nep-isf New Economics Papers
on Islamic Finance
Issue of 2021‒12‒13
eleven papers chosen by

  1. Analisis Volatilitas Return Saham Syariah Studi Kasus pada Saham Syariah Yang Terdaftar di Jakarta Islamic Index (JII) By Khalamillah, FAHMI
  2. The Institutional Foundations of Religious Politics: Evidence from Indonesia By Samuel Bazzi; Gabriel Koehler-Derrick; Benjamin Marx
  3. COVID-19 Global Pandemic, Financial Development and Financial Inclusion By Nathanael Ojong; Simplice A. Asongu
  4. Hardship Financing, Productivity Loss, and the Economic Cost of Illness and Injury in Cambodia By Robert John Kolesar; Guido Erreygers; Wim van Dam; Vanara Chea; Theany Choeurng; Soklong Leng
  5. The Impact of Financial Inclusion on Household Health Expenditures in Africa By Ofeh M. Edoh; Tii N. Nchofoung; Ofeh E. Anchi
  6. Central Banks’ responses to the Covid-19 pandemic: The case of the Bank of Central African States By Simplice A. Asongu; Nathanael Ojong; Valentine B. Soumtang
  7. A Dual Banking Sector With Credit Unions and Traditional Banks : What Implications on Macroeconomic Performances? By Thibaud Cargoet; Simon Cornée; Franck Martin; Tovonony Razafindrabe; Fabien Rondeau; Christophe Tavéra
  8. Financial determinants of informal financial development in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Valentine B. Soumtang; Ofeh M. Edoh
  9. Employment Effects of Economic Sanctions in Iran By Kelishomi, Moghaddasi Ali; Nistico, Roberto
  10. Financial Inclusion and Small Enterprise Growth in Africa: Emerging Perspectives and Research Agenda By John Kuada
  11. Impacts of Interest Rate Cap on Financial Inclusion in Cambodia By Dyna Heng; Serey Chea; Bomakara Heng

  1. By: Khalamillah, FAHMI
    Abstract: Sharia stocks still made a positive performance, even better than the composite stock price index (CSPI) and the 45 most liquid stock index on the stock exchange (LQ45) on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). Along with the decline in the index and JCI capitalization, in 2018 the development of the Islamic capital market also experienced the same thing. The ISSI index decreased by 3.09% compared to the end of 2017. The method used in this study is this research is included in quantitative research. Quantitative research is research that uses numbers either directly taken from research results or data that is processed using statistical analysis. The conclusion of this study is that the results of the F test show that the variables tested together have an F test value of 27.794. with a significance of F 0.000 (p
    Keywords: Volatility analysis, sharia-shares, index (jii) of the Indonesian stock exchange
    JEL: A11 L1 Z00
    Date: 2021–11–23
  2. By: Samuel Bazzi (BU - Boston University [Boston]); Gabriel Koehler-Derrick (Harvard University [Cambridge]); Benjamin Marx (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Why do religious politics thrive in some societies but not others? This paper explores the institutional foundations of this process in Indonesia, the world's largest Muslim democracy. We show that a major Islamic institution, the waqf, fostered the entrenchment of political Islam at a critical historical juncture. In the early 1960s, rural elites transferred large amounts of land into waqf —a type of inalienable charitable trust—to avoid expropriation by the government as part of a major land reform effort. Although the land reform was later undone, the waqf properties remained. We show that greater intensity of the planned reform led to more prevalent waqf land and Islamic institutions endowed as such, including religious schools, which are strongholds of the Islamist movement. We identify lasting effects of the reform on electoral support for Islamist parties, preferences for religious candidates, and the adoption of Islamic legal regulations (sharia). Overall, the land reform contributed to the resilience and eventual rise of political Islam by helping to spread religious institutions, thereby solidifying the alliance between local elites and Islamist groups. These findings shed new light on how religious institutions may shape politics in modern democracies.
    Keywords: Religion,Institutions,Land reform,Islam,Sharia Law
    Date: 2020–05
  3. By: Nathanael Ojong (York University, Toronto, Canada); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This chapter examines how the Covid-19 pandemic has affected financial development and financial inclusion in African countries. The study provides both broad perspectives and country-specific frameworks based on selected country cases studies. Some emphasis is placed on the achievement of sustainable development goals (SDGs) that are related to financial inclusion. The study aims to understand what immediate challenges the COVID-19 pandemic has represented to the economies and societies on the one hand and on the other, the effect of the COVID-19 on the interconnected financial systems in terms of consequences of the pandemic. The relevance of the study builds on the importance of these insights in helping both scholars and policy makers understand how the effect of the pandemic on the financial system and by extension, the global economy can be mitigated for more financial inclusion.
    Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic; financial development; Financial inclusion; Africa
    Date: 2021–01
  4. By: Robert John Kolesar (Abt Associates, UA - University of Antwerp, Cambodian Ministry of Economy and Finance, CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Guido Erreygers (UA - University of Antwerp); Wim van Dam (ITM - Institute of Tropical Medicine [Antwerp]); Vanara Chea (Cambodian Ministry of Economy and Finance); Theany Choeurng (Cambodian Ministry of Economy and Finance); Soklong Leng (Cambodian Ministry of Economy and Finance)
    Abstract: Financial risk protection is a core dimension of Universal Health Coverage. Hardship financing, defined as borrowing and selling land or assets to pay for healthcare, is a measure of last recourse. To inform efforts to improve Cambodia's social health protection system we analyze 2019-2020 Cambodia Socioeconomic Survey data to assess hardship financing, illness and injury related productivity loss, and estimate related economic impacts. We apply two-stage Instrumental Variable multiple regression to address endogeneity relating to net income. More than 98,500 households or 2.7% of the total population resorted to hardship financing over the past year. Factors significantly increasing risk are having an Equity card, higher out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures, illness or injury related productivity loss, and spending of savings. The economic burden from annual lost productivity from illness or injury amounts to USD 459.9 million or 1.7% of GDP. The estimated household economic cost related to hardship financing is USD 250.8 million or 0.9% of GDP. Such losses can be mitigated with policy measures such as linking a catastrophic health coverage mechanism to the Health Equity Funds, capping interest rates on health-related loans, and using loan guarantees to incentivize microfinance institutions and banks to refinance health-related, high-interest loans from money lenders.
    Keywords: social health protection,poverty,financial risk protection,Universal Health Coverage,hardship financing
    Date: 2021–07–29
  5. By: Ofeh M. Edoh (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Tii N. Nchofoung (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Ofeh E. Anchi (University of Bamenda, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of financial inclusion on household health expenditure in 17 African countries. It argues that financial inclusion is an active influencer of individuals’ health demand and that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and voluntary health insurance schemes tend to be active transmission channels through which financial inclusion affects household health expenditures. The study used an instrumental variable (2SLS) technique for the analysis over a period from 2008 to 2017.Results from the study show that being financially included leads to increase household health expenditures. Suggestions for policy emerging from this study to governments in Africa are on the aspect of fostering financial inclusion to a wider population alongside enhancing the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) plan to ease the burden of out-of-pocket payments on households.
    Keywords: Financial inclusion, Health expenditure, Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, 2SLS
    JEL: G15 I13 C23
    Date: 2021–01
  6. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Nathanael Ojong (York University, Toronto, Canada); Valentine B. Soumtang (University of Yaoundé II, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study explores the responses to the COVID-19 pandemic by the Bank of Central African States (BEAC), which is the central bank for countries in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), that is, Cameroon, Chad, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo. While hitherto, BEAC had fundamentally focused on fighting inflation and promoting monetary integration and financial stability in its member states, the COVID-19 pandemic, among other factors, has motivated it to also shift its policies towards targeted credit programmes and more economic growth. This study sheds light on four core aspects: (i) the socio-economic context of the CEMAC region prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, (ii) BEAC as a lender of last resort, (iii) historical, contemporary, and future insights surrounding targeted credit programmes, and (iv), suggestions for the path forward in terms of reforms, with emphasis on inclusive growth and monitoring economic development at the regional level.
    Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic; monetary policy; central bank responses; CEMAC, BEAC
    Date: 2021–01
  7. By: Thibaud Cargoet (Univ Rennes, CNRS, CREM - UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes, France); Simon Cornée (Univ Rennes, CNRS, CREM - UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes, France); Franck Martin (Univ Rennes, CNRS, CREM - UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes, France); Tovonony Razafindrabe (Univ Rennes, CNRS, CREM - UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes, France); Fabien Rondeau (Univ Rennes, CNRS, CREM - UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes, France); Christophe Tavéra (Univ Rennes, CNRS, CREM - UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes, France)
    Abstract: Cet article ́etudie les implications macro ́economiques associées à la présence d’un secteur bancaire dual au sein d’une ́economie. Ce secteur regroupe à parts égales des banques mutualistes et coopératives (credit unions) et des banques de type capitaliste (cette situation s’observe notamment pour la France). Nous adoptons un modélisation macroéconomique de type DSGE idans laquelle les banques mutualistes et coopératives sont différenciées des banques traditionnelles de la manière suivante : elles pratiquent une interm ́ediation financière traditionnelle centrée sur le couple crédits/dépôts avec un recours plus faible aux activités de portefeuilles ; elles se concentrent principalement sur le financement des ménages et des petites et moyennes entreprises ; elles ont enfin un pass-through de taux d’int érêt plus faible que les banques traditionnelles. Les simulations du modèle montrent que cette configuration du secteur bancaire diminue le caractère contra-cyclique de la politique mon ́etaire mais elle constitue en revanche un facteur stabilisant pour l’économie. This article studies the macroeconomic implications generated by a dual banking sector. By dual sector, we refer to a banking sector including mutual and cooperative banks (credit unions) and traditional banks operate in substantially equal parts (as the case of France for example). We propose a DSGE macroeconomic model integrating a dual banking sector. Mutual and cooperative banks are differentiated from capitalist banks in the following way: they practice traditional financial intermediation centered on the loan - deposit pair with less recourse to portfolio activities; they mainly focus on financing households and small and medium-sized enterprises; Finally, they have a lower interest rate pass-through than traditional banks. Model simulations show that this configuration of the banking sector reduces the counter-cyclical property of monetary policy, but on the other hand it constitutes a stabilizing factor for the economy.
    Keywords: Banking sector, Credit Unions, DSGE Model, Monetary Policy
    JEL: E47 E52 G2
    Date: 2021–11
  8. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Valentine B. Soumtang (University of Yaoundé II, Cameroon); Ofeh M. Edoh (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study assesses financial determinants of informal financial sector development in 48 Sub-Saharan African countries for the period 1995-2017. Quantile regressions are used as the empirical strategy which enables the study to assess the determinants throughout the conditional distribution of informal sector development dynamics. The following financial determinants affect informal financial development and financial informalization differently in terms of magnitude and sign: bank overhead costs; net internet margin; bank concentration; return on equity; bank cost to income ratio; financial stability; loans from non-resident banks; offshore bank deposits and remittances. The determinants are presented from a plethora of perspectives, inter alia: U-Shape, S-Shape and positive or negative thresholds. The study not only provides a practical way by which to assess the incidence of financial determinants on informal financial sector development, but also provides financial instruments by which informal financial development can be curbed.
    Keywords: Informal finance; financial development; Africa
    Date: 2021–08
  9. By: Kelishomi, Moghaddasi Ali (Loughborough University); Nistico, Roberto (University of Naples Federico II)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of economic sanctions on employment. We exploit the imposition of a series of unexpected and unprecedented international economic sanctions on Iran in 2012 and estimate the short-run effects of the change in import exposure on manufacturing employment at the industry level. Our estimates indicate that the sanctions led to an overall decline in the manufacturing employment growth rate by 16.4 percentage points. However, we uncover significant asymmetric effects across industries with different ex-ante import shares. Interestingly, the effects are mostly driven by labor-intensive industries and industries that heavily depend on imported inputs. This suggests that the overall negative impact of the sanctions on employment might be largely due to the decline in productivity experienced by industries with a high propensity to import inputs from abroad.
    Keywords: economic sanctions, employment, import exposure, labor reallocation
    JEL: F16 F51 J21
    Date: 2021–10
  10. By: John Kuada (Aalborg, Denmark)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purposes of this paper are to review the streams of studies that link financial inclusion to small enterprise growth in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), to identify the research gaps they provide, and to prepare an agenda for future research in the field. Design/methodology/approach – The study employs systematic literature search method to identify relevant literature from journals. It then adopts a narrative approach for the review, highlighting the findings from the prior studies and gaps requiring research attention. Findings – The discussions reveal that there is a need for future studies that can unpack small enterprise growth determinants, identify growth-enabling entrepreneurial characteristics and examine the contextual variabilities that shape their effectiveness. Originality/value – There is currently no comprehensive/integrated review exploring the link between financial inclusion and small enterprise growth in SSA. This review therefore provides insights that contribute to the development of this stream of research.
    Keywords: Financial inclusion, entrepreneurship, small businesses, enterprise growth, Africa
    Date: 2021–01
  11. By: Dyna Heng; Serey Chea; Bomakara Heng
    Abstract: Interest rate caps, despite their intended objective of broadening financial inclusion, can have undesirable effects on financial inclusion under certain conditions. This paper examines the effect of microfinance-loan interest rate caps on financial inclusion in Cambodia. Based on a difference-in-difference analysis on bank and microfinance supervisory data, results show some unintended impact on financial inclusion. The cap led to a significant increase in non-interest fees charged on new loans following the introduction of an annual cap. Microfinance borrowers declined immediately, amid an increase in credit growth, as microfinance institutions targeted larger borrowers at the expense of smaller ones. Microfinance institutions, responded differently to the cap, considering their own operation and funding costs, and client base. Two years after the cap, institutions resumed lending to a wider group of borrowers with lower funding and operation costs brought by mobile payment development.
    Keywords: Financial Inclusion, Interest Rate Caps, Banking Sector; microfinance borrower; microfinance-loan interest rate caps; operation cost; supervisory data; impact of interest rate cap; Loans; Interest rate ceilings; Microfinance; Financial inclusion; Credit; Global
    Date: 2021–04–29

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