nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2007‒12‒08
eleven papers chosen by
Emanuele Canegrati
Catholic University of the Sacred Heart

  1. Do we buy more or less when we want to learn? The knowledge strategies and structural forms of US cross-border acquisitions By Manuel Portugal Ferreira; Stephen Tallman; Dan Li
  2. Interpretation of Services Marketing Concepts By Kauppinen-Räisänen, Hannele; Grönroos, Christian; Gummerus, Johanna
  3. The Multinational Corporation and the global sourcing of knowledge: Remodeling absorptive capacity By Constantina Kottaridi; Marina Papanastassiou; Christos Pitelis; Dimitrios Thomakos
  4. Barriers to innovation and public policy in Catalonia By Agustí Segarra-Blasco; José García-Quevedo; Mercedes Teruel-Carrizosa
  5. what is missing between agricultural growth and infrastructure development ? cases of coffee and dairy in Africa By Smith, James Wilson; Iimi, Atsushi
  6. Dynamics of export market entry and exit By Ilmakunnas, Pekka; Nurmi, Satu
  7. Towards a More Holistic Understanding of American Support for Genetically Modified Crops: An Examination of Influential Factors Using a Binomial Dependent Variable By Josephine, Faass; Michael, Lahr
  8. Turning science into business: A case study of a major European research university. By Azèle Mathieu; Martin Meyer; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe
  9. Mapping Foreign direct Investment in UK Regions: The Role of Environmental Determinism and Dynamism By Constantina Kottaridi; Fragkiskos Filippaios
  10. Accelerated Development of Organizational Talent By Konstantin Korotov
  11. Monopolistic Screening under Learning By Doing By Dennis Gaertner

  1. By: Manuel Portugal Ferreira (Instituto Politécnico de Leiria); Stephen Tallman (Richmond University); Dan Li (Kelley School of Business - Indiana University)
    Abstract: Cross-border acquisitions may be a primary mode for accessing novel knowledge and the building up of knowledge capabilities. However, the successful exploration of novel business and/or location knowledge may require specific structural forms for the incorporation and internal transfer to occur. In this paper we examine the relationship between the knowledge strategy and the structural form of the acquisition, specifically the degree of equity acquired. Our analyses of 439 US cross-border acquisitions revealed a curvilinear effect of location-related knowledge exploration but a linear effect of business-related knowledge exploration on the structural form of cross-border acquisition. We conclude that the knowledge strategy, and perhaps the type of knowledge being sought, is related in complex manners to the structural form adopted.
    Keywords: cross-border acquisitions, knowledge strategy, equity ownership, structural forms, learning
    JEL: M0 M1
    Date: 2007
  2. By: Kauppinen-Räisänen, Hannele (Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration); Grönroos, Christian (Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration); Gummerus, Johanna (Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: Scholarly research has produced conceptual knowledge that is based on real-life marketing phenomena. An initial aim of past research has been to produce marketing knowledge as a base for efficient business operation and for the improvement of productivity. Thus, an assumption has been that the knowledge would be applied by organisations. This study focuses on understanding the use of marketing knowledge within the field of service marketing. Hence, even if marketing knowledge about service-oriented principles and marketing of services is based on empirical research, there is a lack of knowledge on how this marketing knowledge is in fact applied by businesses. The study focuses on four essential concepts of services marketing knowledge, namely service quality, servicescape, internal marketing, and augmented service offering. The research involves four case companies. Data is based on in depth interviews and questionnaire-based surveys conducted with managers, employees, and customers of these companies. All organisations were currently developing in a service-oriented and customer-oriented direction. However, we found limitations, gaps, and barriers for the implementation of service-oriented and customer-oriented principles. Hence, we argue that the organisations involved in the study exploited conceptual knowledge symbolically and conceptually, but the instrumental use of knowledge was limited. Due to the shortcomings found, we also argue that the implementation of the various practices and processes that are related to becoming service-oriented and customer-oriented has not been fully successful. Further, we have come to the conclusion that the shortcomings detected were at least in some respect related to the fact that the understanding and utilisation of conceptual knowledge of service-oriented principles and marketing of services were somewhat limited.
    Keywords: conceptual marketing knowledge; service quality; servicescape; internal marketing; augmented service offering
    Date: 2007–09–20
  3. By: Constantina Kottaridi; Marina Papanastassiou; Christos Pitelis; Dimitrios Thomakos
    Abstract: We build on extant theory of the MNC, MNC subsidiaries, absorptive capacity and Penrose’s concept of ‘productive opportunity’ to develop a framework on the MNC and absorptive capacity (AC) that allows us to explore the role of subsidiaries in the global sourcing of knowledge. We develop and test hypotheses using primary questionnaire-collected data. Our results support the idea that subsidiaries’ realized AC can be improved by the realized and potential AC of the MNC group and the subsidiary and in turn may improve the performance of the subsidiaries and the group as a whole.
    Keywords: Multinational Corporation, absorptive capacity, subsidiaries, knowledge
    Date: 2007
  4. By: Agustí Segarra-Blasco (Research Group of Industry and Territory (GRIT); Rovira i Virgili University (URV)); José García-Quevedo (Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB); Universitat de Barcelona (UB)); Mercedes Teruel-Carrizosa (Research Group of Industry and Territory (GRIT); Rovira i Virgili University (URV))
    Abstract: The present paper analyses the link between firms’ decisions to innovate and the barriers that prevent them from being innovative. The aim is twofold. First, it analyses three groups of barriers to innovation: the cost of innovation projects, lack of knowledge and market conditions. Second, it presents the main steps taken by Catalan Government to promote the creation of new firms and to reduce barriers to innovation. The data set used is based on the 2004 official innovation survey of Catalonia which was taken from the Spanish CIS-4 sample. This sample includes individual information on 2,954 Catalan firms in manufacturing industries and knowledge-intensive services (KIS). The empirical analysis reveals pronounced differences regarding a firm’s propensity to innovate and its perception of barriers. Moreover, the results show that cost and knowledge barriers seem to be the most important and that there are substantial sectoral differences in the way that firms react to barriers. The results of this paper have important implications for the design of future public policy to promote entrepreneurship and innovation together.
    Keywords: Obstacles to innovation, industrial policy, innovation system.
    JEL: O31 O38 D21
    Date: 2007
  5. By: Smith, James Wilson; Iimi, Atsushi
    Abstract: Although it is commonly believed that aggregate economic growth must be associated with public infrastructure stocks, the possible infrastructure needs and effects are different from industry to industry. The agriculture sector is typical. Various infrastructures would affect agriculture growth differently depending on the type of commodity. This paper finds that a general transport network is essential to promote coffee and cocoa production, perhaps along with irrigation facilities, depending on local rainfall. Conversely, along with the transport network, the dairy industry necessitates rural water supply services as well. In some African countries, a 1 percent improvement in these key aspects of infrastructure could raise GDP by about 0.1-0.4 percent, and by possibly by several percent in some cases.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy & Planning,Economic Theory & Research,Crops & Crop Management Systems,Food & Beverage Industry,Rural Development Knowledge & Information Systems
    Date: 2007–11–01
  6. By: Ilmakunnas, Pekka; Nurmi, Satu
    Abstract: We examine the process of internationalisation of firms, contributing to the knowledge on the factors behind a successful entry and operation in the export markets using duration analysis. Rich longitudinal microlevel data on Finnish manufacturing plants allow an indepth analysis of the life cycle of exporting plants over a time span of up to 25 years. In the first part of the analysis, we focus on the factors that explain the duration of time until entering plants start to export. The second part of the study concentrates on the duration of time until exit from the export markets. Our special focus is on the effects of foreign ownership, human capital and industry spillovers on export market entry and exit.
    Keywords: exports; foreign ownership; productivity; human capital; duration analysis
    JEL: L25 F23 F14
    Date: 2007–11
  7. By: Josephine, Faass; Michael, Lahr
    Abstract: This paper is an investigation into the relative importance of a wide variety of factors in influencing whether members of the American public support or oppose the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food production. To accomplish this end, as well as to facilitate the examination of a large number of independent variables simultaneously, several statistical methods, including factor analyses, instrumental variables analysis, and probit and logistic regressions were performed. It was determined that people’s perceptions of risks and moral acceptability were important contributors to opinion formation in this regard. The effects of expected benefits, feelings of trust in information, and knowledge about biotechnology and genetics, were also investigated and found to exert varying levels of influence depending on the identity of the expected beneficiary or information source, as well as the kind of knowledge under consideration. The roles of religious and political party affiliation were also examined and determined to be significant.
    Keywords: genetically modified foods; biotechnology; public opinion
    JEL: H0 Q18
    Date: 2007–02–06
  8. By: Azèle Mathieu (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels.); Martin Meyer (SPRU - Science & Technology Policy Research Freeman Centre University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.); Bruno Van Pottelsberghe (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels and DULBEA, Université Libre de Bruxelles and ECARES, Université Libre de Bruxelles.)
    Abstract: The ‘entrepreneurial university’ is an increasingly frequent notion in debates about new ways of knowledge production and the changing relationships between university, industry and government. A rich literature has developed exploring outputs of such activity, most notably ‘patenting’, ‘licensing’, and ‘spin-outs’. There is also a literature exploring the organisational process in institutes of higher education (HEI’s). All too often these two streams of literature ignore each other. The objective of this paper is to make a bridging contribution by exploring the case of Université Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.). The main research question is: Does it pay to make the entire university entrepreneurial? Our observations suggest that this would be an effort that could possibly overstretch an institution’s resources. The U.L.B. case illustrates the potential for nurturing entrepreneurial activities locally as well as the possibilities and limitations of top-down actions instilling entrepreneurial culture mongst academic rank and file.
    Keywords: technology transfer, entrepreneurial university, patent, licenses, spin-off
    JEL: D23 M13 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2007–12
  9. By: Constantina Kottaridi; Fragkiskos Filippaios
    Abstract: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and its agents, i.e. Multinational Corporations (MNCs), are understood to play a major role in the economic development of nations through their impact on trade and their ability to generate jobs and to produce new knowledge through technological and managerial advances (UNCTC, 2003). This article maps economic activities of MNCs in United Kingdom and presents an empirical formulation of investors’ decision-making. A McFadden’s conditional logit model was incorporated to test for the model’s predictions, based on location decisions of 6348 plants in UK’s counties for 2004. Estimation results suggest that firms’ choices can be modelled in terms of economic factors prevailing locally.
    Keywords: UK Regions, subsidiaries, environmental determinism, location choice
    Date: 2007
  10. By: Konstantin Korotov (ESMT European School of Management and Technology)
    Abstract: This working paper explores the challenges of accelerated development of organizational talent. The meaning of the word "accelerated" is that such development takes place at a pace that is significantly higher than that of "traditional" development that allows an individual to learn the intricacies of the current job, observe incumbents in a higher level position (usually, one level up), practice elements of the boss' job when being delegated tasks, undergoing formal training, or benefiting from the knowledge accumulated by others and codified in the knowledge management systems. Accelerated development means, contrary to the usual, more traditional developmental path, bypassing traditionally expected career steps, stretched over a longer period of time learning opportunities, and/or age-related developmental progression. Accelerated development is a necessity for organizati of qualified individuals in the internal or external labor markets, and significant pressures from other organizations that are ready to "poach" talented executives and employees and offer them even higher levels of responsibility and remuneration. Organizations also respond with accelerated development initiatives to the individuals engaged in career entrepreneurship, i.e., those who make alternative career investments in order to enjoy quicker returns in terms of career growth and progression. This paper discusses the challenges of accelerated development programs, such as not only learning the competencies required in the new position, but also developing a new identity. The paper discusses the process of going through an accelerated development program and identifies its important elements: preentry experience, initial surprise of getting into the accelerated program's environment and learning to use it, engaging in identity exploration through examining past and present identities, staging identity experiments, and, finally, stepping out of the program into the real world.
    Keywords: organizational behavior, human resource management, executive education, identity, accelerated development
    Date: 2007–09–27
  11. By: Dennis Gaertner (Socioeconomic Institute, University of Zurich)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the design of incentives in a dynamic adverse selection framework when agents’ production technologies display learning effects and agents’ rate of learning is private knowledge. In a simple two-period model with full commitment available to the principal, we show that whether learning effects are over- or under-exploited crucially depends on whether learning effects increase or decrease the principal’s uncertainty about agents’ costs of production. Hence, what drives the over- or underexploitation of learning effects is whether more efficient agents also learn faster (so costs diverge through learning effects) or whether it is the less efficient agents who learn faster (so costs converge). Furthermore, we show that if divergence in costs through learning effects is strong enough, learning effects will not be exploited at all, in a sense to be made precise.
    Keywords: Asymmetric Information, Learning by Doing, Regulation
    JEL: D82 L14 L43 L51 O31
    Date: 2007–12

This nep-knm issue is ©2007 by Emanuele Canegrati. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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