nep-iue New Economics Papers
on Informal and Underground Economics
Issue of 2023‒09‒11
six papers chosen by
Catalina Granda Carvajal, Banco de la República

  1. The future of labour segmentation after Covid-19 By Mélika Ben Salem
  3. Citizenship/Residence by Investment and Digital Nomad Visas: The Golden Era of Individual Tax Evasion and Avoidance? By Casi, Elisa; Mardan, Mohammed; Stage, Barbara M. B.
  4. Dakar’s clandestine taxis are essential for daily travel - but they’re illegal By Pape Sakho; Gaele Lesteven; Momar Diongue; Pascal Pochet
  5. Comment renforcer les systèmes d'apprentissage professionnel informels pour un meilleur avenir du travail? les leçons tirées de l'analyse comparative de cas nationaux By Hofmann, Christine,; Zelenka, Markéta,; Savadogo, Boubakar,; Akinyi Okolo, Wendy Lynn,
  6. Les négociations des travailleurs de l’économie informelle By Schmidt, Verena,; Webster, Eddie,; Mhlana, Siviwe,; Forrest, Kally,

  1. By: Mélika Ben Salem (Université Gustave Eiffel, ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12 - Université Gustave Eiffel)
    Abstract: Labour segmentation in national markets roughly operates through two porous borders, separating jobs into sectors-formal vs. informal ones-and into status-selfemployed vs. paid employed, but characterized by a lot of overlapping. It results from the process of job creation, determined partly by labor-saving innovations in production and globalization. The chapter is an essay to describe how the pandemic interacts with these two factors to potentially reshape the allocation of jobs between informal self-employment and formal paid employment or other possible combinations. The main findings is that the impact of these interactions is highly unclear on the medium or long-term trend of labor. As selfemployment has been an answer in most countries to the job shortage in the prevalent informal form, the pandemic by reducing total employment in the short run first destroys lowpaid employment but without challenging the current trajectory of employment along segmentation-low job creation driven by higher digitalization.
    Keywords: informal employment, self-employment, digitalization, work from home, skill mismatch
    Date: 2021–09–08
  2. By: Nikulin, Alexander (Никулин, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The article aims at identifying the main employment types of foreign migrants in the Russian countryside. The authors describe different employment types of migrants in the Russian agriculture and in a number of foreign countries; they also conducted a quantitative and qualitative study of the Russian agricultural sector potential for attracting foreign labor migrants, identified the regional features of labor migration to rural areas, including in the historical perspective; analyzed the types of informal economic and social relations of migrant workers with local rural communities.
    Date: 2021–11–12
  3. By: Casi, Elisa (Dept. of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics); Mardan, Mohammed (Dept. of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics); Stage, Barbara M. B. (WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management)
    Abstract: In recent decades, increased mobility of capital and labor improved individuals’ opportunities to avoid or evade tax. This chapter explores two programs commonly provided by tax havens that facilitate individuals in dodging taxation in their home country. We first focus on longer-existing initiatives targeting wealthy individuals by offering citizenship and residence-by-investment (CBI/RBI) programs and discuss how they allow individuals to evade taxes. We then delve into the recently launched digital nomad visa (DNV) programs, which grant individuals temporary residence in a country while working exclusively remotely. We provide a comprehensive overview of the key features of existing programs based on a novel, hand-collected dataset. Currently, more than 40 countries offer a DNV program, and half of them are tax havens. Although DNV programs mainly create concerns about tax avoidance, they can also provide tax evasion opportunities similar to those documented in the literature for CBI and RBI programs.
    Keywords: Digital Nomadism; Citizenship- and Residence by-investment Programs; Digital Nomad Visa; Tax Residency; Tax Havens; Offshore Tax Avoidance and Evasion
    JEL: F42 G21 H26
    Date: 2023–08–31
  4. By: Pape Sakho (Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Sénégal); Gaele Lesteven (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Momar Diongue (Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Sénégal); Pascal Pochet (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: [Short excerpt] Africa's major cities are growing at a rapid pace. In Dakar, Senegal's capital, for instance, the population has almost doubled in 20 years, reaching 4 million inhabitants today. But in most metropolises, like Dakar, planning isn't keeping up with the expansion. One example of this is the city's transport system. Public transport plays a fundamental role in providing access to any city. However, in many cities, it's lacking, particularly in areas of urban sprawl. This worsens the quality of life for people living in these areas, where there is a shortage of jobs and amenities.
    Keywords: Dakar -- Senegal, Daily urban mobility, Clandestine taxi, Informal transport, Transport system
    Date: 2023–02–13
  5. By: Hofmann, Christine,; Zelenka, Markéta,; Savadogo, Boubakar,; Akinyi Okolo, Wendy Lynn,
    Abstract: Ce document entreprend une méta-étude sur l'apprentissage professionnel informel dans les pays en développement. Il compare les résultats des recherches menées au niveau national par l'OIT et d'autres organismes au cours des 15 dernières années afin de mieux comprendre les systèmes d'apprentissage dans l'économie informelle. Cette étude examine les caractéristiques et les pratiques des systèmes d'apprentissage professionnel informels, leur réactivité par rapport aux droits au travail, et l'efficacité de ces systèmes selon des critères tels que les abandons, la qualité de la formation et les transitions vers l'emploi. L'analyse est complétée par un certain nombre d'études de cas nationales qui décrivent et évaluent les politiques et les programmes introduits au cours des dernières années pour renforcer et améliorer les systèmes d'apprentissage dans l'économie informelle. Les résultats visent à améliorer la compréhension de ce système de formation complexe, hétérogène et pourtant autonome dans l'économie informelle, en vue d’une discussion factuelle et d'un dialogue politique entre les mandants de l'OIT et au-delà.
    Keywords: apprenticeship, skills development, informal economy
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Schmidt, Verena,; Webster, Eddie,; Mhlana, Siviwe,; Forrest, Kally,
    Abstract: Les négociations constituent un outil important et précieux permettant d’amplifier la voix des travailleurs dans l’économie informelle. Cette étude fournit des données empiriques provenant d’Afrique, d’Asie et des Amériques sur les négociations et la négociation collective des travailleurs de l’économie informelle. Ces pratiques montrent que les négociations impliquant des travailleurs de l’économie informelle, notamment celles qui aboutissent à des conventions collectives, sont essentielles pour assurer une juste répartition des fruits du progrès économique et la protection syndicale des travailleurs dans de nombreux pays, et qu’elles sont très utiles pour réduire les tendances d’informalisation. Cette étude présente également les nombreux défis auxquels les travailleurs de l’économie informelle sont confrontés quand ils s’organisent et s’engagent dans des négociations ; elle ébauche également des pistes possibles sur la manière de les surmonter.
    Keywords: informal economy, social dialogue, workers representation
    Date: 2023

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