowledge creation, entrepreneurship, and economic growth in the United States over the last 150 years. According to the “new growth theory,” investments in knowledge and human capital generate economic growth via spillovers of knowledge. But the theory does not explain how or why spillovers occur, or why large investments in R&D do not always result in economic growth. What is missing is “the knowledge filter” - the distinction between general knowledge and economically useful knowledge. Also missing is a mechanism (such as entrepreneurship) converting economically relevant knowledge into economic activity. This paper shows that the unprecedented increase in R&D spending in the United States during and after World War II was converted into economic activity via incumbent firms in the early postwar period and increasingly via new ventures in the last few decades.
    Keywords: knowledge; economic growth; entrepreneurship; spillovers; history
    JEL: N90 O14 O17 O30
    Date: 2007–12–11
  2. By: Braunerhjelm, Pontus (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Knowledge plays a critical role in economic development, still our understanding of how knowledge is created, diffused and converted into growth, is fragmented and partial. The neoclassical growth models disregarded the entrepreneur and viewed knowledge as an exogenous factor. Contemporary current knowledge-based growth models have re-introduced the notion of the entrepreneur, however stripped of its most typical characteristics, and the diffusion of knowledge is kept exogenous. It implies that the predictions and policy conclusions derived from these models may be flawed. This paper reviews the literature that addresses the issues of knowledge creation, knowledge diffusion and growth, and the role attributed the entrepreneur in such dynamic processes. I will explore how these insights can be integrated into existing growth models and suggest a more thorough microeconomic foundations from which empirically testable hypotheses can be derived.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; knowledge; growth; spillovers
    JEL: M13 O57
    Date: 2007–12–11
  3. By: Sofka, Wolfgang
    Abstract: This study focuses on the early stages of international innovation activities, i.e. the organizational processes through which promising ideas from around the globe are collected and evaluated. We ask: What characteristics make foreign knowledge interesting to domestic R&D managers? We envision this process as a balancing act between direct transaction costs for communication and coordination and indirect transaction costs from overlooking or misinterpreting important global trends. These hypotheses are tested through a conjoint analysis among 158 heads of R&D departments of German high-tech firms. We find that uncertainty avoidance is the most important driver. Radically new ideas from dynamic markets are most attractive and must not be overlooked. Complementarities with existing knowledge stocks and low language barriers are also important but to a lesser degree. Interestingly, we find no distinction between market and technological impulses.
    Keywords: Globalization, sensing, innovation impulses, conjoint analysis
    JEL: F23 O31 O32
    Date: 2007
  4. By: Rachel Griffith; Sokbae Lee; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: We examine the "home bias" of international knowledge spillovers as measured by the speedof patent citations (i.e. knowledge spreads slowly over international boundaries). We presentthe first compelling econometric evidence that the geographical localization of knowledgespillovers has fallen over time, as we would expect from the dramatic fall in communicationand travel costs. Our proposed estimator controls for correlated fixed effects and censoring induration models and we apply it to data on over two million citations between 1975 and1999. Home bias declines substantially when we control for fixed effects: there is practicallyno home bias for the more "modern" sectors such as pharmaceuticals andinformation/communication technologies.
    Keywords: Fixed effects, home bias, patent citations, knowledge spillovers
    JEL: O32 O33 F23
    Date: 2007–08
  5. By: Katleen Van den Broeck (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: Stunting prevalence rates in Mozambique are very high (41 percent), especially in rural areas (46 percent). Recent research shows that consumption growth alone will not be sufficient to solve the problem of malnutrition. To investigate the role of additional determinants I use a two-stage quantile regression approach with specific attention to the role of maternal preventive health care knowledge and schooling. Three different scores for health care knowledge are used and show similar results. For rural Mozambique, I find that maternal schooling has positive effects especially in the top quintile of the height-for-age distribution while health care knowledge has a positive effect on height-for-age of under two year old children especially at the lower end of the distribution where the severely stunted children are located. Improving health care knowledge of mothers could substitute for the low levels of education and community health care facilities in rural areas and positively affect the height of the most severely stunted children.
    Date: 2007–10
  6. By: Johansson, Sara (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the influences of human capital and technology transfers from R&D activities on regional export specialization along the range of product quality. Previous literature on specialization and trade in quality differentiated goods concludes that the production of high quality product varieties is intensive in knowledge and R&D. This study contributes to previous research by addressing the influence of spatial knowledge flows on the observed patterns of regional quality specialization. A theoretical model of endogenous quality choice derives regional comparative advantages to the presence of external knowledge flows from R&D activities. These knowledge transfers are modeled by accessibility variables, which deduce the presence of technology transfers from R&D activities to the geographical distribution of R&D activities and the observed patterns of spatial interaction. The impacts of regional R&D accessibility on regions’ revealed comparative advantages in high quality segments are subsequently examined in a two-dimensional cross-regional regression analysis. The results of this empirical work show significant positive effects of human capital and R&D accessibility on the revealed comparative advantages in production of high quality goods in Swedish regions. The empirical analysis also provides evidences of technology spillovers from abroad, as the presence of multinational firms increases the region’s specialization in high-quality segments. These results are robust over four different specifications of above-average product qualities. However, the sizes of estimated coefficients for R&D accessibility rises slightly with the quality level considered. This suggests that technological advantages becomes of larger importance the more superior are the levels of product quality considered.
    Keywords: Product quality; vertical differentiation; Knowledge; Accessibility; Spatial dependence; comparative advantage; technology
    JEL: F12 F14 R12 R32
    Date: 2007–12–11
  7. By: Liu, Xielin
    Abstract: In this paper, by reviewing the development of telecommunication equipment industry from fixed phone switches to later 3G, TD-SCDMA, we conclude that the degree of matching between existing foreign products with Chinese market is the primary incentive for Chinese companies to catch-up. The possibility to redesign the existing foreign product to match the market needs in China leads to further opportunity to catch-up. The accessibility of knowledge through government support, alliance with foreign companies or R&D work shapes the capability of Chinese companies to catch-up. The government support is important but not dominated. Leapfrogging strategy will meet more tough problems than path-following. Government plays a more important role in the leapfrogging than the path-following catching-up process. Open to the world and encouraging the collaboration and alliance activity can give companies in the developing countries more opportunity to access the latest knowledge. In the dynamic and advanced industry, FDI can be a very important factor for the technology transfer and catching-up.
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O34 O38 N5 O47 R58
    Date: 2007
  8. By: Kvaløy, Ola (Norwegian School of Hotel Management, Dept. of Business Administration, University of Stavanger); Olsen, Trond E. (Dept. of Finance and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: The extent to which a knowledge-intensive firm should induce cooperation between its employees is analyzed in a model of relational contracting between a firm (principal) and its employees (two agents). The agents can cooperate by helping each other, i.e. provide effort that increases the performance of their peer without affecting their own performance. We extend the existing literature on agent-cooperation by analyzing the implications of incomplete contracts and agent hold-up. A main result is that if the agents' hold-up power is sufficiently high, then it is suboptimal for the principal to implement cooperation, even if helping effort is productive per se. This implies, contrary to many property rights models, that social surplus may suffer if the investing parties (here the agents) are residual claimants. The model also shows that long-term relationships facilitate cooperation even if the agents cannot monitor or punish each others effort choices.
    Keywords: Relational contracts; multiagent moral hazard; endogenous hold-up
    JEL: D23 J33 L14
    Date: 2007–11–30
  9. By: Johansson, Börje (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Karlsson, Charlie (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Backman, Mikaela (JIBS); Juusola, Pia (JIBS)
    Abstract: The Lisbon Agenda was approved in mars 2000 and at that time, the European Union was facing economic prosperity. Even so, globalization and new knowledge economies were becoming an increasing threat and the EU was in need of a transformation in its economy and society. The Lisbon Agenda was set to make the EU the most competitive, knowledge-based economy in the world, and at the same time preserving, or even improving social cohesion and maintain environmental sustainability. Another important motivation for the Lisbon Agenda was the perception that the EU was lagging behind the US and other major economies. The main instrument that was put forward was open method of co-ordination (OMC) that includes indicators, benchmarking, peer pressure, and best practise. The time-period was set for ten years and the midterm evaluations found that the goals had not be reached. Due to the lacking results, the Lisbon Agenda was forced to change some of the implementation processes. The many quantitative goals were reduced, and only the goal to dedicate three percent of GDP to R&D stayed in its original shape. The main goals were now on growth, and jobs.
    Keywords: Lisbon Agenda; knowledge economy; goals; instruments
    JEL: F00 N24
    Date: 2007–12–11
  10. By: Wilhelmsson, Mats (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Accumulation of human capital is essential for economic growth. An important question is how knowledge spillover into innovations and production. One way of knowledge diffusion is within innovation networks. We investigate innovative networks in patent data in Sweden from 1994-2001. We define research networks with the help of direct and indirect ties among inventors. The main result clearly indicates that those researchers that collaborating, in innovation networks, improves the efficiency of the innovation process by getting more patents applications approved. The odds getting a patent application approved are in the range 1.1 to 1.5 times better if an application is a result from research collaboration. Moreover, the result suggests that collaboration is more important in the IT sector than in the mechanical engineering sector. Finally, the empirical outcomes indicate that networking is more important in less dense areas compared to the denser labor markets. Thus, networks in such areas might be a substitute for agglomeration advantages.
    Keywords: Innovation network analysis; patents; success and failure in innovation
    JEL: N34 O31 R11
    Date: 2007–12–11
  11. By: Zakharenko, Roman
    Abstract: US-educated Indian engineers played a major role in the establishment of the “Silicon Valley of Asia” in Bangalore. The experience of India and other countries shows that returning well-educated emigrants, despite their small numbers, can make a difference. This paper builds a model of “local” knowledge spillovers, in which migration of a small number of highly skilled individuals greatly affects country-level human capital accumulation. All economic activity occurs in pairs of individuals randomly matched to each other. Each pair produces the consumption good; the skills of the two partners are complementary. At the same time, the less skilled partner increases human capital by learning from the more skilled colleague. With poor institutions at home, highly skilled individuals leave the country seeking better opportunities abroad. On the contrary, improved institutions foster return migration of emigrants who have acquired more knowledge while abroad. These return migrants greatly amplify the positive effect of better institutions.
    JEL: F22 C78 O15 J61
    Date: 2007–11
  12. By: Barrios, Salvador; Bertinelli, Luisito; Heinen, Andreas
    Abstract: We measure the effect of R&D spillovers on plant productivity by taking account of (i) the national origin of the spillovers, (ii) the mechanism through which spillovers may flow (FDI and/or imports), (iii) the sectoral scope of spillovers, as well as (iv) their geographic scope, in a single analytical framework. Our analysis is based on an exhaustive database on Irish manufacturing plants covering the period 1986-1994. The results show that while domestic plants benefit from local R&D spillovers, these spillovers are spatially bounded. Domestic plants are also able to tap into the global R&D pool, but only via the presence of multinational plants located near them. In contrast, there is no evidence that foreign affiliates located in Ireland are recipients of local R&D spillovers. Foreign affiliates do, however, gain from the size of the R&D stock in their origin country.
    Keywords: R&D; knwoledge spillovers; multinationals; international trade; Ireland
    JEL: O30 F14 R12 L60
    Date: 2007–08–02
  13. By: María Paz Espinosa (The University of the Basque Country); Javier Gardeazabal (The University of the Basque Country)
    Abstract: Building on Item Response Theory we introduce students’ optimal behavior in multiple-choice tests. Our simulations indicate that the optimal penalty is relatively high, because although correction for guessing discriminates against risk-averse subjects, this effect is small compared with the measurement error that the penalty prevents. This result obtains when knowledge is binary or partial, under different normalizations of the score, when risk aversion is related to knowledge and when there is a pass-fail break point. We also find that the mean degree of difficulty should be close to the mean level of knowledge and that the variance of difficulty should be high.
    Keywords: Multiple choice test, Item Response Theory, formula scoring,
    JEL: A20 D81 I2
    Date: 2007–12–05
  14. By: Iulie Aslaksen, Solveig Glomsrød and Anne Ingeborg Myhr (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Climate change impacts in the Arctic require that complex relationships between the economy, the environment, and the living conditions of indigenous and local people be taken into account. While traditional approaches to economic valuation may not be sufficient to capture these relationships, the research area of ecological economics suggests broader approaches to environmental uncertainties, taking into account ethical values and conflicts of interest. Increased activity in petroleum exploration, manufacturing, transportation, tourism and other services have the potential to alter the Arctic environment and societies considerably. Application of the precautionary principle is suggested as a way to manage situations with large degrees of environmental uncertainty and potentially irreversible consequences. Precautionary approaches require the development of processes for acknowledgement of uncertainties, facilitation of stakeholder participation, recognition of ethical values, and taking into account the traditional ecological knowledge of indigenous people of the Arctic. Combining traditional and scientific knowledge about nature is an important part of understanding the resilience capacity of ecological and social systems, and of enhancing the potential for sustainable development.
    Keywords: Arctic; Environmental uncertainty; Ecological Economics; Precaution
    JEL: Q54 Q57
    Date: 2007–12
  15. By: Evelyne Poincelot (Université de Bourgogne); Grégory Wegman (Université de Bourgogne)
    Abstract: (VF)L’objectif de l’article est de proposer une étude quantitative, en vue d’analyser la pertinence de mettre en place des indicateurs non financiers selon les grilles théoriques contractuelle et cognitive. Nous testons la pertinence d’une distinction entre l’approche théorique contractuelle et l’approche cognitive, en étudiant les motivations des managers qui utilisent des indicateurs non financiers puis les caractéristiques de leurs entreprises.(VA)We test the motives expressed by the managers to use the non-financial indicators so that the performance of the firm would increase. Is that really the main reason explaining the choice of the non-financial indicators? Our study is based on a theoretical research distinguishing the Knowledge-based perspective from the Contractual one. Is that distinction relevant? Within this framework, is it possible to discriminate firms types according to their use of the non-financial indicators ?
    Keywords: critères non financiers;logique contractuelle;logique cognitive;étude empirique;non-financial indicators;contractual perspective;knowledge-based perspective;empirical study.
    JEL: M10
    Date: 2007–11
  16. By: Costa, Ionara (UNU-MERIT); Marin, Anabel (University of Sussex, SPRU)
    Abstract: This deals with the technological development implications of the substantial and long-dated presence of foreign-owned affiliates in the Argentinean manufacturing industry. It put forward the argument that the learning process of foreign-owned firms should be central in the analysis of the technological impacts of inward FDI. In other words, FDI impacts to host economies are dependent not exclusively on the technology and knowledge that multinational corporations are willing to transfer to their overseas affiliates, nor on the absorptive capacity of domestic firms. Instead, the technological learning that takes place within the foreign-owned firms is crucial. In order to shed some light on the level of learning reached by foreignowned firms integrating the Argentinean economy, this paper analyses the technological profiles of MNC affiliates in the manufacturing industry, and compares them with those of domestically-owned firms. This analysis is based on proxies for different levels of technological capabilities, calculated by means of the second Argentinean innovation survey, which was carried out by INDEC, the Argentinean National Council of Statistics, for the period 1998-2001. The analysis suggests that foreign-owned affiliates seem to play an important role in terms of diffusion of technologies generated elsewhere. Yet, the results are not so clear when the local generation of knowledge and technology is considered. In general terms, the analytical exercise made here suggests reasonable development of operational capabilities, coupled with shallow interaction, monitoring, improvement and generation capabilities both by foreign affiliates and domestics firms. In other words, the findings suggest the accumulation of substantial capabilities for using existing technologies, but only meagre capabilities for locally-generated new ones.
    Keywords: Foreign-owned Affiliates, Manufacturing Industry, Technological Capability, Diffusion of Innovations, Organizational Learning, Argentina
    JEL: C49 F23 F29 L29 L60
    Date: 2007
  17. By: Ants Kukrus (Department of Public Economy at Tallinn University of Technology); Raul Kartus (Department of Public Economy at Tallinn University of Technology)
    Abstract: Deepening contradictions on the global level between the industrially developed countries and developing countries emerged in 2001 when the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) announced the Patent Agenda on the initiative of the industrially developed countries. The main source of the contradictions was the draft Substantive Patent Law Treaty (SPLT) with the intention to establish higher protection standards than provided by the TRIPS Agreement. The developing countries wish to protect genetic resources and traditional knowledge in the framework of patent law. The goal of industrially developed countries is strengthening of legal protection of inventions and harmonisation of the laws. The USA, Japan and the European Patent Organisation, whose patent offices (so-called Trilateral Partners) have started creation of new patent systems (New Route, Patent Prosecution Highway, Triway), are actually most interested in it. The European Patent Organisation has designed a network of cooperation between the European patent offices (European Patent Network). Due to the contradictions with the developing countries work on substantive patent law harmonisation takes place outside WIPO in ‘B+ Group’ of industrially developed countries.
    Keywords: WIPO Patent Agenda, Substantive Patent Law Treaty (SPLT), new patent systems, new route, patent prosecution highway, triway, B+ group, European Patent Network
    JEL: K10 K41
    Date: 2007
  18. By: Metzger, Georg
    Abstract: Entrepreneurs are often faced with problems regarding start-up financing. But compared to novice entrepreneurs, experienced entrepreneurs should have both more knowledge and better contacts, which should potentially reduce the occurrence of problems and affect finance composition. However, experience of business failure might result in additional effects. This analysis therefore investigates the effects of experience on several aspects of start-up financing. It is based on data from the KfW Start-up Monitor, a representative annual survey of the German population. The results show that experience affects several financing issues. Yet the impacts depend on the kind of experience. With regard to previously failed entrepreneurs, who are of particular interest, the findings indicate that they cut back their financing demand and are more likely faced with problems satisfying this demand. However, previously failed entrepreneurs do not significantly differ in the sources they use to finance their businesses.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial experience, restart, start-up financing
    JEL: G32 L26 M13
    Date: 2007
  19. By: Faria, Pedro; Schmidt, Tobias
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the factors that lead firms to cooperate with partners from foreign countries on innovation activities. Portuguese and German data from the harmonised Community Innovation Survey (CIS III) allow us to compare innovation cooperation behaviour of private firms in the two countries. Using a bivariate probit model, we show that the characteristics of firms cooperating with foreigners in both countries are quite similar. International activities other than cooperation, firm size and the importance of protection methods for knowledge have a positive influence in both countries on the decision to cooperate with foreign partners. Some differences remain, however: In Germany, exporters are more likely to cooperate with foreign partners than non-exporters, whereas in Portugal this is not the case.
    Keywords: International cooperation, Innovation, CIS III, Germany, Portugal
    Date: 2007
  20. By: Johansson, Börje (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Karlsson, Charlie (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Backman, Mikaela (JIBS)
    Abstract: The Lisbon Agenda that was launched in 2000, and had a set time-period of ten years. The purpose of the Lisbon Agenda was to make the EU the most competitive, knowledge-based economy in the world, and at the same time preserving, or even improving social cohesion and maintain environmental sustainability. The Lisbon Agenda had a large number of goals, in both quantified and qualified measures, in different areas. The main instrument that was put forward was the open method of co-ordination (OMC) that includes indicators, benchmarking, peer pressure, and best practise demonstrations. The forthcoming Lisbon Agenda will certainly need new approaches, and new instruments. One of the areas of instruments that can be further explored is innovation policies where the use of R&D and human capital is enhanced. Human capital is a natural part of a knowledge-based economy, and has positive impacts on growth, and jobs in the economy. Innovation policy instruments are diversified and are integrated in many areas of an economy and on many levels, which make them ideal for the next Lisbon Agenda. The instruments can have a general or specific characteristics and some span over the two characteristics.
    Keywords: Lisbon Agenda; innovation policy instruments; beyond Lisbon 2010
    JEL: F00 N24
    Date: 2007–12–11
  21. By: Arnab Bhattacharjee; Eduardo de Castro; (Late) Chris Jensen-Butler
    Abstract: We present a model for studying regional and sectoral variation in total factor productivity (TFP) and develop an empirical test, based on the skewness of TFP distribution, to empirically distinguish between different growth theories. While negative skewness is consistent with the neo-Schumpeterian idea of catching up with leaders, zero skewness supports the neoclassical view that deviations from the frontier reflect only idiosyncratic productivity shocks. We argue that positive skewness corresponds to a model where the combination of exogenous technology with non-transferable knowledge accumulated in specific sectors and regions explains TFP. This argument provides the framework for an empirical model based on stochastic frontier analysis. The model is used to analyse regional and sectoral inequalities in productive efficiency across Danish sectors and regions.
    Keywords: Regional growth models; Total Factor Productivity; Stochastic Frontier Analysis; Skewness.
    JEL: D24 O18 O3 O4
    Date: 2007–11
  22. By: Borgman, Benny (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Braunerhjelm, Pontus (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: The U.S. is traditionally viewed as an economy driven by entrepreneurs, whereas the Swedish model is associated with high welfare ambitions and less focus on entrepreneurial activities. This paper seeks to empirically investigate whether the connection between entrepreneurship and growth at the regional level differs between the U.S. and Sweden. By regressing annual entrepreneurship on regional employment growth (and controlling for other conceivable variables impacting employment growth) entrepreneurship is shown to be positively and significantly associated with regional growth in both countries in the 1990s. Still, the result is more robust for the U.S. Other important variables for regional growth is business density and, in the case of the U.S., educational levels and internal scale economies.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Knowledge spillovers; Regional growth
    JEL: M13 O57 R11
    Date: 2007–12–11
  23. By: Moniz, António
    Abstract: As was recently published in the GERPISA newsletter, one of the aims of the research for the new years will be the knowledge of interactions between the organisational company dynamics and the social-economical models of development. If one takes the example of the German exercise in the framework of FUTUR programme, one of the main thematic groups that emerged from the first discussions was preciselly “Mobility: individually atractive and socially sustainable”. Also the IMVP programme at MIT is taking these questions on the “visions for a sustainable future” theme. In the same way the WorTiS Project analysed several scenario topics on the issue of mobility and automotive industry. Those scenario topics are explained and justified in this research paper.
    Keywords: automotive industry; futures; mobility; sustainable development; scenario making
    JEL: M11 R40 L62 O33 Q01 R41
    Date: 2004–06
  24. By: Moniz, António
    Abstract: In this working paper are present the main provisional results of the first round of a Delphi survey held in Portugal on the automotive sector. It was done under the WorTiS project, developed by IET – Research Centre on Enterprise and Work Innovation, and financed by the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology. The majority of experts consider to have an average of less knowledge in almost all the scenario topics presented. Nevertheless, we considered specially the topics where the experts considered themselves to have some knowledge. There were no “irrelevant” topics considered as such by the expert panel. There are also no topics that is not considered a need for co-operation (that happens in jus tone case). The lack of technological infra-structrures was not considered as an hindered factor for the accomplishement of any scenario. The experts panel considered no other international competence besides US, Japan or Germany in these topics. Although the members of the expert panel were not as many as needed, These situations will be taken into consideration for a second round of the Delphi survey
    Keywords: automotive industry; scenario; economical co-operation; technology; Delphi survey
    JEL: L62 C42 O14 A14 J11
    Date: 2004–08
  25. By: Poti' Bianca (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, Rome, Italy); Reale Emanuela (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, Rome, Italy); Di Fiore Monica (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, Rome, Italy)
    Abstract: The paper explores the relation between two data sources (R&D and CIS surveys) in the aim of better representing the roles of R/D activity in relation with innovation processes. This paper starts with controlling the relation between the R/D expenditure in the two surveys (R&D and CIS) for a same group of firms and for the same year (2000) and deals with the question of how much we know at present of the different components of the industrial R/D activity and how we can use the frame of the two surveys for arriving to gain this knowledge. The final aim is that of getting finest grained indicators for studies on the impact of industrial investment on R/D.
    Keywords: Industrial R/D, R/D survey, CIS survey
    JEL: O30 C81 C42
    Date: 2007–07
  26. By: Serebrisky, Tomas; Diouf, Mame Astou; Cuberes, David; Andres, Luis
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the process of Internet diffusion across the world using a panel of 199 countries during 1990-2004. The authors group countries in two categories-low and high-income countries-and show that the Internet diffusion process is well characterized by an S-shape curve for both groups. Low-income countries display a steeper diffusion curve that is equivalent to a right shift of th e diffusion curve for high-income countries. The estimated diffusion curves provide evidence of a " catching-up " process, although a very slow one. The paper explores the determinants of Internet diffusion at the country level and across the same income groups. The most novel finding is that network effects seem to be crucial-the number of Internet users in a country in a given year is positively associated with the number of users in the previous year. The findings also show that the degree of competition in the provision of Internet service contributes positively to its diffusion, and there are significant positive language externalities.
    Keywords: Technology Industry,Information Security & Privacy,E-Business,Income,Education for the Knowledge Economy
    Date: 2007–12–01

This nep-knm issue is ©2007 by Emanuele Canegrati. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.