nep-iue New Economics Papers
on Informal and Underground Economics
Issue of 2021‒07‒19
four papers chosen by
Catalina Granda Carvajal
Universidad de Antioquia

  1. Entry and Exit of Informal Firms and Development By Brian McCaig; Nina Pavcnik
  2. Third-party Reporting and Tax Collections: Evidence from the Introduction of Withholding of the State Personal Income Tax By Sutirtha Bagchi; Libor Dušek
  3. Financial inclusion-exclusion paradox: how banked adults become unbanked again By Ozili, Peterson Kitakogelu

  1. By: Brian McCaig; Nina Pavcnik
    Abstract: Non-farm informal businesses comprise the majority of the firm distribution in developing countries. We document novel stylized facts about entry and exit of informal, non-farm firms using nationally representative panel data over 15 years and across regions with varying levels of local economic development in Vietnam. First, we find that informal businesses exhibit rates of entry and exit around 14-18% annually. Entry and exit rates are similar and highly correlated at a point in time, within industries, and within regions. They both decline over time and across space with economic development. Second, although market selection influences which firms survive, entry and exit has little net effect on aggregate (revenue) productivity or hiring of workers outside the household. This owes to overlapping labor productivity of entering and exiting firms and low subsequent productivity growth and hiring among the surviving entrants. Nonetheless, entry and exit are associated with large changes in individual income. Third, the large overlap in revenue of entering and exiting informal businesses and the high correlation between entry and exit rates are related to the education of owners and their economic activities before and after operating an informal business. Informal business owners are less educated on average than wage workers in the formal sector, but more educated than agricultural workers. The transitions in and out of operating an informal business reflect the underlying structure of economic activities of the working age population, with education gaps also playing a role. The most common transition into non-farm businesses is to and from self-employment in agriculture. The likelihood of this transition declines with economic development, highlighting the role of net entry from agriculture into informal non-farm businesses in structural change.
    JEL: J46 L2 O17 O53
    Date: 2021–07
  2. By: Sutirtha Bagchi (Department of Economics, Villanova School of Business, Villanova University); Libor Dušek (Charles University, Faculty of Law)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of introducing withholding of the personal income tax by state governments in the U.S. We exploit the staggered adoption of withholding by individual states over the period 1948–1987 to construct difference-in-differences style estimates. We obtain a robust finding: Introducing withholding led to an immediate and permanent increase in income tax revenues by about 22 percent, holding tax rates constant. The result is consistent with the crucial role of withholding and third-party reporting in improving tax compliance. We consider several alternative explanations such as changes to the tax base and increases in enforcement activity but these explanations lack support. There is some evidence that non-filing substantially decreased following the introduction of withholding.
    Keywords: Tax Easion; Third-Party Reporting; Withholding; Tax Base Changes; Difference-in-Differences
    JEL: H11 H21 H26 H71 N42
    Date: 2021–07
  3. By: Ozili, Peterson Kitakogelu
    Abstract: This paper analyses how financially included adults might become unbanked again. Agents of financial inclusion incorporate economic and social constraints in the delivery of formal financial services. These constraints limit the ability of poor banked adults to use basic financial services to the fullest. The constraints affect agents of financial inclusion positively, and affect customers negatively up to a point where the marginal benefit of being financially included is negative for poor customers. When the marginal benefit of using formal financial services becomes negative, the affected banked adults may discontinue using their formal accounts or exit the formal financial sector when they can no longer bear the negative effect of social and economic constraints that hinder their ability to enjoy basic financial services to the fullest.
    Keywords: Financial inclusion, financial institutions, financial exclusion, banked adults, formal accounts, paradox, access to finance, households, constraints.
    JEL: G00 G02 G18 G21 H24 O12 O17
    Date: 2021–06
  4. By: ; ; aroningtias, Yulia
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the calculation, deposit and reporting of Corporate Income Tax carried out at a grocery store in Beji Village and how the perception of grocery store owners towards the existence of a modern market. Knowing the impact of the existence of a modern market on tax payment compliance in the grocery store business. To achieve the objectives in this study used a qualitative type of research with interview survey methods. Qualitative analysis uses data reduction, data presentation, and drawing conclusions. The results showed. The existence of modern minimarkets on grocery stores has a negative impact on turnover, income and the number of customers so that the payment of corporate income tax that should be paid is ignored by the grocery store business owner.
    Date: 2021–06–15

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