nep-isf New Economics Papers
on Islamic Finance
Issue of 2021‒09‒20
673 papers chosen by
Mohamed Mohamed Tolba Said


  1. ISLAMIC CORPORATE GOVERNANCE (I-CG) DAN ISLAMIC CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (I-CSR) : TEORI DAN PRAKTIK By , Gustani
  2. Labor market competition and the assimilation of immigrants By Christoph Albert; Albrecht Glitz; Joan Llull
  3. The Role of the Workplace in Ethnic Wage Differentials By Forth, John; Theodoropoulos, Nikolaos; Bryson, Alex
  4. Climate Change and Fiscal Responsibility: Risks and Opportunities By Matthew Agarwala; Matt Burke; Patrycja Klusak; Kamiar Mohaddes; Ulrich Volz; Dimitri Zenghelis
  5. Predictive Factors of Withdrawal Behavior among Profit-Sharing Investment Depositors in Morocco: A Qualitative Study from the Perspective of Push-Pull-Mooring Framework By Sana Rhoudri; Lotfi Benazzou
  6. The unreachable equity of water resources protection policies. (Re)thinking justice communities By Alexandre Berthe; Jacqueline Candau; Sylvie Ferrari; Baptiste Hautdidier; Vanessa Kuentz-Simonet; Charlotte Scordia; Frédéric Zahm
  7. rbprobit: Recursive bivariate probit estimation and decomposition of marginal effects By Mustafa Coban
  8. Computing score functions numerically using Mata By Álvaro A. Gutiérrez-Vargas
  9. Drivers of COVID-19 Outcomes: Evidence from a Heterogeneous SAR Panel Data Model By Christopher F Baum; Miguel Henry
  10. Renegotiation and Discrimination in Symmetric Procurement Auctions By Leandro Arozamena; Juan José Ganuza; Federico Weinschelbaum
  11. A time-varying network for cryptocurrencies By Guo, Li; Härdle, Wolfgang; Tao, Yubo
  12. Natural resources, child mortality and governance quality in African countries By Sosson Tadadjeu; Henri Njangang; Simplice A. Asongu; Brice Kamguia
  13. The Implications of Self-Reported Body Weight and Height for Measurement Error in BMI By Davillas, Apostolos; Jones, Andrew M.
  14. Opinions Behaviors and Attitudes of Dakar residents towards COVID-19 By Adjani Nourou-Dine Yessoufou; Thierno Bachir Sy; Amadou Tandjigora; Ibrahima Bah
  15. Environmental segregation and industrial risks. Are the low-income households of the Aix-Marseille-Provence 'métropole' more exposed to Seveso sites? By Baptiste Hautdidier; Yves Schaeffer; M. Tivadar
  16. Less information, more comparison, and better performance: evidence from a field experiment By Eyring, Henry; Ferguson, Patrick J.; Koppers, Sebastian
  17. Prosedur Pembiayaan Mudharabah Pada PT. Bank BSI Tbk Kc Padang By Mardatillah, Vira; Susanto, Romi
  18. Optimising VRE Plant Capacity in Renewable Energy Zones By Simshauser, P.; Billimoria, F.; Rogers, C.
  19. Fair Utilitarianism By Marc Fleurbaey; Stéphane Zuber
  20. James Buchanan: Clubs and Alternative Welfare Economics By Alain Marciano
  21. Association between COVID-19 Vaccination and Variables Related to Socioeconomic Status: an Internet Study in Japan (Japanese) By SEKIZAWA Yoichi
  22. COVID-19-related attitudes, risk perceptions, preventive behaviours and economic impact in sub-Saharan African countries: Implementing a longitudinal phone-based survey protocol in rural Senegalese households By V. Seror; G. Maradan; E.-H. Ba; S. Cortaredona; C. Berenger; Olivier L’haridon; C. Sokhna
  23. Potential Wheat Demand in China: Applicants for Import Quota By Gale, Fred
  24. Sex Workers' Self-Reported Physical and Mental Health in Greece: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study in 2009, 2013 and 2019 By Drydakis, Nick
  25. Losen statt Stimmverluste unter Prozent-Hürden und bei Sitzanteilen By Dilger, Alexander
  26. Analysing conjoint experiments in Stata: the conjoint command By Michael J. Frith
  27. The impact of public transportation and commuting on urban labour markets: evidence from the New Survey of London Life and Labour, 1929-32 By Seltzer, Andrew J.; Wadsworth, Jonathan
  28. COVID-19, Vaccination, and Consumer Behavior By MORIKAWA Masayuki
  29. Submission to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Tax and Revenue’s inquiry into Housing Affordability and Supply By Murray, Cameron
  30. On the evolution of male competitiveness By Ingela Alger
  31. The Analysis and the Measurement of Poverty: An Interval-Based Composite Indicator By Carlo Drago
  32. Reducing air travel related greenhouse gas emissions in academia: An empirical policy overview By Kreil, Agnes S.; Stauffacher, Michael
  33. Semi-analytical pricing of barrier options in the time-dependent $\lambda$-SABR model By Andrey Itkin; Dmitry Muravey
  34. The day after tomorrow: mitigation and adaptation policies to deal with uncertainty By Davide Bazzana; Francesco Menoncin; Sergio Vergalli
  35. Accelerating the Speed and Scale of Climate Finance in the Post-Pandemic Context By Jean-Charles Hourcade; Dipak Dasgupta; F. Ghersi
  36. Spatial and social mobility in England and Wales: a sub-national analysis of differences and trends over time By Buscha, Franz; Gorman, Emma; Sturgis, Patrick
  37. Oeffentliche Finanzbedarfe fuer Klimainvestitionen im Zeitraum 2021-2030 By Tom Krebs; Janek Steitz
  38. Les Farinet, monnayeurs: liberté, vénalité, communauté By Jérôme Blanc
  39. Economics and Family Structures By Thomas TB Baudin; Bram De Rock; Paula Eugenia Gobbi
  40. Economía colombiana en medio del paro nacional 2021 y la recuperación postpandemia By División de Análisis Macroeconómico DAMAC
  41. Canadian housing supply elasticities By Nuno Paixao
  42. Distributional Effects of Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions With a Carbon Tax: Working Paper 2021-11 By Dorian Carloni; Terry Dinan
  43. Linking real estate data with entrepreneurial ecosystems: Coworking spaces, funding and founding activity of start-ups By Gauger, Felix; Strych, Jan-Oliver; Pfnür, Andreas
  44. How to Regulate Airports? By David Martimort; Guillaume Pommey; Jerome Pouyet
  45. High-dimensional statistical learning techniques for time-varying limit order book networks By Chen, Shi; Härdle, Wolfgang; Schienle, Melanie
  46. The housing market of Russian cities By Malginov Georgiy; Sternik Sergey
  47. A Methodological Framework to Support the Sustainable Innovation Development Process : A Collaborative Approach By Martha Orellano; Christine Lambey-Checchin; Khaled Medini; Gilles Neubert
  48. Wage Differences According to Workers’ Origin: The Role of Working More Upstream in GVCs By Valentine Fays; Benoît Mahy; François Rycx
  49. Gamification frameworks and models for health contexts: an integrative review By Arouca, Murilo Guerreiro; Neves, Isa Beatriz Da Cruz; Barreto, Marcos Ennes; Cruz, Carlos Daniel Santana; Brito, Ricardo Lustosa
  50. A Ten-Year Review of the Southeast U.S. Green Industry, Part I: Labor and Firm Characteristics By Rihn, Alicia L.; Fulcher, Amy; Khachatryan, Hayk
  51. Understanding the production of “protective†foods in East Africa: A cross-country analysis of drivers and policy options By Haile, Beliyou; You, Liangzhi; Headey, Derek D.; Ru, Yating; Mahrt, Kristi
  52. Wage Differences According to Workers’ Origin: The Role of Working More Upstream in GVCs By Valentine Fays; Benoît Mahy; François Rycx
  53. Vaccination strategies and transmission of COVID-19: evidence across leading countries By Dongwoo Kim; Young Jun Lee
  54. Wage Differences According to Workers' Origin: The Role of Working More Upstream in GVCs By Fays, Valentine; Mahy, Benoît; Rycx, Francois
  55. Optimal Transport based Drift Detection for Sensor Streams: Method and Applications in Transportation By Laha, A. K.; Verma, Shikha
  56. Depression and repression: global capitalism, economic crisis and penal politics in interwar Greece By Cheliotis, Leonidas
  57. Afghanistan, Taliban, Why By Ho, Teck Tuak
  58. Remittances, Natural Resource Rent and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa By Pamela E. Ofori; Daryna Grechyna
  59. Between-Group Inequality May Decline despite a Rising Skill Premium By Aziz, Imran; Cortes, Guido Matias
  60. Artificial Intelligence in the Field of Economics By Steve J. Bickley; Ho Fai Chan; Benno Torgler
  61. Extended Relative Maximum Likelihood Updating of Choquet Beliefs By Xiaoyu Cheng
  62. An Economic Analysis on the Potential and Steady Growth of China: a Practice Based on the Dualistic System Economics in China By Tianyong Zhou
  63. Remittances, Natural Resource Rent and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa By Pamela E. Ofori; Daryna Grechyna
  64. Adverse Working Conditions and Immigrants' Physical Health and Depression Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study in Greece By Drydakis, Nick
  65. Contracts as a Barrier to Entry: Impact of Buyer's Asymmetric Information and Bargaining Power By David Martimort; Jérôme Pouyet; Thomas Trégouët
  66. The Role of the Event Industry in the Finnish Economy By Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki; Pajarinen, Mika
  67. Makro- und mikroökonomische Analyse der Auswirkungen der Covid-19-Pandemie in Chile und der Projektionen der Zentralbank By Rodrigo Ignacio Barra Novoa
  68. ANALISIS PENJUALAN ONLINE PERLENGKAPAN OLAHRAGA USAHA MIKRO PADA MASA PANDEMI COVID-19 By Hanim, Muhammad Iqbal Jauhar
  69. Climate change and population: an integrated assessment of mortality due to health impacts By Antonin Pottier; Marc Fleurbaey; Aurélie Méjean; Stéphane Zuber
  70. Comprendre la performance et le déclin des territoires d'industrie : Angoulême-Cognac By Etienne Fouqueray; Emmanuel Nadaud
  71. Differences-in-differences in Stata 17 By Enrique Pinzon
  72. Instrumental variable estimation of large-T panel data models with common factors By Sebastian Kripfganz; Vasilis Sarafidis
  73. Valuing informal carers’ quality of life using best-worst scaling—Finnish preference weights for the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit for carers (ASCOT-Carer) By Nguyen, Lien; Jokimäki, Hanna; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Saloniki, Eirini Christina; Batchelder, Laurie; Malley, Juliette; Lu, Hui; Burge, Peter; Trukeschitz, Birgit; Forder, Julien
  74. The Different Paths from which Place leadership Can Manifest: A Meta-analysis Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) By David, Lucinda
  75. Climate change and population: an integrated assessment of mortality due to health impacts By Antonin Pottier; Marc Fleurbaey; Aurélie Méjean; Stéphane Zuber
  76. Unbalanced Growth in the Labourscape: explaining regional employment divergence By Sobyra, Robert; Sigler, Thomas; Charles-Edwards, Elin
  77. The role of synchronous online classes in helping university students to cope with COVID-19 distress By Cheng, John W.
  78. Pension design and the failed economics of squirrels By Barr, Nicholas
  79. Transfer Modality Research Initiative: Impacts of combining social protection and nutrition in Bangladesh By Ahmed, Akhter; Hoddinott, John F.; Roy, Shalini
  80. New UC Davis Model Shows Promise in Identifying Optimal Locations of Hydrogen Refueling Stations for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks in California By Acharya, Tri D.; Jenn, Alan T.; Miller, Marshall R.; Fulton, Lew M.
  81. The IMF’s role in sovereign debt restructurings By global financial governance issues, IRC Task Force on IMF
  82. Une agriculture durable, une alimentation saine : un défi pour tous By Robert Spizzichino; Gilles Maréchal; Jean-Claude Devèze
  83. A bird's-eye view of Bayesian software in 2021: opportunities for Stata? By Robert Grant
  84. Does economics make you selfish? By Daniele Girardi; Sai Madhurika Mamunuru; Simon D Halliday; Samuel Bowles
  85. A new model for inclusive seed delivery: Lessons from a pilot study in Kenya: Leveraging champion farmers’ entrepreneurial know-how to reach the last mile By Kramer, Berber; Waweru, Carol; Waithaka, Lilian; Eyase, Jean; Chegeh, Joseph; Kivuva, Benjamin; Cecchi, Francesco
  86. Gender Distribution across Topics in the Top 5 Economics Journals: A Machine Learning Approach By J.Ignacio Conde-Ruiz; Juan-José Ganuza; Manu García; Luis A. Puch
  87. The production process of the global MPI By Nicolai Suppa
  88. Cyber-risk management: identification, prevention, and mitigation techniques By Hariharan, Naveen Kunnathuvalappil
  89. The blue carbon wealth of nations By Bertram, Christine; Quaas, Martin; Reusch, Thorsten B.H.; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Wolff, Claudia; Rickels, Wilfried
  90. Optimal transport weights for causal inference By Eric Dunipace
  91. Propuestas económicas en una Colombia en crisis By Centro de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo
  92. The Color of Money: Federal vs. Industry Funding of University Research By Tania Babina; Alex Xi He; Sabrina T. Howell; Elisabeth Ruth Perlman; Joseph Staudt
  93. Health Dynamics and Heterogeneous Life Expectancies By Richard Foltyn; Jonna Olsson
  94. Economie du travail en prison : enjeux, résultats et recommandations By Benjamin Monnery; Saïd Souam; Anna Montagutelli
  95. The possibility of a decentralized economy in China and the USA By Tong, Antonia
  96. Avoiding the Cost of your Conscience: Belief Dependent Preferences and Information Acquisition By Claire Rimbaud; Alice Soldà
  97. Two-stage sampling in the estimation of growth parameters and percentile norms: sample weights versus auxiliary variable estimation By George Vamvakas
  98. PyStata - Python and Stata integration By Zhao Xu
  99. ¿Hombres "cracks" y mujeres "amables"? Sesgos de género en encuestas de profesores By Nicolás Urdaneta Andrade
  100. Public Service Innovation Network for Social Innovation: A European overview By Céline Merlin-Brogniart; Lars Fuglsang; Ada Scupola; Anne Hansen; Rolf Rønning; Siv Magnussen; Alberto Peralta; Miklós Rosta; Márton Katona; Éva Révész
  101. Productivity of Working from Home during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Panel Data Analysis By MORIKAWA Masayuki
  102. Impacts of COVID-19 on the World Economy and Societies: Towards a New Social and Economic Order By Lassana Toure; Atoumane Diagne; Amadou Traore
  103. An open source software tool for spatial flow data analysis By Laurent, Thibault; Margaretic, Paula; Thomas-Agnan, Christine
  104. Using xtbreak to study the impacts of European Central Bank announcements on sovereign borrowing By Natalia Poiatti
  105. Linear and non-linear effects of infrastructures on inclusive human development in Africa By Tii N. Nchofoung; Simplice A. Asongu; Arsène A. Njamen Kengdo; Elvis D. Achuo
  106. Russia in key international institutions By Ignatov Aleksandr; Larionova Marina; Popova Irina; Sakharov Andrey; Shelepov Andrey
  107. The Global Logistic Chain Under Siege in a Post-Covid Era By Oxelheim, Lars; Randøy, Trond
  108. Impact of the COVID-19 crisis on Spanish firms’ financial vulnerability By Roberto Blanco; Sergio Mayordomo; Álvaro Menéndez; Maristela Mulino
  109. Participants’ Characteristics at ISER-Lab in 2020 By Nobuyuki Hanaki; Keigo Inukai; Takehito Masuda; Yuta Shimodaira
  110. Footsie, Yeah! Share Prices and Worker Wellbeing By Alex Bryson; Andrew E. Clark; Colin P. Green
  111. Child Health and Parental Responses to an Unconditional Cash Transfer at Birth By de Gendre, Alexandra; Lynch, John; Meunier, Aurélie; Pilkington, Rhiannon; Schurer, Stefanie
  112. Graphics for ordinal outcomes or predictors By Nicholas J. Cox
  113. Green exceptionalism and new urbanism in the marketing of Costa Rican mini-cities By Sabrine Acosta Schnell
  114. China and CPTPP (Japanese) By WATANABE Mariko; KAWASHIMA Fujio; KAMO Tomoki; KAWASE Tsuyoshi
  115. COVID-19 ET TÉLÉTRAVAIL : ÉCHANTILLONS DE SOLUTIONS INFORMATIQUES SÉCURISÉES I) État des lieux By Patrick Mervent
  116. Continuous water supply: a decisive factor in the fight against cholera By Karin GALLANDAT (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine),; Pierre-Yves DURAND (Agence française de développement),; Thierry VANDEVELDE (Fondation Veolia),; Jaime SAIDI (ministère de la Santé, République démocratique du Congo)
  117. Intergenerational mobility in a recession: Evidence from Sweden By Nybok, Martin; Stuhler, Jan
  118. Covariate adjustment in a randomised trial with time-to-event outcomes By Ian R White; Tim P Morris; Deborah Ford
  119. Introducing stipw: inverse probability weighted parametric survival models By Micki Hill; Paul C Lambert; Michael J Crowther
  120. Chapter 12: Shared Micromobility Policy and Practices in the United states By Susan, Shaheen
  121. The Enduring Effects of COVID-19 on Travel Behavior in the United States: A Panel Study on Observed and Expected Changes in Telecommuting, Mode Choice, Online Shopping and Air Travel By Mohammadjavad Javadinasr; Tassio B. Magassy; Ehsan Rahimi; Motahare; Mohammadi; Amir Davatgari; Abolfazl; Mohammadian; Deborah Salon; Matthew Wigginton Bhagat-Conway; Rishabh Singh Chauhan; Ram M. Pendyala; Sybil Derrible; Sara Khoeini
  122. Optimal Trade Mechanism with Adverse Selection and Inferential Mistakes By Yamashita, Takuro; Murooka, Takeshi
  123. Complementarity in Employee Participation Systems: International Evidence By Burdin, Gabriel; Kato, Takao
  124. On the possibility of an anti-paternalist behavioural welfare economics By Thoma, Johanna
  125. Targeted interventions: Consumption dynamics and distributional effects By Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Mishra, Abinash; Mohaghegh, Mohsen
  126. Bounding Sets for Treatment Effects with Proportional Selection By Deepankar Basu
  127. Advanced data visualizations with Stata By Asjad Naqvi
  128. Enhancing graduate employability skills and student engagement through group video assessment By Arsenis, Panagiotis; Flores, Miguel; Petropoulou, Dimitra
  129. Resource rents and inclusive human development in developing countries By Tii N. Nchofoung; Elvis Dze Achuo; Simplice A. Asongu
  130. STUDYING THE PROBABILITY OF ACQUIRING HIV IN A CERTAIN POPULATION By Otero Gomez, Daniel; Mateus C, Rafael; Laniado, Henry
  131. Global Value Chains and Unequal Exchange- Market Power and Monopoly Power By Deepankar Basu; Ramaa Vasudevan
  132. Julian Elitear By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
  133. Dynamics of the Bodyweight-Wage Relationship in Emerging Countries: Evidence from Mexico By Pierre Levasseur
  134. Expectations in past and modern economic theory By Richard Arena; Muriel Dal-Pont Legrand; Roger Guesnerie
  135. Livestock, livestock products and fish, July 2021 By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  136. Lecture Notes: Mathematics for Economics By Cuong Le Van; Ngoc-Sang Pham
  137. A critical perspective on the conceptualization of risk in behavioral and experimental finance By Felix Holzmeister; Christoph Huber; Stefan Palan
  138. Italian Labour Frictions and Wage Rigidities in an Estimated DSGE By Josué Diwambuena; Raquel Fonseca; Stefan Schubert
  139. Longing for Which Home: Evidence from Global Aspirations to Stay, Return or Migrate Onwards By Bekaert, Els; Constant, Amelie F.; Foubert, Killian; Ruyssen, Ilse
  140. On the Benefits of Repaying By Francesca Caselli; Matilde Faralli; Paolo Manasse; Ugo Panizza
  141. Income and conversion handicaps: estimating the impact of child chronic illness/disability on family income and the extra cost of child chronic illness/child disability in Ireland using a standard of living approach By Roddy, Áine
  142. A robust regression estimator for pairwise-difference transformed data: xtrobreg By Vincenzo Verardi; Ben Jann
  143. Italian Labour Frictions and Wage Rigidities in an Estimated DSGE By Josué Diwambuena; Raquel Fonseca; Stefan Schubert
  144. Fathers’ involvement in childcare, children’s education and housework during the COVID-19 lockdown By Mikhaylova, Oxana; Sivak, Elizaveta
  145. Standard Errors for Calibrated Parameters By Matthew D. Cocci; Mikkel Plagborg-M{\o}ller
  146. Modeling the propagation of the Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya virus in the city of Bello using Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation By Mateus C, Rafael; Zuluaga, Susana Alvarez; Orozco, Mariajose Franco; Marín, Paula Alejandra Escudero
  147. Nana Diana By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
  148. Zuwanderung und Flüchtlingsschutz im Wahlkampf: Zerrbild statt Chancenorientierung By Heidland, Tobias; Krüger, Finja
  149. Dynamic Games in Empirical Industrial Organization By Victor Aguirregabiria; Allan Collard-Wexler; Stephen P. Ryan
  150. Career Recommendation System for High-School Seniors based on Government Standardized-Tests Results By Otero Gomez, Daniel; MANRIQUE, MIGUEL ANGEL CORREA; Sierra, Omar Becerra; Toro, Mauricio; Millan, David Andres Romero; Mateus C, Rafael
  151. Towards Profitable Growth in E-Grocery Retailing - the Role of Store and Household Density By Paul, J.; Agatz, N.A.H.; Fransoo, J.C.
  152. Robust approaches for optimization problems with convex uncertainty By Roos, Ernst
  153. Rizki Arif Putra By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
  154. Self-care time and rating of health state in people with diabetes: Results from the population-based KORA survey in Germany By Icks, Andrea
  155. The Role Of CEO Characteristics In Firm Innovative Performance: A Comparative Analysis Of EU Countries And Russia By Fernanda Ricotta; Victoria Golikova; Boris Kuznetsov
  156. Estimating macro models and the potentially misleading nature of Bayesian estimation By Meenagh, David; Minford, Patrick; Wickens, Michael
  157. Outcomes of ICU patients with and without perceptions of excessive care: a comparison between cancer and non-cancer patients By Dominique Benoit; Esther E.N. van der Zee; Michael Darmon; An A.K.L. Reyners; Victoria Metaxa; Djamel Mokart; Alexander Wilmer; Pieter Depuydt; Andreas Hvarfner; Katerina Rusinova; Jan G.Zijlstra; François Vincent; Dimitrios Lathyris; Anne-Pascale Meert; Jacques Devriendt; Emma Uyttersprot; Erwin Jo E.J.O. Kompanje; Ruth R.D. Piers; Elie Azoulay
  158. Education and Food Consumption Patterns: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Indonesia By Dr Mohammad Rafiqul Islam; Dr Nicholas Sim
  159. ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENYEBAB PEMBIAYAAN BERMASALAH PADA BMT AT TAQWA CABANG BANDAR BUAT PADANG By Rosalinda, Annisa; fernos, jhon
  160. Revitalisasi BUMDesa Melalui Penelolaan Potensi Lokal Untuk Mewujudkan BUMDesa Yang Sehat Dan Mandiri By Hidayat, Muhammad; Latief, Fitriani; hidayah, Nur; Asbara, Nurkhalik Wahdanial
  161. Synergies of Combining Demand- and Supply-Side Measures to Manage Congested Streets By Itani, Ibrahim MS; Cassidy, Michael J. PhD; Daganzo, Carlos F. PhD
  162. Market Operations in Fiscal 2020 By Financial Markets Department
  163. The Australian Twins Economic Preferences Survey By Kettlewell, Nathan; Tymula, Agnieszka
  164. IFPRI Malawi monthly maize market report, July 2021 By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  165. Selected legumes, roots & tubers and other cereals, July 2021 By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  166. Effect of mobile financial services on financial behavior in developing economies-Evidence from India By Shreya Biswas
  167. Rising US LNG Exports and Global Natural Gas Price Convergence By Robert Ialenti
  168. Measuring Inflation: Criticism and Solution By Laczó, Ferenc
  169. Examining the Dynamic Asset Market Linkages under the COVID-19 Global Pandemic By Akihiko Noda
  170. Who Has Access to E-Commerce During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Sacramento Region? Implications for Future E-Commerce and Shopping Tripmaking By Forscher, Teddy; Deakin, Elizabeth PhD; Walker, Joan PhD
  171. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KUALITAS SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI ZAKAT By NURHAYATI, NUNUNG
  172. Is there a differentiated gender effect of collaboration with supercited authors? Evidence from early-career economists By Rodrigo Dorantes-Gilardi; Aurora A. Ramírez-Álvarez; Diana Terrazas-Santamaría
  173. Looking Back, Looking Forward: Central and Eastern Europe 30 Years After the Fall of the Berlin Wall By Vladimir Gligorov; Richard Grieveson; Peter Havlik; Gabor Hunya; Olga Pindyuk; Leon Podkaminer; Sandor Richter; Hermine Vidovic
  174. Hard Times for Developing Countries: Africa’s Financing Needs in Question By Bertrand SAVOYE; Maxime TERRIEUX; Cécile VALADIER; Sylvain BELLEFONTAINE,; Cécile DUQUESNAY,; Marion HEMAR,; Benoît JONVEAUX,; Laura MARIE,; Emmanuelle MONAT,; Jules PORTE,; Meghann PULOC’H
  175. Empowerment of social norms on water consumption By Pauline Pedehour; Lionel Richefort
  176. Footsie, Yeah! Share Prices and Worker Wellbeing By Bryson, Alex; Clark, Andrew E.; Green, Colin P.
  177. Prosociality Predicts Individual Behavior and Collective Outcomes in the COVID-19 Pandemic By Ximeng Fang; Timo Freyer; Chui Yee Ho; Zihua Chen; Lorenz Goette
  178. El impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 sobre la vulnerabilidad financiera de las empresas españolas By Roberto Blanco; Sergio Mayordomo; Álvaro Menéndez; Maristela Mulino
  179. Dynamic Games in Empirical Industrial Organization By Victor Aguirregabiria; Allan Collard-Wexler; Stephen P. Ryan
  180. The critical role of the State in the emergence and scaling-up process of social innovation networks By Céline Merlin-Brogniart; Christine Liefooghe; Miklós Rosta; Márton Katona
  181. Evaluating food policy options in Bangladesh: Analysis of costs, benefits, and tradeoffs between targeted distribution versus public agricultural and infrastructure investments By Dorosh, Paul A.; Thurlow, James; Pradesha, Angga; Raihan, Selim
  182. Ery Silvana Siregar By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
  183. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Growth, Schooling, Productivity, and Savings: A Cross-Country Study By Tansel, Aysit; Öztürk, Ceyhan; Erdil, Erkan
  184. New Plant Engineering Techniques, R&D Investment, and International Trade By Marette, Stéphan (Paris-Saclay); Disdier, Anne-Célia (PSE); Bodnar, Anastasia (USDA OCE); Beghin, John C (UNL)
  185. Troll Farms and Voter Disinformation By Denter, Philipp; Ginzburg, Boris
  186. Parameter recovery in two-component contamination mixtures: the L2 strategy By Sébastien Gadat; Jonas Kahn; Clément Marteau; Cathy Maugis
  187. A $15 Federal Minimum Wage is Outside Historical Experience By Ian Fillmore
  188. Labor market experience and falling earnings inequality in Brazil: 1995–2012 By Ferreira, Francisco H G; Firpo, Sergio P; Messina, Julián
  189. The Great Transition: Kuznets Facts for Family-Economists By Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner; Ricardo Marto
  190. ANALISIS RISIKO LIKUIDITAS PADA PT. BANK NEGARA INDONESIA (PERSERO) TBK By Yanti, Putri; Putra, Yosep Eka
  191. Extrapolative bubbles and trading volume By Liao, Jingchi; Peng, Cameron; Zhu, Ning
  192. ICT dynamics for gender inclusive intermediary education: minimum poverty and inequality thresholds in developing countries By Simplice A. Asongu; Mouna Amari; Anis Jarboui; Khaireddine Mouakhar
  193. Safeguard Measures and U.S. Beef Exports to Japan By Muhammad, Andrew; Griffith, Andrew P.; Martinez, Charles C.; Thompson, Jada
  194. Tele-health in theory versus practice: A comparative look at the United States and Singapore By Pereira, Francis; Fife, Elizabeth
  195. What Can Stockouts Tell Us About Inflation? Evidence from Online Micro Data By Alberto Cavallo; Oleksiy Kryvtsov
  196. Representations of the Forest Sector in Economic Models By Miguel Riviere; Sylvain Caurla
  197. Can Economic Experiments Contribute to a More Effective CAP? By Marianne Lefebvre; Jesus Barreiro-Hurlé; Ciaran Blanchflower; Liesbeth Colen; Laure Kuhfuss; Jens Rommel; Tanja Šumrada; Fabian Thomas; Sophie Thoyer
  198. The Economic Attainment of Mexican Refugees during the Age of Mass Migration By Catron, Peter; Loria, Maria Vignau
  199. The Early Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Labour Market Outcomes of Natives and Migrants in the UK By Morando, Greta
  200. Who develops AI-related innovations, goods and services?: A firm-level analysis By Hélène Dernis; Laurent Moussiegt; Daisuke Nawa; Mariagrazia Squicciarini
  201. Ronal Dison By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
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  407. Impacto de ganancias potenciales de traslado sobre decisión de cambio de régimen pensional en Colombia By Fabián Mauricio Rincón Jaimes
  408. Rice fortification in Bangladesh: Technical feasibility and regulatory requirement for introducing rice fortification in public modern storage/distribution of fortified rice through PFDS channels By Andrade, Juan E.; Ali, Abu Noman Mohammed Atahar; Chowdhury, Reajul; Crost, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Vivian; Mustafa, Shoumi; Shaima, Nabila Afrin
  409. Diagnostic study of the Food Planning and Monitoring Unit (FPMU) in Bangladesh: Current structure, output, and analytical capacity (human and logistical) By Dorosh, Paul A.; Ali, Shawkat; Bin Khaled, Muhammad Nahian; Mustafa, Shoumi
  410. Stability of the Weak Martingale Optimal Transport Problem By Mathias Beiglb\"ock; Benjamin Jourdain; William Margheriti; Gudmund Pammer
  411. Pricing Indefinitely Lived Assets: Experimental Evidence By John Duffy; Janet Hua Jiang; Huan Xie
  412. Statistical Supplement to Household Food Security in the United States in 2020 By Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P.; Gregory, Christian A.; Singh, Anita
  413. Student Employment and Education: A Meta-Analysis By Kroupova, Katerina; Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana
  414. Advancing the Water Footprint into an Instrument to Support Achieving the SDGs – Recommendations from the “Water as a Global Resources” Research Initiative (GRoW) By Berger, Markus; Campos, Jazmin; Carolli, Mauro; Dantas, Ianna; Forin, Silvia; Kosatica, Ervin; Kramer, Annika; Mikosch, Natalia; Nouri, Hamideh; Schlattmann, Anna; Schmidt, Falk; Schomberg, Anna; Semmling, Elsa
  415. Trends in regulating online platforms worldwide: international experience By Girich Maria; Levashenko Antonina; Valamat-Zade A.; Magomedov Rustam
  416. Housing-Price Prediction in Colombia using Machine Learning By Otero Gomez, Daniel; MANRIQUE, MIGUEL ANGEL CORREA; Sierra, Omar Becerra; Laniado, Henry; Mateus C, Rafael; Millan, David Andres Romero
  417. Optimal stocks for public foodgrain storage in Bangladesh: An assessment of required storage volumes and corresponding investment needs By Dorosh, Paul A.
  418. Expected neediness and the formation of mutual support arrangements: Evidence from the Philippines By Lenel, Friederike
  419. The Mortgage Cash Flow Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission: A Tale of Two Countries By Daniel H. Cooper; Vaishali Garga; Maria Jose Luengo-Prado
  420. Partial utilitarianism By Eric Danan
  421. Pengaruh Kompetensi, Disiplin Kerja dan Lingkungan Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Pada UD. Sumber Ayem Kediri By Febrianningtiyas, Putri
  422. Mixed Fortunes: Prices paid to soybean farmers have improved in 2021…but not those to maize farmers By Baulch, Bob; Jolex, Aubrey
  423. Optimal Lockdown Strategy in a Pandemic: An Exploratory Analysis for Covid-19 By Gopal K. Basak; Chandramauli Chakraborty; Pranab Kumar Das
  424. Asymmetric monetary policy rules for the euro area and the US By Maih, Junior; Mazelis, Falk; Motto, Roberto; Ristiniemi, Annukka
  425. Student Employment and Education: A Meta-Analysis By Kroupova, Katerina; Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana
  426. Solid Domestic Waste classification using Image Processing and Machine Learning By Otero Gomez, Daniel; Toro, Mauricio
  427. Construcción de una Matriz de Contabilidad Social para Argentina para el Año 2018 By Onil Banerjee; Martín Cicowiez
  428. Monetary Policy is not about Interest Rates; the Liquidity Effect and the Fisher Effect By Greenwood, John
  429. Income inequality and mobility in geometric Brownian motion with stochastic resetting: theoretical results and empirical evidence of non-ergodicity By Viktor Stojkoski; Petar Jolakoski; Arnab Pal; Trifce Sandev; Ljupco Kocarev; Ralf Metzler
  430. Guess What …?—How Guessed Norms Nudge Climate-Friendly Food Choices in Real-Life Settings By Griesoph, Amelie; Hoffmann, Stefan; Merk, Christine; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich
  431. Shadow Banks and the Collateral Multiplier By Thomas R. Michl; Hyun Woong Park
  432. Employment changes during the COVID-19-pandemic and mental health: Evidence from a longitudinal study By Reme, Bjørn-Atle; Wörn, Jonathan; Skirbekk, Vegard
  433. Leapfrogging the Melting Pot? European Immigrants’ Intergenerational Mobility Across the 20th Century By Kendal Lowrey; Jennifer Van Hook; James D. Bachmeier; Thomas B. Foster
  434. The industrial production dynamic in 2020 By Kaukin Andrey; Miller Evgenia; Turuntseva Marina
  435. Du BoP dans le beat , une analyse des transformations numériques dans la musique By Robin Charbonnier; Pierre Poinsignon; Thomas Paris
  436. La reforma del marco de gobernanza de la política fiscal de la Unión Europea en un nuevo entorno macroeconómico By Mario Alloza; Javier Andrés; Pablo Burriel; Iván Kataryniuk; Javier J. Pérez; Juan Luis Vega
  437. Contest Design with Threshold Objectives By Edith Elkind; Abheek Ghosh; Paul Goldberg
  438. A consumption-investment model with state-dependent lower bound constraint on consumption By Chonghu Guan; Zuo Quan Xu; Fahuai Yi
  439. An axiomatization of $\Lambda$-quantiles By Fabio Bellini; Ilaria Peri
  440. Did the first Covid-19 national lockdown lead to an increase in domestic abuse in London? By Chelsea Gray; Kirstine Hansen
  441. Serious Games und Gamifizierung: Mehr als nur ein Spiel By Büchel, Jan
  442. Shallow Meritocracy: An Experiment on Fairness Views By Peter Andre
  443. The cost channel of monetary policy: the case of the United States in the period 1959-2018 By Maria Chiara Cucciniello; Matteo Deleidi; Enrico Sergio Levrero
  444. Tariftreue und Vergabe - Mindestlohn in Thüringen By Schulten, Thorsten
  445. Asset encumbrance and bank risk: theory and first evidence from public disclosures in Europe By Albert Banal-Estañol; Enrique Benito; Dmitry Khametshin; Jianxing Wei
  446. On the pro-competitive effects of passive partial backward ownership By Alipranti, Maria; Petrakis, Emmanuel; Skartados, Panagiotis
  447. What asylum and refugee policies do Europeans want? Evidence from a cross-national conjoint experiment By Jeannet, Anne-Marie; Heidland, Tobias; Ruhs, Martin
  448. Fiscal Incidence, Inequality and Poverty in Kenya: A CEQ Assessment By Damiano Kulundu Manda; Reuben Mutegi; Samuel Kipruto; Moses Muriithi; Paul Samoei; Martine Oleche; Germano Mwabu; Stephen D. Younger; Anda David
  449. Why Minimum Corporate Income Taxation Can Make the High-Tax Countries Worse off: the Compliance Dilemma By Hindriks, Jean; Nishimura, Yukihiro
  450. ANALISIS LOAN TO DEPOSIT RATIO (LDR) DAN NON PERFORMING LOAN (NPL) PADA PT. BANK NEGARA INDONESIA 1946 (Persero) Tbk. By Fitri, Yolanda Tri Marta; fernos, jhon
  451. A Theory of the Global Financial Cycle By J. Scott Davis; Eric Van Wincoop
  452. Análisis de Precios Hedónicos para Airbnb en la CDMX By Diego Alberto López Tamayo; Aurora A. Ramírez-Álvarez
  453. Risk Measurement, Risk Entropy, and Autonomous Driving Risk Modeling By Jiamin Yu
  454. Water infrastructure planning for the uncertain future in Latin America By David Groves; Michelle Miro; James Syme; Alejandro Becerra-Ornelas; Edmundo Molina-Perez; Valentina Saavedra Gómez; Adrien Vogt-Schilb
  455. Interdependence Between States and Economies By Maxime Delabarre
  456. Desempeño educativo de los estudiantes en Argentina: Una mirada a la desigualdad de oportunidades del sistema educativo a partir de su medición y descomposición By Monserrat Serio
  457. Comportement des ménages Brésiliens face à la COVID-19 By Pascale Phélinas; Camille Ciriez
  458. Designing Smart Specialization Policy: relatedness, unrelatedness, or what? By Ron Boschma; ;
  459. Efficiency Frontier of World MNOs: Multinational vs Domestic By Bielov, Constantine; Mitomo, Hitoshi; Hämmäinen, Heikki
  460. Discounting Behavior in Problem Gambling By Ring, Patrick; Probst, Catharina C.; Neyse, Levent; Wolff, Stephan; Kaernbach, Christian; van Eimeren, Thilo; Schmidt, Ulrich
  461. The Impact of Immigration on Workers’ Protection By Adam Levai; Riccardo Turati
  462. Chasing the Other 'Populist Zeitgeist'? Mainstream Parties and the Rise of Right-Wing Populism By Bayerlein, Michael
  463. Ridits right, left, center, native and foreign By Roger Newson
  464. ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI TINGKAT PENGEMBALIAN KREDIT USAHA RAKYAT (KUR) PADA PT. BANK PEMBANGUNAN DAERAH (BPD) SUMATERA BARAT CABANG PAINAN By Anjeli, Dwi; fernos, jhon
  465. Environmental convergence and environmental Kuznets curve: A unified empirical framework By Laté Lawson; Roberto Martino; Phu Nguyen-Van
  466. The Labour Market Impact of COVID-19 Lockdowns: Evidence from Ghana By Schotte, Simone; Danquah, Michael; Osei, Robert; Sen, Kunal
  467. Integrating R Machine Learning Algorithms in Stata using rcall: A Tutorial By Ebad F. Haghish
  468. A Framework for Using Value-Added in Regressions By Antoine Deeb
  469. Hidden hunger: Understanding dietary adequacy in urban and rural food consumption in Senegal By Marivoet, Wim; Ulimwengu, John M.; Sall, Leysa M.; Gueye, Adama; Savadogo, Kimseyinga; Dia, Khadim
  470. The Prerequisites for Increasing the R&D Activity of Companies in Finland By Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki; Halme, Kimmo; Deschryvere, Matthias; Lehenkari, Janne; Piirainen, Kalle; Suominen, Arho
  471. “Unlawful Bribes?”: A documentary analysis showing British American Tobacco’s use of payments to secure policy and competitive advantage in Africa By Jackson, Rachel R; Rowell, Andrew; Gilmore, Anna B PhD
  472. Fourier DF unit root test for R&D intensity of G7 countries. By Yifei Cai; Jamel Saadaoui
  473. The casual effect of fertility: The multiple problems with instrumental variables for the number of children in families By Öberg, Stefan
  474. Blockchain mining in pools: Analyzing the trade-off between profitability and ruin By Hansjörg Albrecher; Dina Finger; Pierre-Olivier Goffard
  475. ECB euro liquidity lines By Silvia Albrizio; Iván Kataryniuk; Luis Molina; Jan Schäfer
  476. Small Business Pulse Survey Estimates by Owner Characteristics and Rural/Urban Designation By Catherine Buffington; Daniel Chapman; Emin Dinlersoz; Lucia Foster; James Hunt; Shawn Klimek
  477. Employer Association in Italy. Trends and Economic Outcomes By Bernardo Fanfani; Claudio Lucifora; Daria Vigani
  478. Information Payoffs: An Interim Perspective By Laura Doval; Alex Smolin
  479. Temporal Risk Resolution: Utility versus Probability Weighting Approaches By Mohammed Abdellaoui; Enrico Diecidue; Emmanuel Kemel; Ayse Onculer
  480. Monetary and fiscal complementarity in the Covid-19 pandemic By Chadha, Jagjit S.; Corrado, Luisa; Meaning, Jack; Schuler, Tobias
  481. THE TRANSFORMATION OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AT THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM DURING THE 1960S By Juan Acosta; Beatrice Cherrier
  482. Amir Hamzah By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
  483. Edy Erianto By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
  484. ゴーイング・コンサーン開示が従業員のリストラに与える影響, The effect of management going concern disclosure on employee downsizing By 日下, 勇歩; Kusaka, Yuho
  485. Lily Purnama By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
  486. Using solar panels for business purposes: Evidence based on high-frequency power usage data By Weisser, Christoph; Lenel, Friederike; Lu, Yao; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Kneib, Thomas
  487. Central Banks' Intervention in Exchange Rate Markets During the "Classical" Gold Standard: Italy 1880-1913 By Paolo Di Martino
  488. To test or not to test? Risk attitudes and prescribing by French GPs By Emmanuel Kemel; Antoine Nebout; Bruno Ventelou
  489. A green fiscal pact- climate investment in times of budget consolidation By Zsolt Darvas; Guntram B. Wolff
  490. An Analysis of the Effects of Government Spending on the Income Distribution of Chilean Households By Nicolás Garrido; Jeffrey Morales
  491. El efecto de las pensiones no contributivas sobre el bienestar subjetivo de los adultos mayores en México By Laura Juárez; Yunuen Nicte Rodríguez Piña
  492. Some Reflections on Financial Instability in Macro Agents-Based Models. Genealogy and objectives 1 By Muriel Dal-Pont Legrand
  493. Exploring women’s empowerment using a mixed methods approach By Doss, Cheryl; Rubin, Deborah
  494. Pandemic Policy and Life Satisfaction in Europe By Clark, Andrew E; Lepinteur, Anthony
  495. Public sector foodgrain storage losses in Bangladesh: An assessment of current losses and the identification of solutions to reduce them By Rashid, Shahidur; Kabir, Razin
  496. The Legacies of the Soviet Influence in the 1950s: China's 156 Major Industrial Projects By Jin, Zhangfeng
  497. Transform MCMC schemes for sampling intractable factor copula models By Cyril Bénézet; Emmanuel Gobet; Rodrigo Targino
  498. What are the Poverty and Inequality Impacts of Fiscal Policy in Turkey? By P. Facundo Cuevas; Leonardo Lucchetti; Metin Nebiler
  499. Moment Matching Method for Pricing Spread Options with Mean-Variance Mixture L\'evy Motions By Dongdong Hu; Hasanjan Sayit; Svetlozar T. Rachev
  500. Social Downgrading on Consumer Values and Practices: A Transgenerational Perspective By Maria Mercanti-Guérin
  501. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on academic productivity By Andrew R. Casey; Ilya Mandel; Prasun K. Ray
  502. The Backlash of Globalization By Italo Colantone; Gianmarco Ottaviano; Piero Stanig
  503. Geographic Difference-in-Discontinuities By Kyle Butts
  504. Reaping the Rewards Later: How Education Improves Old-Age Cognition in South Africa By Plamen Nikolov; Steve Yeh
  505. The role of intermediaries to facilitate water-related investment By Anne Lardoux de Pazzis; Amandine Muret
  506. Uncertainty shocks and employment fluctuations in Germany: the role of establishment size By Tim Kovalenko
  507. Wage and Employment Cyclicalities at the Establishment Level By Christian Merkl; Heiko Stüber
  508. Adoption of fintech services: role of saving and borrowing mechanisms By Babak Naysary; Ruth Tacneng; Amine Tarazi
  509. The Effects of Trade on the Gender Gaps: A Model-based Quantitative Investigation By SASAHARA Akira; MORI Hiroaki
  510. External Fraud Risk Management seen from Luhmann’s Systemic Perspective and a Tentative Reading of Healthcare Insurance Companies’ Measures through this Perspective By Emmanuel Laffort; Nicolas Dufourg
  511. On the Benefits of Repaying By Francesca Caselli; Matilde Faralli; Paolo Manasse; Ugo Panizza
  512. ANALISIS PEMBERIAN KREDIT PADA PT.BANK PERKREDITAN RAKYAT SAMUDERA PAINAN By Susanti, Dian; Susanto, Romi
  513. The Structural Outcomes of Investment Surges By Mateo Hoyos; Emiliano Libman; Arslan Razmi
  514. Establishment Size Distributions in the Synthetic LBD By Illenin Kondo; Logan T. Lewis; Andrea Stella
  515. Monetary Policy in in Russia in 2020 By Bozhechkova Alexandra; Trunin Pavel
  516. The Role of the Department of Veterans Affairs in the Single-Family Mortgage Market By Congressional Budget Office
  517. From mission definition to implementation: Conceptualizing mission-oriented policies as a multi-stage translation process By Wittmann, Florian; Hufnagl, Miriam; Roth, Florian; Yorulmaz, Merve; Lindner, Ralf
  518. The multilayer architecture of the global input-output network and its properties By Rosanna Grassi; Paolo Bartesaghi; Gian Paolo Clemente; Duc Thi Luu
  519. Radiografía del Trabajo Argentino By Eduardo Levy Yeyati; Federico Favata; Martín Montané; Daniel Schteingart
  520. Distinguishing intergroup and long-distance relationships By Pisor, Anne; Ross, Cody T.
  521. Industrialization and human resources training: an approach of policies coordination By Saúl Mendoza-Palacios; Julen Berasaluce; Alfonso Mercado
  522. Blockchain technology and crypto-assets market analysis: vulnerabilities and risk assessment By Jean-Guillaume Dumas; Sonia Jimenez-Garcès; Florentina Șoiman
  523. LOOKING FOR TRUST: The weak accumulation in Greece during the 19th century By Nicos Christodoulakis
  524. Narratives in economics By Michael Roos; Matthias Reccius
  525. Essays in the economics of education By Fiala, Lenka
  526. The economic impact of weather and climate By Richard S.J. Tol
  527. Public property management in Russia in 2020 By Malginov Georgiy; Radygin Alexandr
  528. Evi Hardiyanti Simamora By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
  529. Housing Yields By Stefano Colonnello; Roberto Marfè; Qizhou Xiong
  530. Reducing uncertainty in price regulation for fibre-based, open-access platforms By Beltrán, Fernando
  531. ANALISIS LOAN TO DEPOSIT RATIO DAN NON PERFORMING LOAN PADA PT. BANK PERKREDITAN RAKYAT GEMA PESISIR AIR HAJI PESISIR SELATAN By Oktaldi, Indra; fernos, jhon
  532. Moment generating function of non-Markov self-excited claims processes By Hainaut, Donatien
  533. Covid-19 and the Employment Gender Gap By Yamaguchi Shintaro; Daiji Kawaguchi
  534. Mangelhafte Umsetzung des Rechts auf inklusive Bildung: Bundesländer verstoßen gegen Artikel 24 der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention By Helbig, Marcel; Steinmetz, Sebastian; Wrase, Michael; Döttinger, Ina
  535. Waste Valorisation: Between the Private Interest and the Social Benefit By Luisa Fernanda Tovar Cortés
  536. Maastricht University Graduate Surveys 2021 By Aarts, Bas; Künn, Annemarie
  537. A Sentiment Analysis Model of a Civil Service Performance Evaluation Using a Feminist Framework By Cao, Shurui
  538. Homeowner Subsidies and Suburban Living: Empirical Evidence from a Subsidy Repeal By Alexander Daminger
  539. From the historical Roman road network to modern infrastructure in Italy By L. DeBenedictis; V. Licio; AM. Pinna
  540. A Behavioural Model of Investment Appraisal and its Implications for the Macroeconomy By Michelle Baddeley; Geoff Harcourt
  541. Structural Change Ramifications of Consumer Credit Expansion in a Two Sector Growth Model By Esra Nur Ugurlu
  542. Impact of model parametrization and formulation on the explorative power of electricity network congestion management models By Hobbie, Hannes; Mehlem, Jonas; Wolff, Christina; Weber, Lukas; Flachsbarth, Franziska; Möst, Dominik; Moser, Albert
  543. ANALISIS LIKUIDITAS DAN PROFITABILITAS PT. BANK PERKREDITAN RAKYAT LENGAYANG By Rahmadani, Suci; Putra, Yosep Eka
  544. Positive Stochastic Collocation for the Collocated Local Volatility Model By Fabien Le Floc'h; Cornelis W. Oosterlee
  545. Alternative Approaches to Adjusting Military Cash Pay By Congressional Budget Office
  546. Rice price stabilization in Bangladesh: Assessing the impact of public farm-gate and consumer price stabilization policy instruments on the overall grain market and developing policy orientations with a greater role for the private sector By Minot, Nicholas; Hossain, Shahadat; Kabir, Razin; Dorosh, Paul A.; Rashid, Shahidur
  547. The impact of preemptive investment on natural disasters By Jhorland Ayala-García; Sandy Dall’Erba
  548. ANALISIS LAPORAN KEUANGAN BERDASARKAN TINGKAT RENTABILITAS PADA PT. BANK PERKREDITAN RAKYAT (BPR) BATANG KAPAS By Fauziah, Rahmatil; Afriyeni, Afriyeni
  549. Future Photovoltaic Electricity Production Targets and The Link to Consumption per Capita on The Policy Level in MENA Region By Mostafa Abdelrashied; Dikshita Bhattacharya
  550. Anticompetitive Vertical Merger Waves By Johan Hombert; Jérôme Pouyet; Nicolas Schutz
  551. Shipbuilding policy and market developments in selected economies By Laurent Daniel; Changhoon Lee; Judith Spieth
  552. Staying afloat in the milk business: Borrowing and selling on credit among informal milk vendors in Nairobi By Myers, Emily; Heckert, Jessica; Galiè, Alessandra; Njiru, Nelly; Alonso, Silvia
  553. Maternal depression and child human capital: A genetic instrumental-variable approach By Menta, Giorgia; Lepinteur, Anthony; Clark, Andrew E.; Ghislandi, Simone; D’Ambrosio, Conchita
  554. Demographic Change and Economic Growth in India By Jain, Neha; Goli, Srinivas
  555. Information Technology and Gender Economic Inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Joseph Amankwah†Amoah; Rexon T. Nting; Godfred A. Afrifa
  556. A new long-step interior point algorithm for linear programming based on the algebraic equivalent transformation By E. Nagy, Marianna; Varga, Anita
  557. Two-step actuarial valuations By Karim Barigou; Daniël Linders; Fan Yang
  558. Natural Disasters and Firm Selection: Heterogeneous Effects of Flooding Events on Manufacturing Sectors in Japan By Jun Yoshida; Shinsuke Uchida; Katsuhito Nohara; Akira Hibiki
  559. Identifying the Main Factors of Iran's Economic Growth using Growth Accounting Framework By Mohammadreza Mahmoudi
  560. Making profits by leading retailers in the digital transition: A comparative analysis of Carrefour, Amazon and Wal-Mart (1996-2019) By Céline Baud; Cédric Durand
  561. Permanent-Transitory decomposition of cointegrated time series via Dynamic Factor Models, with an application to commodity prices By Chiara Casoli; Riccardo (Jack) Lucchetti
  562. Economía Evolutiva By José Romero
  563. Developing Content for the Management and Organizational Practices Survey-Hospitals (MOPS-HP) By Alice Zawacki; Scott Ohlmacher; Struther Van Horn
  564. Fitri Aprilia By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
  565. A review of evidence on gender equality, women’s empowerment, and food systems By Njuki, Jemimah; Eissler, Sarah; Malapit, Hazel J.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Bryan, Elizabeth; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  566. Sectorial holdings and stock prices: the household-bank nexus By Matías Lamas; David Martínez-Miera
  567. REPRODUCTIVE BURDEN AND ITS IMPACT ON FEMALE LABOUR MARKET OUTCOMES IN INDIA: EVIDENCE FROM LONGITUDINAL ANALYSES By Tiwari, Chhavi; Goli, Srinivas; Rammohan, Anu
  568. Los efectos del fin del conflicto armado con las FARC sobre la participación política regional en Colombia By Emilio Leguízamo Londoño
  569. The multiplier effect of convertible local currencies : case study on two French schemes By Oriane Lafuente-Sampietro
  570. The People's Vaccine: Intellectual Property, Access to Essential Medicines, and the Coronavirus COVID-19 By Rimmer, Matthew
  571. Infinite utility: counterparts and ultimate locations By Adam Jonsson
  572. Retractions in academic publishing - Wikipedia By Nguyen, Minh-Hoang
  573. Semi-parametric estimation of the EASI model: Welfare implications of taxes identifying clusters due to unobserved preference heterogeneity By Andr\'es Ram\'irez-Hassan; Alejandro L\'opez-Vera
  574. Помогают ли высокочастотные данные в прогнозировании российской инфляции? By Tretyakov, Dmitriy; Fokin, Nikita
  575. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Cereal Value Chain in Ethiopia By Mikhail Miklyaev; Richard Barichello; Katarzyna Pankowska
  576. Why it takes a village to manage and share data By Christine L. Borgman; Philip E. Bourne
  577. Propuestas para el análisis espacial de miniciudades en Centroamérica: más allá del espacio visible By Sabrine Acosta Schnell
  578. Shallow Meritocracy: An Experiment on Fairness Views By Peter Andre
  579. The Effects of Compulsory Club Activities at Junior High School on Skills and Outcomes (Japanese) By YASUI Kengo; SANO Shinpei; KUME Koichi; TSURU Kotaro
  580. Saut Parlindungan Sinaga By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
  581. Monetary and macroprudential policy: The multiplier effects of cooperation. By Federico Bassi; Andrea Boitani
  582. Understanding the emergence of drawing behaviour with age: a multi-metric analysis By Martinet, LIson; Sueur, Cédric; Beltzung, Benjamin; Pelé, Marie
  583. Does political polarization affect economic expectations?: Evidence from three decades of cabinet shifts in Europe By Luis Guirola
  584. Useful results for the simulation of non-optimal economies with heterogeneous agents By Pierri, Damian Rene
  585. Labor Associations: The Blue Wall of Silence By David K Levine; Andrea Mattozzi; Salvatore Modica
  586. Agricultural input markets in Ghana: A descriptive assessment of input dealers in eight districts By Asante, Seth; Andam, Kwaw S.; Simons, Andrew M.; Amprofi, Felicia Ansah; Osei-Assibey, Ernest; Iddrisu, Adisatu; Blohowiak, Samuel
  587. FINANCIAL DATA SECURITY IN CLOUD COMPUTING By Hariharan, Naveen Kunnathuvalappil
  588. Ismail Marzuki Siregar By PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
  589. Efecto de la banda ancha sobre el valor agregado en los municipios de Colombia By José Santiago Gómez Medina
  590. The Financial Drivers of Populism in Europe By Luigi Guiso; Massimo Morelli; Tommaso Sonno; Helios Herrera
  591. The Stata module for CUB models for rating data analysis By G. Cerulli; R. Simone; F. Di Iorio; D. Piccolo; C.F. Baum
  592. The Hellenic Parliament«s use of digital media in its 2019 Turkey-Libya Memorandum of Understanding on maritime boundaries in the Mediterranean Sea: a preliminary assessment By Fotios Fitsilis; Stelios Stavridis
  593. Temps difficiles pour les pays en développement : le financement des besoins de l’Afrique en question By Bertrand SAVOYE; Maxime TERRIEUX; Cécile VALADIER; Sylvain BELLEFONTAINE,; Cécile DUQUESNAY,; Marion HEMAR,; Benoît JONVEAUX,; Laura MARIE,; Emmanuelle MONAT,; Jules PORTE,; Meghann PULOC’H
  594. The Rushin Index: A Weekly Indicator of Czech Economic Activity By Tomas Adam; Ondrej Michalek; Ales Michl; Eva Slezakova
  595. How Did the MSLP Borrowers Fare Before and During COVID-19? By Joshua Ballance; Melanie Qing; J. Christina Wang
  596. Policy Optimization Using Semiparametric Models for Dynamic Pricing By Jianqing Fan; Yongyi Guo; Mengxin Yu
  597. The Economic Impact of Mobile Broadband Speed By Edquist, Harald
  598. Industry evidence and the vanishing cyclicality of labor productivity. By Zuzana Molnarova
  599. Goodwin, Baumol & Lewis: How structural change can lead to inequality and stagnation By Codrina Rada, Ansel Schiavone, Rudiger von Arnim
  600. Empirical Analysis of Work Engagement for Regular Employees in Japan (Japanese) By KUME Koichi; TSURU Kotaro; SANO Shinpei; YASUI Kengo
  601. Russia’s Fiscal Policy in 2020 By Arlashkin Igor; Barbashova Natalia; Belev Sergey; Leonov Elisei; Deryugin Alexander; Sokolov Ilya; Tishchenko Tatiana
  602. Using Satellite Imagery and Machine Learning to Estimate the Livelihood Impact of Electricity Access By Nathan Ratledge; Gabe Cadamuro; Brandon de la Cuesta; Matthieu Stigler; Marshall Burke
  603. Is the click and collect model the future of food retailers? An analysis of consumer behaviour and expectations in terms of marketing and logistics service rates By Olivier Mevel; Thierry Morvan; Nélida Morvan
  604. The causal impact of removing children from abusive and neglectful homes By Anthony Bald; Eric Chyn; Justine Hastings; Margarita Machelett
  605. Social Aspects of COVID Mitigation By Shockey, James W
  606. Project Aid and Firm Performance By Marchesi, Silvia; Masi, Tania; Paul, Saumik
  607. Entrepreneurial Migration By Bryan, Kevin; Guzman, Jorge
  608. Pengaruh Shift Kerja, Pengalaman Kerja Dan Lingkungan Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Bagian Produksi PT. Alasindo Perdana Sakti By , Damayanti
  609. Bias-Adjusted Treatment Effects Under Equal Selection By Deepankar Basu
  610. JUBILEE: Secure Debt Relief and Forgiveness By David Cerezo S\'anchez
  611. Qualifiziert für die Zukunft? Zur Pluralität der wirtschaftsjournalistischen Ausbildung in Deutschland By Sagvosdkin, Valentin
  612. model kerjasama sister city By Renaldi, Muhammad Andrian
  613. What Can the U.S. Learn from Its Covid-19 Response? By Pierre, Patrice Jude
  614. The Impact of the Minimum Wage Increase on Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from Japan By SATO Kazuma
  615. Incomes and the poverty line of the population By Grishina Elena; Lyashok Viktor; Makarentseva Alla; Maleva Tatiana; Mkrtchian Nikita; Florinskaya Yulia; Khasanova Ramilya; Burdyak Alexandra
  616. Representation Is Not Sufficient For Selecting Gender Diversity By Justus Baron; Bernhard Ganglmair; Nicola Persico; Timothy Simcoe; Emanuele Tarantino
  617. Measuring natural source dependence By Cédric Gutierrez; Emmanuel Kemel
  618. Pathways toward Inclusive Income Growth: A Comparative Decomposition of National Growth Profiles By Parolin, Zachary; Gornick, Janet C.
  619. ANALISIS PENGELOLAAN KREDIT PADA PT. BANK PERKREDITAN RAKYAT GANTO NAGARI 1954 LUBUK ALUNG KABUPATEN PADANG PARIAMAN By Dewi, Intan Puspita; fernos, jhon
  620. Nonparametric inference for extremal conditional quantiles By Daisuke Kurisu; Taisuke Otsu
  621. COVID-19 epidemic and generational welfare By Francesco Giuli; Giuseppe Ciccarone; Enrico Marchetti
  622. Supporting Egypt’s safety net programs for better nutrition and food security, inclusiveness, and effectiveness By CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
  623. Dating business cycles in France: A reference chronology. By Antonin Aviat; Frédérique Bec; Claude Diebolt; Catherine Doz; Denis Ferrand; Laurent Ferrara; Eric Heyer; Valérie Mignon; Pierre-Alain Pionnier
  624. Productivity Dispersion, Entry, and Growth in U.S. Manufacturing Industries By Cindy Cunningham; Lucia Foster; Cheryl Grim; John Haltiwanger; Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia; Jay Stewart; Zoltan Wolf
  625. Drivers of Participation Elasticities across Europe: Gender or Earner Role within the Household? By Charlotte Bartels; Cortnie Shupe
  626. The right to health and the health effects of denials By Sonia Bhalotra; Manuel Fernández
  627. Resource curse - Wikipedia By Nguyen, Minh-Hoang
  628. Competition and Mergers with Strategic Data Intermediaries By David Bounie; Antoine Dubus; Patrick Waelbroeck
  629. The impact of COVID-19 on directions and structure of international trade By Christine Arriola; Przemyslaw Kowalski; Frank van Tongeren
  630. Payment Habits During COVID-19: Evidence from High-Frequency Transaction Data By Tatjana Dahlhaus; Angelika Welte
  631. Pelaksanaan Pemberian Kredit Pada Bank Nagari Sumatera Barat By , Reni; Widayati, Ratna
  632. Immigration and the Demand for Urban Housing By Miles M. Finney
  633. The Employment and Redistributive Effects of Reducing or Eliminating Minimum Wage Tip Credits By David Neumark; Maysen Yen
  634. On the meaning of the Critical Cost Efficiency Index By Federico Echenique
  635. Small and medium business amid coronacrisis By Barinova Vera; Zemtsov Tsepan; Tsareva Yulia
  636. How Collateral Affects Small Business Lending: The Role of Lender Specialization By Manasa Gopal
  637. The Importance of Highways to U.S. Agriculture By U.S. Department of Transportation, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service
  638. Improving recycling: How far should we go? By Belleflamme, Paul; Ha, Huan
  639. 法人格のない財団を講学上の信託とみなすべきとの学説に鑑みた際の任意の財団の設立時寄附行為の表現の一案 By Tahara, Hiroki
  640. [WTO Case Review Series No.37] Russia — Measures Affecting the Importation of Railway Equipment and Parts Thereof : Clarification of Framework for Applying TBT Article 5 (Japanese) By HEIKE Masahiro
  641. Latin America and the AIIB: interests and viewpoints By Mendez, Alvaro
  642. L’hétérogénéité des revenus des actifs non-salariés dans l’agriculture française : un regard au travers de deux grilles typologiques By Vincent Chatellier
  643. Favored Welfare Programs and Negative Externalities: The Effect of Subsidized Transportation for the Elderly on Demand and Wages for Taxi Services By HASHIMOTO Yuki; KOMAE Kazutomo
  644. Fair inheritance taxation By Decerf, Benoit; Maniquet, François
  645. Land for peace? Israel-Palestine through the lens of game theory By Amal Ahmad
  646. BDG inequalities for model-free continuous price paths with instant enforcement By Rafa{\l} M. {\L}ochowski
  647. Hintergründe und Entwicklung chinesischer Investitionen in Deutschland: Eine Analyse By Bian, Shuwen
  648. Estimating the Economic Impact of Large Hydropower Projects: A Dynamic Multi-regional Computable General Equilibrium Analysis By Hongzhen Ni; Jing Zhao; Xiujian Peng; Glyn Wittwer; Genfa Chena
  649. Win, Lose and Draw: Outcomes from the 2019 World Radio Conference By Frieden, Rob
  650. Evaluating integrated assessment models of global climate change - From philosophical aspects to practical examples By Schwanitz, Valeria Jana
  651. Trend inflation, asset prices and monetary policy By Kengo Nutahara
  652. Evaluating forecast performance with state dependence By Florens Odendahl; Barbara Rossi; Tatevik Sekhposyan
  653. Macrodoelmatigheid Bachelor in Circular Engineering (CE) Universiteit Maastricht By Cörvers, Frank; van Wetten, Sanne
  654. Propuesta de política industrial para México con base en tres sectores prioritarios By José Romero; Julen Berasaluce
  655. Mixed Modified Fractional Merton model of the bear spread Basket put option using the multidimensional Mellin transform By Eric Djeutcha; Jules Sadefo Kamdem; Louis Aimé Fono
  656. Does the gender mix influence collective bargaining on gender equality? Evidence from France By Anne-Sophie Bruno; Nathalie Greenan; Jeremy Tanguy
  657. What do we teach in Macroeconomics? Evidence of a theoretical divide By François Courtoy; Michel de Vroey; Riccardo Turati
  658. The challenging estimation of trade elasticities: Tackling the inconclusive Eurozone evidence By Sascha Keil
  659. A Database of Habitat Conservation Plans and Related Documents Developed Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act By Carter, Andrew; Malcom, Jacob; Harl, Heather
  660. Visions of the future – a socialist departure from gloom? By Peter Skott; Paul Auerbach
  661. Aktivitas Pemberian Kredit Usaha Pada PT. Bank Perkreditan Rakyat (BPR) Batang Tarusan By Yunita, Refni; Susanto, Romi
  662. Does the expansion of the service sector slow down productivity growth? An empirical assessment across eight developed economies By Adrián Rial
  663. Kinh tế Việt Nam: Thăng trầm và Đột phá By Lab, SDAG
  664. Risking the Future? Measuring Risk Attitudes towards Delayed Consequences By Emmanuel Kemel; Corina Paraschiv
  665. From He-Cession to She-Stimulus? The Labor Market Impact of Fiscal Policy Across Gender By Alica Ida Bonk; Laure Simon
  666. Наукастинг темпов роста стоимостных объемов экспорта и импорта по товарным группам By Maiorova, Ksenia; Fokin, Nikita
  667. Inference in the Nonparametric Stochastic Frontier Model By Parmeter, Christopher F.; Simar, Léopold; Van Keilegom, Ingrid; Zelenyuk, Valentin
  668. Semiparametric Estimation of Treatment Effects in Randomized Experiments By Susan Athey; Peter J. Bickel; Aiyou Chen; Guido W. Imbens; Michael Pollmann
  669. Konsep Ilmu Ekonomi By Isna, Rafika Nur
  670. Inequality and Female Labour Force Participation in West Africa By Chimere O. Iheonu; Ozoemena S. Nwodo; Uchechi S. Anaduaka; Ugochinyere Ekpo
  671. Marginalism, Egalitarianism and E ciency in Multi-Choice Games By David Lowing; Kevin Techer
  672. Wrapping trust for interoperability. A study of wrapped tokens By Giulio Caldarelli
  673. España | La evolución de la financiación de las CCAA de régimen común, 2002-2019 By Angel De la Fuente

  1. By: , Gustani
    Abstract: Buku ―Islamic Corporate Governance (I-CG) dan Islamic Corporate Social Responsibility (I-CSR) : Teori dan Praktik‖ ini merupakan hasil adopsi dari Tesis penulis pada program studi Magister Akuntansi Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung dengan judul ―Analisis Pengaruh Pengungkapan Islamic Corporate Governance (ICG) Dan Islamic Corporate Social Responsibility (ICSR) Terhadap Disiplin Pasar dengan Kinerja Keuangan Sebagai Variabel Intervening (Studi Empiris pada Bank Syariah di NegaraNegara QISMUT)‖. Buku ini terdiri dari 4 Bab, yang meliputi Bab 1 tentang Pendahuluan, Bab 2 tentang Islamic Corporate Governance (I-CG), Bab 3 tentang Islamic Corporate Social Responsibility (I-CSR), dan Bab 4 Studi Empiris: Pengaruh I-CG dan I-CSR Terhadap Disiplin Pasar Bank Syariah Di Negara – Negara QISMUT.
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:thesis:jszry&r=
  2. By: Christoph Albert; Albrecht Glitz; Joan Llull
    Abstract: In this paper, we show that the wage assimilation of immigrants is the result of the intricate interplay between individual skill accumulation and dynamic equilibrium effects in the labor market. When immigrants and natives are imperfect substitutes, increasing immigrant inflows widen the wage gap between them. Using a simple production function framework, we show that this labor market competition channel can explain about one quarter of the large increase in the average immigrant-native wage gap in the United States between the 1960s and 1990s arrival cohorts. Once competition effects and compositional changes in education and region of origin are accounted for, we find that the unobservable skills of newly arriving immigrants increased over time rather than decreased as traditionally argued in the literature. We corroborate this finding by documenting closely matching patterns for immigrants' English language proficiency.
    Keywords: Immigrant assimilation, labor market competition, cohort sizes, imperfect substitution, general and specific skills
    JEL: J21 J22 J31 J61
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:upf:upfgen:1799&r=
  3. By: Forth, John (Cass Business School); Theodoropoulos, Nikolaos (University of Cyprus); Bryson, Alex (University College London)
    Abstract: Using matched employer-employee data for Britain, we examine ethnic wage differentials among full-time employees. We find substantial ethnic segregation across workplaces: around three-fifths of workplaces in Britain employ no ethnic minority workers. However, this workplace segregation does not contribute to the aggregate wage gap between ethnic minorities and white employees. Instead, most of the ethnic wage gap exists between observationally equivalent co-workers. Lower pay satisfaction and higher levels of skill mismatch among ethnic minority workers are consistent with discrimination in wage-setting on the part of employers. The use of job evaluation schemes within the workplace is shown to be associated with a smaller ethnic wage gap.
    Keywords: ethnic wage gap, workplace segregation, skill mismatch, pay satisfaction, job evaluation
    JEL: J16 J31 M52 M54
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14697&r=
  4. By: Matthew Agarwala (Bennett Institute for Public Policy, University of Cambridge); Matt Burke (Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University); Patrycja Klusak (University of East Anglia); Kamiar Mohaddes (Judge Business School, University of Cambridge); Ulrich Volz (SOAS); Dimitri Zenghelis (Unviersity of Cambridge)
    Keywords: Sovereign debt, climate change, net zero, transition risk, productivity
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:anj:wpaper:008&r=
  5. By: Sana Rhoudri (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl); Lotfi Benazzou (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl)
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of deposit withdrawal behavior amongst profit-sharing deposit account holders. Based on the Push-Pull-Mooring theory, a qualitative study was conducted, with fifteen personal interviews undertaken with profit-sharing investment depositors selected from three participatory banks using a purposive sampling technique. Assessment of the predictive factors determining deposit withdrawal behavior resulted in three categories. The push factors were found to be, in order of decreasing frequency: (1) Sharia non-compliance risk, (2) lower rate of return, (3) deposit guarantee scheme and (4) customer relationship quality failure. The push factors were labeled as (a) conventional term deposit attractiveness, (b) conventional banks history and (c) number of branches. The mooring factors were found to be: (i) religiosity, (ii) switching costs, (iii) third party influence and (iv) involuntary switching factors. This study has limitations that should be considered for future research. First and foremost, all interviewees were selected by the banks' managers. Moreover, they were identified as individual depositors; thus, they displayed opinions, which may differ from those of corporate depositors. Despite the discussed limitations, the findings generated from this study have important implications for researchers, financial marketing managers as well as the policy makers and regulators. In terms of contribution to the body of knowledge, the study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of deposit withdrawal behavior in another context, that of Morocco, which has not yet been explored in the literature. In addition, the findings of this study are critical to financial marketing managers for strategic marketing programs as it stresses the importance of satisfaction dimensions within a dual banking system, as is the case in Morocco. Furthermore, this study provides great indications to the policy makers and regulators on the perception of the Moroccan investment account depositors, in order to develop policies that could improve the participatory banking system in Morocco.
    Keywords: Withdrawal Behavior,Switching Behavior,Profit-Sharing Investment Deposits,Participatory Banks,Push-Pull-Mooring Theory
    Date: 2021–07–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03328276&r=
  6. By: Alexandre Berthe (LIRIS - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en innovations sociétales - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes); Jacqueline Candau (UR ETBX - Environnement, territoires et infrastructures - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sylvie Ferrari (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Baptiste Hautdidier (UR ETBX - Environnement, territoires et infrastructures - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Vanessa Kuentz-Simonet (UR ETBX - Environnement, territoires et infrastructures - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Charlotte Scordia (UR ETBX - Environnement, territoires et infrastructures - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Frédéric Zahm (UR ETBX - Environnement, territoires et infrastructures - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: L'idée de ce chapitre vise à resituer ces principes de justice dans le champ de l'action publique relative à la protection de la qualité des ressources en eau. Il s'agit d'identifier les principes de justice implicites ou explicites des dispositifs de cette politique publique – donc une politique publique constituée – sans pouvoir affirmer qu'elle ait été explicitement fondée sur ces principes faute d'avoir eu accès aux témoignages des personnes l'ayant élaborée. Dans un premier temps, l'identification a été menée en analysant les textes législatifs européens et nationaux qui en définissent les principaux dispositifs (directive Nitrates et MAE). Elle montre que les principes de justice justifiant l'effort demandé aux agriculteurs varient en fonction de la façon dont le problème de la qualité de l'eau est défini. La traduction de ces principes sur deux territoires (le gave en amont de Pau dans les Pyrénées-Atlantiques et le Thouarsais au nordest des Deux-Sèvres) révèle, dans un deuxième temps, leur ambiguïté notamment lorsqu'ils sont mis en œuvre par les dispositifs de protection des captages dits prioritaires (tel que la zone soumise à contraintes environnementales – ZSCE). À partir d'une lecture en termes d'équité, nous étudions enfin les effets de tels dispositifs publics sur les agriculteurs et les usagers en questionnant notamment la répartition entre les agriculteurs de cet effort demandé et les populations qui en bénéficient. In fine, l'ambiguïté des principes de justice et l'inaccessible équité de leur mise en application amènent à interroger la base constitutive des communautés de justice désignées (agriculteurs, bénéficiaires, producteurs) comme focale heuristique de réflexion sur l'équité et l'efficacité d'une politique publique.
    Date: 2021–09–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03337042&r=
  7. By: Mustafa Coban (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nürnberg (DE))
    Abstract: This article describes a new Stata command rbprobit for fitting recursive bivariate probit models, which differ from bivariate probit models in allowing the first dependent variable to appear on the right-hand side of the second dependent variable. Although the estimation of model parameters does not differ from the bivariate case, the existing commands biprobit and cmp do not consider the structural model’s recursive nature for postestimation commands. rbprobit estimates the model parameters, computes treatment effects of the first dependent variable and gives the marginal effects of independent variables. In addition, marginal effects can be decomposed into direct and indirect effects if covariates appear in both equations. Moreover, the postestimation commands incorporate the two community-contributed goodness-of-fit tests scoregof and bphltest. Dependent variables of the recursive probit model may be binary, ordinal, or a mixture of both. I present and explain the rbprobit command and the available postestimation commands using data from the European Social Survey.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:20&r=
  8. By: Álvaro A. Gutiérrez-Vargas (Research Centre for Operations Research and Statistics, KU Leuven)
    Abstract: Specific econometric models - such as the Cox regression, conditional logistic regression, and panel-data models - have likelihood functions that do not meet the so-called linear-form requirement. That means that the model's overall log-likelihood function does not correspond to the sum of each observation's log-likelihood contribution. Stata's m1 command can fit said models using a particular group of evaluators: the d-family evaluators. Unfortunately, they have some limitations; one is that we cannot directly produce the score functions from the postestimation command predict. This missing feature triggers the need for tailored computational routines from developers that might need those functions to compute, for example, robust variance-covariance matrices. In this talk, I present a way to compute the score functions numerically using Mata's deriv() function with minimum extra programming other than the log-likelihood function. The procedure is exemplified by replicating the robust variance–covariance matrix produced by the clogit command using simulated data. The results show negligible numerical differences (e-09) between the clogit robust variance–covariance matrix and the numerically approximated one using Mata's deriv() function.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:13&r=
  9. By: Christopher F Baum (Boston College; DIW Berlin; CESIS); Miguel Henry (Greylock McKinnon Associates)
    Abstract: In an extension of the standard spatial autoregressive (SAR) model, Aquaro, Bailey and Pesaran (ABP, Journal of Applied Econometrics, 2021) introduced a SAR panel model that allows to produce heterogeneous point estimates for each spatial unit. Their methodology has been implemented as the Stata routine hetsar (Belotti, 2021). As the COVID-19 pandemic has evolved in the U.S. since its first outbreak in February 2020 with following resurgences of multiple widespread and severe waves of the pandemic, the level of interactions between geographic units (e.g., states and counties) have differed greatly over time in terms of the prevalence of the disease. Applying ABP’s HETSAR model to 2020 and 2021 COVID-19 data outcomes (confirmed case and death rates) at the state level, we extend our previous spatial econometric analysis (Baum and Henry, 2021) on socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the spatial spread of COVID-19 confirmed case and death rates in the U.S.A.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:18&r=
  10. By: Leandro Arozamena (Universidad Torcuato Di Tella / CONICET); Juan José Ganuza (Universitat Pompeu Fabra / Barcelona GSE); Federico Weinschelbaum (Universidad Torcuato Di Tella / CONICET)
    Abstract: In order to make competition open, fair and transparent, procurement regulations often require equal treatment for all bidders. This paper shows how a favorite supplier can be treated preferentially (opening the door to home bias and corruption) evenwhen explicit discrimination is not allowed. We analyze a procurement setting in which the optimal design of the project to be contracted is unknown. The sponsor has to invest in specifying the project. The larger the investment, the higher the probability that the initial design is optimal. When it is not, a bargaining process between the winning firm and the sponsor takes place. Profits from bargaining are larger for the favorite supplier than for its rivals. Given this comparative advantage, the favored firm bids more aggressively and then, it wins more often than standard firms. Finally, we show that the sponsor invests less in specifying the initial design, when favoritism is stronger. Underinvestment in design specification is a tool for providing a comparative advantage to the favored firm.
    Keywords: Auctions, Favoritism, Auction Design, Renegotiation, Corruption
    JEL: C72 D44 D82
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aoz:wpaper:83&r=
  11. By: Guo, Li; Härdle, Wolfgang; Tao, Yubo
    Abstract: Cryptocurrencies return cross-predictability and technological similarity yield information on risk propagation and market segmentation. To investigate these effects, we build a timevarying network for cryptocurrencies, based on the evolution of return cross-predictability and technological similarities. We develop a dynamic covariate-assisted spectral clustering method to consistently estimate the latent community structure of cryptocurrencies network that accounts for both sets of information. We demonstrate that investors can achieve better risk diversification by investing in cryptocurrencies from different communities. A cross-sectional portfolio that implements an inter-crypto momentum trading strategy earns a 1.08% daily return. By dissecting the portfolio returns on behavioral factors, we confirm that our results are not driven by behavioral mechanisms.
    Keywords: Community detection,Dynamic stochastic blockmodel,Covariates,Co-clustering,Network risk,Momentum
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:irtgdp:2021016&r=
  12. By: Sosson Tadadjeu (University of Dschang , Cameroon); Henri Njangang (University of Dschang , Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Brice Kamguia (University of Dschang, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature by investigating the effect of natural resources on under-five mortality in a sample of 50 African countries over the period 1996 to 2018. We also examine the extent to which governance shapes the relationship between natural resources and under-five mortality. Our results show that natural resources have increased under-five mortality. Resource rents also have detrimental effects on child mortality by age, gender, and the three major causes of infant mortality from infectious diseases. However, an extended analysis of different types of natural resources suggests that point resources (such as oil, natural gas and mineral rents) increase under-five mortality, in contrast to the diffuse resources (such as forest rent). We also find that governance mitigates the positive effect of natural resources on child mortality. Corresponding governance policy thresholds that should be attained in order to reverse the positive effects of natural resources on child mortality are provided. We thus suggest an increase in the funds allocated to the health sector from resource rents and encourage efforts to improve governance standards in sampled countries.
    Keywords: Natural resources; Child mortality; Governance; Africa
    JEL: J13 O55 Q33 Q34 Q38
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:abh:wpaper:21/027&r=
  13. By: Davillas, Apostolos (University of East Anglia); Jones, Andrew M. (University of York)
    Abstract: We designed an experiment to explore the extent of measurement error in body mass index (BMI), when based on self-reported body weight and height. We find that there is a systematic age gradient in the reporting error in BMI, while there is limited evidence of systematic associations with gender, education and income. This is reassuring evidence for the use of self-reported BMI in studies that use it as an outcome, for example, to analyse socioeconomic gradients in obesity. However, our results suggest a complex structure of non-classical measurement error in BMI, depending on both individuals' and within-household peers' true BMI. This may bias studies that use BMI based on self-reported data as a regressor. Common methods to mitigate reporting error in BMI using predictions from corrective equations do not fully eliminate reporting heterogeneity associated with individual and within-household true BMI. Overall, the presence of non-classical error in BMI highlights the importance of collecting measured body weight and height data in large social science datasets.
    Keywords: BMI, experiment, measurement error, reporting bias
    JEL: I10 C18 C50
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14695&r=
  14. By: Adjani Nourou-Dine Yessoufou (Univers3s - Univers3s - Univers3s); Thierno Bachir Sy (Univers3s - Univers3s - Univers3s); Amadou Tandjigora (Univers3s - Univers3s - Univers3s); Ibrahima Bah (Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Démographie - Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Démographie)
    Date: 2021–08–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03325514&r=
  15. By: Baptiste Hautdidier (UR ETBX - Environnement, territoires et infrastructures - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Yves Schaeffer (UR LESSEM - Laboratoire des EcoSystèmes et des Sociétés en Montagne - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); M. Tivadar (UR LESSEM - Laboratoire des EcoSystèmes et des Sociétés en Montagne - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: , l'objectif du chapitre est double : (i) comparer deux approches originales pour mesurer ces inégalités environnementales d'exposition aux risques, et (ii) fournir des éléments de réponses – à défaut d'une réponse définitive – à la question posée plus haut pour la métropole d'Aix-Marseille-Provence. La première approche empirique considérée est celle suggérée récemment par Schaeffer et Tivadar (2019). Elle s'inspire de la littérature sur la mesure de la ségrégation socio-spatiale et repose sur le calcul d'un indice de centralisation environnementale. La seconde approche mobilise des outils de la statistique du point, les fonctions empiriques de Ripley (1976). Initialement développées pour l'analyse spatiale en écologie et en épidémiologie, elles n'ont été que marginalement appliquées à l'analyse des inégalités environnementales (Fisher et al. 2006). La section qui suit présente notre cas d'étude, les données disponibles, ainsi que nos questions et approches empiriques. Les troisième et quatrième sections présentent en détail nos méthodes et nos résultats. La dernière section discute les résultats obtenus, avant de conclure.
    Date: 2021–05–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03337002&r=
  16. By: Eyring, Henry; Ferguson, Patrick J.; Koppers, Sebastian
    Abstract: We use a field experiment in professional sports to compare effects of providing absolute, relative, or both absolute and relative measures in performance reports for employees. Although studies have documented that the provision of these types of measures can benefit performance, theory from economic and accounting literature suggests that it may be optimal for firms to direct employees’ attention to some types of measures by omitting others. In line with this theory, we find that relative performance information alone yields the best performance effects in our setting—that is, that a subset of information (relative performance information) dominates the full information set (absolute and relative performance information together) in boosting performance. In cross-sectional and survey-data analyses, we do not find that restricting the number of measures shown per se benefits performance. Rather, we find that restricting the type of measures shown to convey only relative information increases involvement in peer-performance comparison, benefitting performance. Our findings extend research on weighting of and responses to measures in performance reports.
    Keywords: Wiley deal
    JEL: M40
    Date: 2021–05–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:109789&r=
  17. By: Mardatillah, Vira; Susanto, Romi
    Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the mudharabah financing procedure carried out by PT. Bank Syariah Indonesia, Tbk KC Padang. In analyzing the data, the writer uses qualitative data analysis method as a method that describes descriptively about the mudharabah financing procedure at PT. Bank Syariah Indonesia, Tbk KC Padang. The results of this study there are several stages of the Mudharabah Financing Procedure at Bank Syariah Indonesia, namely the submission of an application for mudharabah financing, analysis of mudharabah financing, the decision to apply for mudharabah financing is divided into two decisions, namely the financing decision is accepted and the financing decision is rejected, if the financing decision is accepted or rejected, it is submitted in writing. by providing clear and wise reasons, then the mudharabah financing agreement, the disbursement of the mudharabah financing, the supervision of the mudharabah financing and the return of the mudharabah financing
    Date: 2021–08–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:y4hcs&r=
  18. By: Simshauser, P.; Billimoria, F.; Rogers, C.
    Abstract: Australia’s National Electricity Market experienced significant growth in variable renewable energy (VRE) investment commitments over the period 2016-2021. A subset of projects experienced material entry frictions which stemmed from inadequate network hosting capacity. In this article we examine the development of non-regulated Renewable Energy Zones (REZ) as a means by which to help guide forward market commitments and produce greater coordination between generation and transmission plant investments. Using an optimisation model comprising 1500MW of transmission network infrastructure, we explore various definitions of a ‘fully subscribed REZ’ given the portfolio benefits associated with complementary wind and solar plant in Southern Queensland. We also examine the conditions by which various proponents would sponsor a non-regulated REZ. When maximising output forms the objective function, full subscription is achieved by developing ~3400MW of solar and wind in roughly equal proportions, accepting that some level of curtailment is an economic result. Conversely, full subscription in which the combined cost of the REZ and VRE plant is minimised is achieved at ~1800MW of VRE. If maximising net cashflows forms the objective function, VRE plant development is complicated by the dynamic nature of spot prices. Specifically, in early stages of VRE development solar is preferred but as its market share rises and value of output falls, wind investments dominate holding technology costs constant.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy Zones, renewable generation, transmission investment
    JEL: D25 D80 G32 L51 Q41
    Date: 2021–09–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cam:camdae:2164&r=
  19. By: Marc Fleurbaey (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Stéphane Zuber (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Utilitarianism plays a central role in economics, but there is a gap between theory, where it is dominant, and applications, where monetary criteria are often used. For applications, a key di culty for utilitarianism remains to de ne how utilities should be measured and compared across individuals. Drawing on Harsanyi's approach (Harsanyi, 1955) involving choices in risky situations, we introduce a new normalization of utilities that is the only one ensuring that: 1) a transfer from a rich to a poor is welfare enhancing, and 2) populations with more risk averse people have lower welfare. We embed these requirements in a new characterization of utilitarianism and study some implications of this "fair utilitarianism" for risk sharing, collective risk aversion and the design of health policy.
    Keywords: Fairness,social risk,utilitarianism
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:pseptp:halshs-01441070&r=
  20. By: Alain Marciano (MRE - Montpellier Recherche en Economie - UM - Université de Montpellier, UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Buchanan did not write "An Economic Theory of Club" to complement Samuelson's analysis of public goods, but to develop a radically different, form of welfare economics – in which there is no social welfare function and individual utility functions cannot be "read" by external observers. It was the perspective Buchanan adopted to analyze the pricing of public goods and services, and from which he also envisaged clubs. The main feature Buchanan attributed to clubs was to implement a condition that made no sense in Samuelson's framework but that was crucial in Buchanan's and clubs made Samuelson's collective condition useless. Buchanan and Samuelson disagreed over the allocation of the costs of the public good on each individual. To Buchanan, it was by relying on individual's preferences. To Samuelson, by using a social welfare function. This has not much to do with the nature of the good, its "physical properties" to use Buchanan's words.
    Date: 2021–08–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03326422&r=
  21. By: SEKIZAWA Yoichi
    Abstract: In this paper, we explored the associations between COVID-19 vaccination and variables including those on socioeconomic status (employment type, household income, educational background, amount of deposits and savings). We used the 4th wave (conducted from 20 to 27 July 2021) of a 5-wave internet survey. Study samples were limited to those aged 40-64. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that self-employed workers, non-regular workers, and people not in the labor force were less likely to have been vaccinated than regular employees. Graduates of junior and senior high school only were less likely to have been vaccinated than graduates of four-year colleges. People with lower household income were less likely to have been vaccinated. In addition, people living alone, living with children, and living with parents were less likely to have been vaccinated than those living with a spouse but not with children or parents.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eti:rpdpjp:21017&r=
  22. By: V. Seror (VITROME - Vecteurs - Infections tropicales et méditerranéennes - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - IRBA - Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées); G. Maradan (ORS PACA - Observatoire régional de la santé Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur [Marseille]); E.-H. Ba (VITROME - Vecteurs - Infections tropicales et méditerranéennes - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - IRBA - Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées); S. Cortaredona (VITROME - Vecteurs - Infections tropicales et méditerranéennes - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - IRBA - Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées); C. Berenger (ORS PACA - Observatoire régional de la santé Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur [Marseille]); Olivier L’haridon (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); C. Sokhna (VITROME - Vecteurs - Infections tropicales et méditerranéennes - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - IRBA - Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées)
    Abstract: Introduction Rural areas are considered safe havens against the increased spread of COVID-19 and associated restrictive measures, especially in contexts where public authorities are not in a position to systematically and substantially ease COVID-19-induced economic shocks. In the current sub-Saharan Africa context, still marked by uncertainty surrounding the spread of COVID-19, we present the protocol of an ongoing longitudinal study aimed at investigating COVID-19-related attitudes, risks perceptions, preventive behaviours and economic impact in rural areas in Senegal. Methods and analysis A prospective randomised longitudinal study of 600 households located in three semiurban villages and nine randomly selected rural villages in the Niakhar area (located 135 km East of Dakar). Three ad hoc phone surveys are administered to 600 heads of households, their housewives in charge of managing the household and a relative living temporarily in the household, respectively. In addition to sharing identical sets of questions on several topics (risks perceptions, attitudes to curfew, attitudes to vaccines, beliefs about COVID-19 infection), the three separate survey questionnaires also include other topics (economic impact, local preventive strategies) whose related questions differ between questionnaires. As analysing evolutions is the study's primary focus, data on all the topics covered will be collected in three waves unless the spread of COVID-19 by mid-2021 justifies extending data collection. The present article presents the study protocol and details about the implementation of the first wave of data collection which started in July 2020. The decision to wait before presenting the protocol was based on the unprecedented context the COVID-19 pandemic. Ethics and dissemination The survey's protocol was approved by the Senegalese National Ethical Committee for Research in Health (131/MSAS/CNERS/Sec) and received authorisation from both the Senegalese Ministry of Health (619/MSAS/DPRS/DR) and the French Commission on Information Technology and Liberties (CNIL 2220771). © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
    Keywords: COVID-19,health economics,public health,tropical medicine
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03335734&r=
  23. By: Gale, Fred
    Abstract: This report examines lists of applicants for wheat tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for the years 2015 to 2021 to characterize the potential demand for imported wheat in China. More than 900 companies in China applied for quota from 2015 to 2021, and 171 applied 7 years in a row. Although most applicants are private companies in major flour-producing provinces, they account for few wheat imports; customs data indicate that Beijing-based companies—comprising fewer than 2 percent of TRQ applicants each year—are the predominant wheat importers. When China’s wheat imports doubled in 2020, Beijing-based companies accounted for 85 percent of the imports.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Financial Economics, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy
    Date: 2021–08–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usdami:313487&r=
  24. By: Drydakis, Nick (Anglia Ruskin University)
    Abstract: In Greece, given the precarious nature of the sex work industry, sex workers health and wellbeing is of concern. However, relevant research remains limited. This study examined whether sex workers' self-reported physical and mental health deteriorated across time points during the economic recession in Athens, Greece. The study focused on 13 areas where off-street and street-based sex work occured. Cross-sectional data was collected from the same areas in 2009 (i.e. before the economic recession began) and in 2013 and 2019 (i.e. at time points during the recession). Self-reported physical and mental health decreased in 2013 and in 2019 compared to 2009. A positive association was found between the country's gross domestic product and sex workers' self-reported physical and mental health. The opposite was found for annual aggregate unemployment. The determinants of better self-reported physical and mental health were sex workers' economic condition, Greek nationality, off-street sex work, and registered sex work status. The opposite was found for more years' involvement in sex work and drug consumption. Findings indicate the need for more inclusive health strategies, especially during periods of economic downturn when sex workers' physical/mental health is likely to decline. This is the first study to investigate the association between economic recession and sex workers' self-reported physical and mental health.
    Keywords: sex work, physical health, mental health, economic recession, drug consumption
    JEL: J81 G01 I10 I12 I18
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14704&r=
  25. By: Dilger, Alexander
    Abstract: Prozent-Hürden sollen eine Zersplitterung in Parlamenten verhindern und Parteien nur in Fraktionsstärke hineinlassen. Dazu werden bislang die Stimmen für Parteien unterhalb der Hürde gar nicht berücksichtigt. Diese Ungleichheit der Wahl und Benachteiligung von kleinen Parteien ließe sich dadurch vermeiden, dass von den kleineren Parteien unterhalb der Hürde eine ausgelost wird, die die Mandate für die Stimmen all dieser kleinen Parteien erhält. Alternativ könnte jede kleinere Partei mit einer Wahrscheinlichkeit, die zu ihrem Stimmanteil proportional ist, in Fraktionsstärke einziehen oder eine freiwillige Bildung von Losgemeinschaften erlaubt werden. Schließlich kann das Losen auch als Alternative zu den gängigen Wahlverfahren verwendet werden, um Bruchteile an Mandaten zuzuteilen oder um Stichwahlen um eine Position zu ersetzen.
    JEL: C71 D72 K16
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:umiodp:82021&r=
  26. By: Michael J. Frith (University College London)
    Abstract: This talk presents conjoint, a new Stata command for analysing and visualising conjoint (factorial) experiments in Stata. Using examples of conjoint experiments from the growing literature - including two from political science involving choices between immigrants (Hainmueller et al., 2014) and between return locations for refugees (Ghosn et al., 2021) - I will briefly explain conjoint experiments and how they are used. Then, and with reference to existing packages and commands in other software, I will explain how conjoint functions to estimate and visualise the two common estimands: average marginal component effects (AMCE) and marginal means (MM). Limitations of conjoint and possible improvements to the command will also be discussed.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:14&r=
  27. By: Seltzer, Andrew J.; Wadsworth, Jonathan
    Abstract: This paper examines the consequences of the commuter transport revolution on working class labour markets in 1930s London. The ability to commute alleviated urban crowding and increased workers’ choice of potential employers. Using GIS-based data constructed from the New Survey of London Life and Labour, we examine the extent of commuting and estimate the earnings returns to commuting. We obtain a lowerbound estimate of two percent increase in earnings per kilometre travelled. We also show that commuting was an important contributor to improving quality of life in the early-twentieth century.
    Keywords: Commuting; public transport; labour markets; New Survey of London Life and Labour
    JEL: N34 N94 J31
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:111900&r=
  28. By: MORIKAWA Masayuki
    Abstract: With COVID-19's continued spread, vaccination is expected to facilitate the recovery of household consumption; however, a high degree of uncertainty exists regarding vaccination's effectiveness in restoring economic activity. Based on an original survey of individuals in July 2021, this study presents evidence about the relationship between vaccination and consumer behavior. According to the results, a relatively large number of respondents intend to increase consumption after the pandemic ends, but not many will increase consumption after receiving the vaccination. No clear association with health status or individual infection risk was detected, but those who used the 2020 GoTo campaign tended to exhibit higher intention to increase consumption after vaccination.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eti:dpaper:21079&r=
  29. By: Murray, Cameron (The University of Sydney)
    Abstract: • There are more, bigger, better, dwellings per capita in Australia in 2021 compared to any point in history. • Multiple government inquiries at all levels over the past two decades have ostensibly sought to find the cause of house prices hidden in the pages of local zoning laws. • Dwellings are assets and are priced based on financial market conditions. • Density (dwellings per unit of land) and the rate of supply (new dwellings per period of time) are conceptually different but often confused in housing supply discussions. • This submission argues that market housing supply has exceeded household demand. State planning systems have flexibly accommodated new supply while regulating the location of different types of dwellings. • Compared to household incomes and rents, the cost of buying a home (measured by mortgage payments) in 2021 is historically cheap. This is due to lower interest rates and is why intercensal homeownership is expected to rise in 2021. However, asset price adjustments will mean that this situation will not persist. • Taxes on property are efficient and fair and do not add to housing costs but rather subtract from property values. • Affordable housing is cheap housing. Cheaper housing means lower rents and prices. Any “affordability” policy that reduces market prices will remove billions in landlord revenues each year, transferring that value to tenants, and trillions in housing asset values, with that value transferred to future buyers. • Fostering parallel non-market housing systems, just as public healthcare provides a non-market medical system, can be an effective way to improve housing affordability. • There are no local, international, or historical examples of planning reforms leading to cheaper housing. Indeed, a Productivity Commission review concluded “given the small size of net additions to housing in any year relative to the size of the stock, improvements to land release or planning approval procedures, while desirable, could not have greatly alleviated the price pressures of the past few years.” (p154)
    Date: 2021–09–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:prsy4&r=
  30. By: Ingela Alger (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, IAST - Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse , CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Since a man's reproductive success depends on his ability to outcompete other men, male competitiveness may be expected to have been exposed to strong selective pressure throughout human history. Accordingly, the relatively low level of physical violence observed between men has been viewed as a puzzle. What could have limited the eagerness of men to out-compete each other? I study the evolution of male competitiveness in a model where men compete for both reproductive and productive resources. I show that high levels of male competitiveness are then consistent with evolution by natural selection if (a) the ecology is generous enough for men to supply little or no food to their children, (b) competing is not too costly in terms of productive resources, and (c) relatedness among males is low enough. While the main analysis takes women to passively accept the husband that emerges from the male-male competition, the results are qualitatively robust to allowing for female mate choice following the male-male competition game. Possible implications for our understanding of the evolution of marriage systems are discussed.
    Keywords: Male-male competition,Competitiveness,Evolution,Monogamy,Polygyny,Parental care
    Date: 2021–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03337789&r=
  31. By: Carlo Drago (University “Niccolò Cusano†, NCI University in London)
    Abstract: The analysis and measurement of poverty is a crucial and unsolved issue in the field of social science. This work aims to measure poverty as a multidimensional notion using a new composite indicator. However, subjective choices as different weighting schemes on the indicator's construction could affect their interpretation and policy. It is necessary to consider the possible weighting configurations randomly to overcome this problem, and it is proposed in this work as interval-based composite indicators based on the results. This work aims to obtain robust and reliable measures based on a relevant conceptual model of poverty we have identified, considering various factors as weightings. Methodologically speaking, it is proposed an original procedure for measuring poverty in which it is computed a different composite indicator for each simulated weighting scheme of the identified factors. The weighting scheme in the Monte-Carlo simulation randomly creates an interval-based composite indicator based on the results. The different intervals are compared using different criteria (upper bound, center, and lower bound), and various rankings help analyze extreme scenarios and policy hypotheses. Critical situations are identified in Sicilia, Calabria, Campania and Puglia. The results demonstrate a relevant and consistent indicator measurement and the shadow sector's relevant impact on the final measures.
    Keywords: Poverty, Composite Indicators, Interval Data, Interval-based Composite Indicators, Symbolic Data
    JEL: C02 C15 C43 I3 I32
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2021.21&r=
  32. By: Kreil, Agnes S.; Stauffacher, Michael
    Abstract: Demand for air travel must be reduced to align the aviation sector with international climate agreements. In line with this necessity, as well as motivated by the notion that academia has a responsibility to foster sustainable development, some academic institutions have begun reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with their members’ air travel. Based on an online survey from early 2021, this article summarizes the practices of 35 academic institutions in Western Europe and the US that are committed to achieving such reductions. It aims to facilitate the exchange of knowledge between these institutions, thus creating a basis for informed development of future projects. A new classification of policy measures in this area is applied in this article, which reveals that policy activity focuses on low-coercive measures that encourage substituting air travel with virtual communication technology and ground-based transportation. The findings further indicate that the collection of data on air travel is an essential but challenging precursor to policy action. The discussion shows that these findings are consistent with country-specific analyses of academic institutions’ policy documents. The need for continued action to reduce emissions related to air travel, including ongoing investments in virtual communication, after the COVID-19 pandemic is emphasized. We also discuss potential acceptance of more coercive policy measures and suggest tackling the systemic effects of institutional internationalization strategies by including private travel needs engendered by international recruitment efforts in institutions’ calculations of travel emissions.
    Date: 2021–09–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:bzrfq&r=
  33. By: Andrey Itkin; Dmitry Muravey
    Abstract: We extend the approach of Carr, Itkin and Muravey, 2021 for getting semi-analytical prices of barrier options for the time-dependent Heston model with time-dependent barriers by applying it to the so-called $\lambda$-SABR stochastic volatility model. In doing so we modify the general integral transform method (see Itkin, Lipton, Muravey, Generalized integral transforms in mathematical finance, World Scientific, 2021) and deliver solution of this problem in the form of Fourier-Bessel series. The weights of this series solve a linear mixed Volterra-Fredholm equation (LMVF) of the second kind also derived in the paper. Numerical examples illustrate speed and accuracy of our method which are comparable with those of the finite-difference approach at small maturities and outperform them at high maturities even by using a simplistic implementation of the RBF method for solving the LMVF.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.02134&r=
  34. By: Davide Bazzana (Università degli Studi di Brescia, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Francesco Menoncin (Università degli Studi di Brescia, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Sergio Vergalli (Università degli Studi di Brescia, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: The catastrophic events are characterized by “low frequency and high severity†. Nevertheless, during the last decades, both the frequency and the magnitude of these events have been significantly rising worldwide. In 2021, the European Commission adopted a new Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change aiming to reinforce the adaptive capacity and minimize vulnerability to the effects of climate change and natural catastrophes. In a continuous time framework over an infinite horizon, we solve in closed form the problem of a representative consumer who holds a production technology (firm) and who optimises with respect to both the intertemporal consumption and the mix between an insurance (adaptation) against the magnitude of the catastrophic losses, and an effort strategy (mitigation) aimed at reducing the frequency of such losses. The catastrophic events are modelled as a Poisson jump process. We then propose some numerical simulations calibrated to the country-specific data of the five main European economies (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and Netherlands). Our model demonstrates that an optimal mix of mitigation/effort strategies allows to reduce the volatility of the economic growth rate, even if its level may be lowered due to the effort costs. Simulations allow us to also conclude that different countries must optimally react differently to catastrophes, which means that a one-for-all policy does not seem to be optimal.
    Keywords: Uncertainty Modelling, Catastrophic Events, Mitigation, Adaptation, Optimal management
    JEL: C6 C61 Q5 Q54
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2021.22&r=
  35. By: Jean-Charles Hourcade; Dipak Dasgupta; F. Ghersi (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine how to trigger a wave of low-carbon investments compatible with the wellbelow 2°C target of the Paris Agreement in the current post-pandemic context of increasing private and public debt. We argue that one major obstacle to catalyzing global excess savings at sufficient scale and speed on climate mitigation, and to 'greening' economic recovery packages, lies in the upfront risks of low-carbon investment. We then explain why public guarantees should be the preferred risk-sharing instrument to overcome that obstacle. We outline the basic principles of a multilateral sovereign guarantee mechanism able to maximize the leverage effect of public funds and massively redirect global savings towards low-carbon investments, with the double benefit of bridging the infrastructure investment gap in developing countries and reducing tension between developed and developing countries around accelerated funding for low-carbon transitions. We carry out numerical simulations demonstrating how the use of guarantees from AAA-rated sovereigns, calibrated on an agreed-upon 'social value of carbon', is compatible with public-budget constraints of developed countries. In summary, the use of such guarantee mechanisms provides a new form of 'where flexibility', which could turn real-world heterogeneity into a source of reciprocal gains for both developed and developing countries, and contribute to meeting the USD 100 billion + pledge of the Paris Agreement. Key policy insights Catalyzing excess world savings through low-carbon investments (LCIs) would secure a safer and fairer economic recovery from the COVID-19 crisis and avoid locking developing countries into carbon-intensive pathways. Public policy instruments focused on creation of public guarantees can reduce the up-front financial risks associated with LCIs, mobilize private money and increase the leverage of public finance. A multi-sovereign guarantee mechanism would yield financial support from developed to developing countries in cash grant equivalent and equity inflows two to four times higher than the 'USD 100 billion and more' commitment of the Paris Agreement, and provide greater confidence in meeting this commitment equitably and effectively with benefits for all.
    Keywords: Climate finance,Public guarantees,De-risking,Low-carbon investment,Post-COVID recovery,100 billion + pledge
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03336193&r=
  36. By: Buscha, Franz; Gorman, Emma; Sturgis, Patrick
    Abstract: Recent studies of social mobility have documented that not only who your parents are, but also where you grow up, substantially influences subsequent life chances. We bring these two concepts together to study social mobility in England and Wales, in three post-war generations, using linked Decennial Census data. Our findings show considerable spatial variation in rates of absolute and relative mobility, as well as how these have changed over time. While upward mobility increased in every region between the mid-1950s and the early 1980s, this shift varied across different regions and tailed off for more recent cohorts. We also explore how domestic migration is related to social mobility, finding that those who moved out of their region of origin had higher rates of upward mobility compared to those who stayed, although this difference narrowed over time.
    Keywords: ES/R00627X/1; ES/V003488/1
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2021–08–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:111605&r=
  37. By: Tom Krebs (Universitaet Mannheim); Janek Steitz (Agora Energiewende)
    Abstract: Die vorliegende Studie schaetzt den oeffentlichen Finanzbedarf fuer Klimainvestitionen, die zum Erreichen des 2030-Klimaziels der Bundesregierung im Zeitraum 2021-2030 verwirklicht werden muessen. Die Analyse orientiert sich – wo moeglich – am Technologiepfad des Szenarios KN2045 von Prognos et al (2021) und verwendet einen Bottom-up-Ansatz, der basierend auf existierenden Studienergebnissen die oeffentlichen Finanzbedarfe zur Modernisierung des Kapitalstocks fuer die einzelnen Sektoren und Investitionsarten ermittelt. Der Finanzbedarf fuer Bundesinvestitionen (z.B. Deutsche Bahn) betraegt 90 Milliarden Euro und der Finanzbedarf fuer kommunale Klimainvestitionen (z.B. ÖPNV) wird auf 170 Milliarden Euro geschaetzt. Der Finanzbedarf fuer oeffentliche Klimainvestitionen von Bund, Laendern und Kommunen belaeuft sich somit insgesamt auf 260 Milliarden Euro (26 Milliarden Euro jaehrlich). Darueber hinaus besteht ein oeffentlicher Finanzbedarf zur Foerderung privater Investitionen (z.B. energetische Sanierung) von rund 200 Milliarden Euro (20 Milliarden Euro jaehrlich), wenn als Foerdersaetze die aktuellen Werte (teils sinkend) laufender Foerderprogramme angesetzt werden. Der oeffentliche Finanzbedarf fuer alle drei Komponenten der Klimainvestitionen (Bundesinvestitionen, kommunale Investitionen, Foerderung privater Investitionen) belaeuft sich im Zeitraum 2021- 2030 auf insgesamt etwa 460 Milliarden Euro (46 Milliarden Euro jaehrlich) und ist damit groeßer als in existierenden Studien angenommen. Der Bedarf entspricht rund 6,3 Prozent der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Bruttoinvestitionen oder 1,3 Prozent des Bruttoinlandsproduktes im Jahr 2019 und erscheint der Groeße der Herausforderung angemessen. Aus Bundessicht belaeuft sich der Finanzbedarf fuer Klimainvestitionen im Zeitraum 2021-2030 auf insgesamt 290 Milliarden Euro unter der Praemisse, dass die Finanzierung der Bundesinvestitionen und die Foerderung privater Investitionen im Wesentlichen eine Bundesaufgabe, die Finanzierung kommunaler Investitionen hingegen hauptsaechlich eine Aufgabe der Laender und Kommunen ist. Die Bundesregierung hat mit dem Klimaschutzprogramm, dem Konjunkturprogramm und dem Klimaschutz-Sofortprogramm (letzteres ist bisher nur eine Ankuendigung) bereits Finanzmittel fuer Klimainvestitionen im Zeitraum 2021-2025 bereitgestellt, die sich – zusammen mit relevanten europaeischen Mitteln – auf rund 80 Milliarden Euro belaufen.
    Keywords: Klima, Klimaneutralitaet, oeffentliche Investitionen, oeffentlicher Finanzbedarf
    JEL: H23 H54 L52 L95 L98 Q41 Q42 Q54
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:agz:wpaper:2103&r=
  38. By: Jérôme Blanc (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: On s'intéresse dans ce texte au trouble produit par le faux-monnayeur Farinet, non seulement sur l'authenticité de la monnaie, mais plus largement sur ce qu'elle est et ce qu'elle représente. Pour ce faire, on distingue la figure historique de Joseph-Samuel Farinet, qui émit des fausses pièces de vingt centimes dans les années 1870-80, et la figure littéraire de Maurice Farinet qui, sous le regard de son auteur Charles Ferdinand Ramuz aux prises avec les dérèglements monétaires du début des années 1930, émettait des pièces de vingt francs d'or plus pur que celui du gouvernement. Ce texte s'inscrit dans les réflexions sur les rapports entre économie et littérature avec la particularité d'une fiction fondée sur l'histoire mais qui en déborde. Il entend contribuer, par l'analyse de cette double figure contradictoire, aux conceptions institutionnalistes de la monnaie. C'est ainsi que Farinet permet de rendre compte à la fois du caractère vénal de l'activité de faux-monnayage, de la notion d'individu souverain, mais aussi des conditions de mise en circulation et d'usage de la monnaie en général où les rapports non marchands peuvent être déterminants.
    Keywords: communauté monétaire,souveraineté,fausse monnaie,Farinet
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-03325929&r=
  39. By: Thomas TB Baudin; Bram De Rock; Paula Eugenia Gobbi
    Abstract: Household decisions are one of the key elements impacting many dimensions of any economy. In this paper, we review the economic literature onfamily types, focusing on nuclear, stem, and complex families. We show that family types are heterogeneous across and within countries, both inthe past and in present times. We argue that economists have focused too much their analysis on nuclear families, which may limit our capacity toanalyze the impact of institutional phenomena or public policies. We establish how each family type could relate to the basic ingredients of standardstructural models of household decisions. We believe this overview sets the stage for an interesting research avenue to improve the structural models of household decision making.
    Keywords: Family structures, Economic development, Household decisions
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eca:wpaper:2013/331659&r=
  40. By: División de Análisis Macroeconómico DAMAC
    Abstract: Este documento de la División de Análisis Macroeconómico continúa analizando la respuesta de la economía colombiana a las condiciones de convivencia con la pandemia COVID-19 y a los choques presentados en el frente social con el Paro Nacional durante el segundo trimestre de 2021. Pese a que el proceso de recuperación enfrentó retos relevantes, la apertura establecida en las principales ciudades en junio mostró que la economía tiene una alta capacidad de adaptación y al final del segundo semestre volvió a los niveles de operación más fuertes desde la llegada de la pandemia. Los principales retos en el mediano plazo están en el mejoramiento de las condiciones de bienestar social, pues si bien la producción está reaccionando, los rezagos en el mercado laboral son mayores. *** This document from the Macroeconomic Analysis Division continues analyzing the response of the Colombian economy to the conditions of coexistence with the COVID-19 pandemic and to the shocks presented on the social front with the National Strike during the second quarter of 2021. Although the recovery process faced relevant challenges, the opening established in the main cities in June showed that the economy has a high capacity to adapt and at the end of the second semester it returned to the strongest operating levels since the arrival of the pandemic. The main challenges in the medium term are in the improvement of social welfare conditions, because although production is reacting, the lags in the labor market are greater.
    Keywords: análisis macroeconómico, COVID-19, impacto, cuarentena, aislamiento, crisis, Colombia, protestas
    JEL: E00 E01 E20 E23 E60
    Date: 2021–09–14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000178:019566&r=
  41. By: Nuno Paixao
    Abstract: This note describes the procedure implemented in Giannone et al. (2020) to estimate housing supply elasticities for a large set of cities in Canada (Census Agglomerations) following a novel approach developed by Guren et al. (2021). In contrast with the popular elasticities estimated by Saiz (2010), which explores geographical and regulation heterogeneity across cities, the approach employed in this note exploits the systematic differential sensitivity of different cities to regional house-price cycles.
    Keywords: Housing
    JEL: R14 R31 R52
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bca:bocsan:21-21&r=
  42. By: Dorian Carloni; Terry Dinan
    Abstract: Putting a price on emissions of carbon dioxide, either by taxing them or by establishing a cap- and-trade program, is one policy that lawmakers could consider to address climate change. Although such a policy could encourage cost-effective reductions in emissions throughout the economy, lawmakers have expressed concern about whether it would disproportionately affect lower-income households. Determining the distributional effects—that is, the effects on households at different income levels—of a policy that would price carbon emissions (referred to in
    JEL: H00 H20 H23
    Date: 2021–09–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cbo:wpaper:57399&r=
  43. By: Gauger, Felix; Strych, Jan-Oliver; Pfnür, Andreas
    Abstract: This data article describes a panel dataset that combines flexible office space market data with entrepreneurial data, such as founding and funding of ventures in 47 European cities. One adaption of new ways of working are coworking spaces. They are shared working environments that offer office space and intangible resources, such as knowledge sharing, collaboration and networking. Access to flexible office space for self-employed, start-ups, and corporates is a key resource for businesses. Covid-19 has shown that space provision is becoming more flexible and ventures increasingly use scalable space instead of long-term lease agreements for office space or than owning it. Deskmag counts 18,700 coworking spaces worldwide in the year of 2018 with 1.65 million coworkers and high future growth expectations after COVID-19 [1]. Data were collected through two sources. Data about coworking spaces were collected through a web scraper crawling for coworking spaces within a city as of December 31, 2018. Those data were manually enriched by real estate and economic variables, such as the office high prime rent and office market size. Data about the funding and founding of ventures were obtained through using the database Crunchbase, including all start-ups in a city with their type of funding (including: seed, venture capital, private equity, debt convertibles and others) and their financing rounds. The Crunchbase database lists mostly young firms, commonly called start-ups and small medium enterprises (SME), and their financing with external funding. It includes firms that have needed or might need funding in the near future, or have already got funding. Hence, it is possible to relate spatial clusters with entrepreneurial activity and analyze for example the influence of (flexible) office markets on founding activity. This dataset enables researchers and practitioners to further explore important questions regarding the nexus between the real estate industry, entrepreneurship behavior, start-ups and regional clusters. Due to the scarcity of publicly available quality flexible office space market data, the dataset detailed in this article may play a relevant role to be ready to be used by researchers and practitioners. Funding data can be used for regional analysis, growth development, or any other economic issues.
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dar:wpaper:128331&r=
  44. By: David Martimort (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales); Guillaume Pommey (Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata [Roma]); Jerome Pouyet (THEMA - Théorie économique, modélisation et applications - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université, ESSEC Business School - Essec Business School)
    Abstract: Modern airports provide commercial services to passengers in addition to aeronautical services to airlines. We analyze how the airport's market power impacts the pricing of services when the airport also invests in the quality of its infrastructure. There is a need to regulate the airport and the optimal regulation can be implemented with a price-cap and a subsidy scheme targeted to the investment. The choice between a single-till and a dual-till approach does change neither the optimal regulation nor its implementation. We also investigate the consequences on the optimal regulation of the nature of the airport-airline relationship and of the observability of investment.
    Keywords: airports,regulation,commercial services,investment
    Date: 2021–08–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03328394&r=
  45. By: Chen, Shi; Härdle, Wolfgang; Schienle, Melanie
    Abstract: This paper provides statistical learning techniques for determining the full own-price market impact and the relevance and effect of cross-price and cross-asset spillover channels from intraday transactions data. The novel tools allow extracting comprehensive information contained in the limit order books (LOB) and quantify their impacts on the size and structure of price interdependencies across stocks. For correct empirical network determination of such dynamic liquidity price effects even in small portfolios, we require high-dimensional statistical learning methods with an integrated general bootstrap procedure. We document the importance of LOB liquidity network spillovers even for a small blue-chip NASDAQ portfolio.
    Keywords: limit order book,high-dimensional statistical learning,liquidity networks,high frequency dynamics,market impact,bootstrap,network
    JEL: C02 C13 C22 C45 G12
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:irtgdp:2021015&r=
  46. By: Malginov Georgiy (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Sternik Sergey (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The past year in the Russian real estate market was unique. Some of the trends that emerged earlier have noticeably intensified (the decline in the developers’ profitability, the digitalization of technical and business processes, increase in size and consolidation of the industry as a response to the pre-bankruptcy state of a significant part of market participants, the expansion of state support for developers and its participation in the completion of many uncompleted projects). Other trends impact the spread of remote work format, migration from megacities, the systemic revival of the individual housing construction (IHC) segment as an alternative to apartment buildings, the easing of requirements for the level of income of borrowers and their reliability, the unprecedented expansion of state- subsidized mortgages - have only just begun to take shape.
    Keywords: Russian economy, residential property prices, housing market, housing construction
    JEL: K11 H82 L32 L33
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gai:ppaper:ppaper-2021-1133&r=
  47. By: Martha Orellano (emlyon business school); Christine Lambey-Checchin (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - ESC Clermont-Ferrand - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Khaled Medini (LIMOS - Laboratoire d'Informatique, de Modélisation et d'Optimisation des Systèmes - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de St Etienne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne - INP Clermont Auvergne - Institut national polytechnique Clermont Auvergne - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Gilles Neubert
    Abstract: The notion of sustainable innovation (SI) emerged recently in the academic literature and evokes deep changes in organizations' products, processes, and practices to favour the creation of social and environmental value in addition to economic returns. The development of SI implies a collaborative process that requires the orchestration of several actors and streams of knowledge to be successful. Indeed, companies adopting the SI path need structured methodologies to guide the collaboration process with internal and external actors and support the decision process. Nevertheless, the literature has focused on the analysis of determinants and drivers of sustainable innovation development, while the process perspective has been discussed less. Through an in-depth case study in a large-sized company in France, this article proposes a methodological framework to guide the collaborative process in the early phases of sustainable innovation development. The framework relies on a combination of qualitative research and a multicriteria decision aiding method (AHP). The contributions of this work address two main aspects: (i) the conceptualization of sustainable innovation (SI) and (ii) the collaborative process between internal and external actors to develop SI. Firstly, our study leads to two additional dimensions to complete the concept of SI, traditionally based on the three pillars of sustainability (economic, environmental, and social), by adding the functional and relational dimensions. Secondly, concerning the collaborative process to develop SI, our framework proposes a structured methodology following five steps: definition of the project scope, setting actors' motivations, defining satisfaction criteria, proposing SI solutions, and performing a decision-aiding process to define the preference profiles of the key actors.
    Keywords: sustainable innovation,customer-driven innovation,collaboration,decision-aiding,case study research
    Date: 2021–08–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03328101&r=
  48. By: Valentine Fays; Benoît Mahy; François Rycx
    Abstract: This paper is the first to investigate the role of firm-level upstreamness (i.e. the number of steps before the production of a firm meets final demand) in explaining wage differences according to workers’ origin. Using unique linked employer-employee data relative to the Belgian manufacturing industry for the period 2002-2010, our estimates show that firms that are further up in the value chain pay significantly higher wages. However, the wage premium associated with upstreamness is also found to vary substantially depending on the origin of the workers. Unconditional quantile estimates suggest that those who benefit the most from being employed in more upstream firms are high-wage workers born in developed countries. In contrast, workers born in developing countries, irrespective of their earnings, appear to be unfairly rewarded. Quantile decompositions further show that, while differences in average values of upstreamness according to workers’ origin play a limited role, differences in wage premia associated with upstreamness account for a substantial part of the wage gap between workers born in developed and developing countries, especially at the top of the earnings distribution. These results are shown to be robust to a number of sensitivity tests, including broader or narrower definitions of workers’ wages and different firm environments in terms of technological and knowledge intensity.
    Keywords: Wage Gaps; Workers’ Origin; Global Value Chains; Upstreamness; Unconditional Quantile Estimates and Decompositions
    JEL: J15 J31 F16
    Date: 2021–09–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sol:wpaper:2013/331712&r=
  49. By: Arouca, Murilo Guerreiro; Neves, Isa Beatriz Da Cruz; Barreto, Marcos Ennes; Cruz, Carlos Daniel Santana; Brito, Ricardo Lustosa
    Abstract: Objective: identify in the literature the state of the art of gamification frameworks and models developed for health contexts. Methods: an integrative literature review of articles indexed in the LILACS, SciELO, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science databases, in english and published between January 2010 and July 2020. Results: among the 10 studies included in the analysis, nine were published in journals and one in conference proceedings. As well as 100% of the analyzed studies were published between the years 2015 and 2020. Thus, among the articles are studies related to three health contexts, where six frameworks and two models were identified. Conclusions: it is noteworthy that the main gap related to the development of gamification frameworks and models for health contexts is the validation process. As well as, the trend and the possibility of observing the use of participatory approaches in models and frameworks of gamification for some health contexts was evidenced.
    Keywords: gamification; health; frameworks; models
    JEL: C1
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:111908&r=
  50. By: Rihn, Alicia L.; Fulcher, Amy; Khachatryan, Hayk
    Abstract: The green industry is a vibrant part of Tennessee’s agricultural economy, directly contributing $965 million annually to the state’s economy, $23.5 million in annual state and local taxes, and over 13,000 jobs (Jensen et al., 2020). In recent years, labor shortages have become more pronounced nationally and within the state of Tennessee (Velandia et al., 2021). Tennessee growers report that hiring locally and retaining locally hired employees is challenging, and that labor-related challenges are on the increase. In 2018, nearly 80 percent of nurseries indicated that labor is their greatest hurdle, and over 50 percent stated the lack of qualified labor limited their ability to hire additional employees (McClellan, 2018). Alongside the issue of an uncertain and inadequate labor force is the increasing demand for nursery and landscape products and services. Nationally, the industry demonstrated a 0.6 percent annual growth from 2015 to 2019, which is expected to increase 1.8 percent annually through 2025 (Daly, 2021). Just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, members of the Tennessee green industry anticipated expanding production by 16.5 percent over the next five years (Jensen et al., 2020). With the development of the COVID-19 pandemic that led to dramatically increased interest in home gardening, the green industry experienced an increase in national sales, with 47 percent of participating nurseries and 87 percent of garden centers reporting an increase in sales in 2020 relative to 2019 (Daly, 2021; Nursery Management, 2020). Southeastern U.S. households reported an increase in plant purchases of 3.4 percent and landscaping purchases by 4.6 percent from 2019 to 2020 (Campbell, Rihn, and Campbell, 2021). Given the increase in demand, green industry firms will likely increase production, which will require more labor. In an effort to help the green industry better understand employment issues, related trends and to better position their businesses for the future, a two-part series titled “A Ten-Year Review of the Southeast U.S Green Industry” was developed. In “Part I: Labor and Firm Characteristics” annual sales, product types and workforce demographics are covered for three sub-samples, including: national, a select geographical area in the southeast U.S. (hereafter termed “five-state region” which includes Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee), and the state of Tennessee. In the companion publication, “A Ten-Year Review of the Southeast U.S. Green Industry, Part 2: Addressing Labor Shortages and Internal and External Factors Affecting Businesses Strategies,” we discuss specific strategies that businesses are using to address the labor shortage. In Part 2, we also discuss the importance of other factors and issues that are also weighing on business decisions that affect the future sustainability of the green industry.
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2021–09–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaeer:313531&r=
  51. By: Haile, Beliyou; You, Liangzhi; Headey, Derek D.; Ru, Yating; Mahrt, Kristi
    Abstract: Supply chains for nutritious (“protective†) foods in Africa south of the Sahara are often poorly developed, especially for perishable crops that are vulnerable to wastage. We used LSMS-ISA surveys and geographic information system (GIS) data to explore which factors predict production patterns of four protective food crops (pulses, nuts and seeds, vegetables, and fruits) relative to cereals and starchy roots and tubers (grouped under staples) in Ethiopia, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda, with a focus on potential inter-ventions to improve production, trade, and consumption of these foods. Plot-level irrigation adoption is the strongest predictor of fruit and vegetable production, along with precipitation, suggesting that water availability is a major precondition for pro-ducing these protective foods. In contrast, pulses and nuts and seeds can be grown in drier and warmer conditions. Better market access is also associated with higher production of fruits and vegetables, but the association is weaker than that of water access. Investing in and expanding irrigation-especially small-scale irrigation-has strong poten-tial to yield high returns in East Africa, especially for poor households that cannot afford to invest in capital-intensive irrigation technologies. Irrigation investments may need to be complemented by investments in roads, rural elec-trification, and cold storage chains to promote efficiency of postharvest supply chains and reduce marketing costs.
    Keywords: EAST AFRICA; AFRICA; policies; foods; food production; nutrition; nutritional status; food crops; supply chains
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:prnote:1265314308&r=
  52. By: Valentine Fays (Université de Mons (humanOrg)); Benoît Mahy (Université de Mons (humanOrg)); François Rycx (Université libre de Bruxelles, SBS-EM (CEBRIG & DULBEA))
    Abstract: This paper is the first to investigate the role of firm-level upstreamness (i.e. the number of steps before the production of a firm meets final demand) in explaining wage differences according to workers’ origin. Using unique linked employer-employee data relative to the Belgian manufacturing industry for the period 2002-2010, our estimates show that firms that are further up in the value chain pay significantly higher wages. However, the wage premium associated with upstreamness is also found to vary substantially depending on the origin of the workers. Unconditional quantile estimates suggest that those who benefit the most from being employed in more upstream firms are high-wage workers born in developed countries. In contrast, workers born in developing countries, irrespective of their earnings, appear to be unfairly rewarded. Quantile decompositions further show that, while differences in average values of upstreamness according to workers’ origin play a limited role, differences in wage premia associated with upstreamness account for a substantial part of the wage gap between workers born in developed and developing countries, especially at the top of the earnings distribution. These results are shown to be robust to a number of sensitivity tests, including broader or narrower definitions of workers’ wages and different firm environments in terms of technological and knowledge intensity.
    Keywords: Wage Gaps, Workers’ Origin, Global Value Chains, Upstreamness, Unconditional Quantile Estimates and Decompositions
    JEL: J15 J31 F16
    Date: 2021–08–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ctl:louvir:2021022&r=
  53. By: Dongwoo Kim; Young Jun Lee
    Abstract: Vaccination has been perceived as a key to reaching "herd immunity" in the current COVID-19 pandemic. This paper examines effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. We investigate the effects of two key elements in mass vaccination, which are allocations and timing of first and second doses and types of vaccines, on the spread of COVID-19. Amid limited supply of approved vaccines and constrained medical resources, the choice of a vaccination strategy is fundamentally an economic problem. We employ standard time-series and panel data models commonly used in economic research with real world data to estimate the effects of progress in vaccination and types of vaccines on health outcomes. Potential confounders such as government responses and people's behavioral changes are also taken into account. Our findings suggest that the share of people vaccinated with at least one dose is significantly negatively associated with new infections and deaths. Conditioning on first dose progress, full vaccination offers no further reductions in new cases and deaths. For vaccines from China, however, we find weaker effects of vaccination progress on health outcomes. Our results support the extending interval between first and second dose policy adopted by Canada and the UK among others for mRNA-based vaccines. As vaccination progressed, people's mobility increased and it offset the direct effects of vaccination. Therefore, public health measures are still important to contain the transmission by refraining people from being more mobile after vaccinated.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.06453&r=
  54. By: Fays, Valentine (University of Mons); Mahy, Benoît (University of Mons); Rycx, Francois (Free University of Brussels)
    Abstract: This paper is the first to investigate the role of firm-level upstreamness (i.e. the number of steps before the production of a firm meets final demand) in explaining wage differences according to workers' origin. Using unique linked employer-employee data relative to the Belgian manufacturing industry for the period 2002-2010, our estimates show that firms that are further up in the value chain pay significantly higher wages. However, the wage premium associated with upstreamness is also found to vary substantially depending on the origin of the workers. Unconditional quantile estimates suggest that those who benefit the most from being employed in more upstream firms are high-wage workers born in developed countries. In contrast, workers born in developing countries, irrespective of their earnings, appear to be unfairly rewarded. Quantile decompositions further show that, while differences in average values of upstreamness according to workers' origin play a limited role, differences in wage premia associated with upstreamness account for a substantial part of the wage gap between workers born in developed and developing countries, especially at the top of the earnings distribution. These results are shown to be robust to a number of sensitivity tests, including broader or narrower definitions of workers' wages and different firm environments in terms of technological and knowledge intensity.
    Keywords: wage gaps, workers’ origin, global value chains, upstreamness, unconditional quantile estimates and decompositions
    JEL: J15 J31 F16
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14696&r=
  55. By: Laha, A. K.; Verma, Shikha
    Abstract: With increasing adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) across the transportation sector, there is a growing need for developing algorithms for analyzing data streams. Due to dynamic operating environment conditions in the transportation domain, the nature of the data streams frequently change and static predictive models are often not successful when dealing with, non-stationary data streams. Further, labelled data is often unavailable or is costly to acquire in real time. Thus, effective algorithms for such problems would aim to maximize accuracy while minimizing the labelled data requirements. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm namely, the Optimal Transport based Drift Detection (OTDD) algorithm, that aims to address the accuracy-labeling requirement trade-off. Experiments on artificial and real-life data sets from the transportation domain demonstrate that the OTDD algorithm performs better than some of the widely used competing algorithms in addressing the accuracy-labeling requirement trade-off.
    Date: 2021–09–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iim:iimawp:14660&r=
  56. By: Cheliotis, Leonidas
    Abstract: Notwithstanding the significant advances made over the last twenty years in terms of charting and explaining the ways in which state punishment is influenced by economic and political forces, little is still known about the penal effects of conditions of economic crisis and about the role the incumbent government’s political orientation plays in this regard. Because the few available studies on these questions have been preoccupied with the Anglo-American sphere and only in the context of recent decades at that, even less is known either about the implications that different types or experiences of economic crisis carry for state punishment, or about the influence exerted in this respect by government political orientations other than those found in established democracies. Irrespective of geographical or temporal scope, moreover, the impact that different extranational factors and actors may have in terms of economic, political or directly penal matters domestically remains poorly understood. With a view to helping fill these gaps in the literature, this article explores the effects on state punishment that economic crisis and government political orientation had in interaction with one another in the context of interwar Greece. Attention is first paid to the various ways in which global capitalism was decisive in creating within Greece an environment conducive to increased punitiveness on the part of the state. The focus is on the economic, social and political consequences of the Wall Street crash of 1929 and Britain’s exit from the gold standard in 1931, as these were exacerbated by Greece’s long-term exposure to predatory lending, speculative investing and external interference in her domestic affairs in the context of engaging international capital markets. The article then proceeds to discuss how the Liberal government of 1928-1932 sought to handle the situation, particularly the approach it took towards punishment.
    Keywords: economic crisis; global capitalism; interwar Greece; government political orientation; political economy of punishment
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2021–09–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:111864&r=
  57. By: Ho, Teck Tuak
    Abstract: Afghanistan, Taliban, Why -by Dr Ho Teck Tuak
    Date: 2021–08–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:n5x7u&r=
  58. By: Pamela E. Ofori (University of Insubria, Varese, Italy); Daryna Grechyna (University of Granada, Spain)
    Abstract: Despite the established link between oil rent fluctuations and remittances received, its plausible joint effect on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains unexplored. To fill this gap, first, we determine whether natural resource rent (composed of oil rent, forest rent and natural gas rent) reduces economic growth in SSA. Second, we examine whether positive macroeconomic signals such as remittances mitigate the negative effect of oil rents on economic growth in a sample of 43 SSA countries spanning 1990-2017. We employ the pooled ordinary least squares, fixed-effects and random-effects, and generalized method of moments. The resulting empirical evidence established are; (1) there is a positive impact of forest rent on economic growth whilst oil rent and natural gas rent have a negative impact on economic growth (2) there is a positive marginal and net effect on economic growth from the interaction between remittances and oil rent. Also, the unconditional effect of remittances on growth is positive. We further perform a threshold analysis to establish a critical ground that could also influence economic growth positively. This threshold is crucial because below these critical mass remittance inflows mitigate the negative incidence of oil rent on economic growth and above the threshold, negative oil rent on growth is completely nullified. This is relevant for policy implications because policymakers are provided with actionable levels of remittances which are easily attainable in sampled countries.
    Keywords: Remittances, Natural resource rent, oil rent, Economic growth, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:exs:wpaper:21/056&r=
  59. By: Aziz, Imran (Yorkville University); Cortes, Guido Matias (York University, Canada)
    Abstract: A vast literature aimed at understanding the nature and causes of wage inequality focuses on the skill premium as a key object of interest. In an environment where both the skill premium and the share of skilled workers are changing, however, the between-skill-group component of inequality may fall even as the skill premium rises – a pattern that is indeed observed in the U.S. and in many local labor markets during the 2010s. Understanding the evolution of the skill premium is therefore not always useful in terms of understanding why broad inequality measures are changing.
    Keywords: skill premium, skill-biased technical change, between-group inequality
    JEL: J31 J21 J24
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14701&r=
  60. By: Steve J. Bickley; Ho Fai Chan; Benno Torgler
    Abstract: The history of AI in economics is long and winding, much the same as the evolving field of AI itself. Economists have engaged with AI since its beginnings, albeit in varying degrees and with changing focus across time and places. In this study, we have explored the diffusion of AI and different AI methods (e.g., machine learning, deep learning, neur al networks, expert systems, knowledge- based systems) through and within economic subfields, taking a scientometrics approach. In particular, we centre our accompanying discussion of AI in economics around the problems of economic calculation and social planning as proposed by Hayek. To map the history of AI within and between economic sub- fields, we construct two datasets containing bibliometrics information of economics papers based on search query results from the Scopus database and the EconPapers (and IDEAs/RePEc) repository. We present descriptive results that map the use and discussion of AI in economics over time, place, and subfield. In doing so, we also characterise the authors and affiliations of those engaging with AI in economics. Additionally, we find positive correlations between quality of institutional affiliation and engagement with or focus on AI in economics and negative correlations between the Human Development Index and share of learning-based AI papers.
    Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Economics; Scientometrics; Science of Science; Bibliometrics
    JEL: B40 N01 A14
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cra:wpaper:2021-28&r=
  61. By: Xiaoyu Cheng
    Abstract: Cheng(2021) proposes and characterizes Relative Maximum Likelihood (RML) updating rule when the ambiguous beliefs are represented by a set of priors. Relatedly, this note proposes and characterizes Extended RML updating rule when the ambiguous beliefs are represented by a convex capacity. Two classical updating rules for convex capacities, Dempster-Shafer (Shafer, 1976) and Fagin-Halpern rules (Fagin and Halpern, 1990) are included as special cases of Extended RML.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.02597&r=
  62. By: Tianyong Zhou
    Abstract: The existing theorization of development economics and transition economics is probably inadequate and perhaps even flawed to accurately explain and analyze a dual economic system such as that in China. China is a country in the transition of dual structure and system. The reform of its economic system has brought off a long period of transformation. The allocation of factors is subjected to the dualistic regulation of planning or administration and market due to the dualistic system, and thus the signal distortion will be a commonly seen existence. From the perspective of balanced and safe growth, the institutional distortions of population birth, population flow, land transaction and housing supply, with the changing of export, may cause great influences on the production demand, which includes the iterative contraction of consumption, the increase of export competitive cost, the widening of urban-rural income gap, the transferring of residents' income and the crowding out of consumption. In view of the worldwide shift from a conservative model with more income than expenditure to the debt-based model with more expenditure than income and the need for loose monetary policy, we must explore a basic model that includes variables of debt and land assets that affecting money supply and price changes, especially in China, where the current debt ratio is high and is likely to rise continuously. Based on such a logical framework of dualistic system economics and its analysis method, a preliminary calculation system is formed through the establishment of models.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.08099&r=
  63. By: Pamela E. Ofori (Department of Economics, University of Insubria); Daryna Grechyna (University of Granada, Spain)
    Abstract: Despite the established link between oil rent fluctuations and remittances received, its plausible joint effect on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains unexplored. To fill this gap, first we determine whether natural resource rent (composed of oil rent, forest rent and natural gas rent) reduces economic growth in SSA. Second, we examine whether positive macroeconomic signals such as remittances mitigate the negative effect of oil rents on economic growth in a sample of 43 SSA countries spanning 1990-2017. We employ the pooled ordinary least squares, fixed-effects and random-effects, and generalized method of moments. The resulting empirical evidence established are; (1) There is a positive impact of forest rent on economic growth whilst oil rent and natural gas rent have a negative impact on economic growth. (2) There is a positive marginal and net effect on economic growth from the interaction between remittances and oil rent. Also, the unconditional effect of remittances on growth is positive. We further perform a threshold analysis to establish a critical ground that could also influence economic growth positively. This threshold is crucial because above these critical mass remittance inflows mitigate the negative incidence of oil rent on economic growth and below the threshold negative oil rent on growth is completely nullified. This is relevant for policy implications because policy makers are provided with actionable levels of remittances which are easily attainable in sampled countries.
    Keywords: Remittances, Natural resource rent, oil rent, Economic growth, Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:agd:wpaper:21/056&r=
  64. By: Drydakis, Nick (Anglia Ruskin University)
    Abstract: The study examines whether adverse working conditions for immigrants in Greece bear an association with deteriorated physical health and increased levels of depression during 2018 and 2019. Findings indicate that workers with no written contract of employment, receiving hourly wages lower than the national hourly minimum wages, and experiencing insults and/or threats in their present job experience worse physical health and increased levels of depression. The study found that the inexistence of workplace contracts, underpayment, and verbal abuse in the workplace may coexist. An increased risk of underpayment and verbal abuse reveals itself when workers do not have a contract of employment and vice versa. Immigrant workers without a job contract might experience a high degree of workplace precariousness and exclusion from health benefits and insurance. Immigrant workers receiving a wage lower than the corresponding minimum potentially do not secure a living income, resulting in unmet needs and low investments in health. Workplace abuse might correspond with vulnerability related to humiliating treatment. These conditions can negatively impact workers' physical health and foster depression. Policies should promote written employment contracts and ensure a mechanism for workers to register violations of fair practices.
    Keywords: adverse working conditions, physical health, depression, immigrants, refugees, minimum wages, written contracts of employment, threats in job, workplace precariousness
    JEL: J81 O15 E24 I14
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14700&r=
  65. By: David Martimort (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales); Jérôme Pouyet (THEMA - Théorie économique, modélisation et applications - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université, ESSEC Business School - Essec Business School); Thomas Trégouët (THEMA - Théorie économique, modélisation et applications - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université)
    Abstract: An incumbent seller contracts with a buyer and faces the threat of entry. The contract stipulates a price and a penalty for breach if the buyer later switches to the entrant. Sellers are heterogenous in terms of the gross surplus they provide to the buyer. The buyer is privately informed on her valuation for the incumbent's service. Asymmetric information makes the incumbent favor entry as it helps screening buyers. When the entrant has some bargaining power vis-à-vis the buyer and keeps a share of the gains from entry, the incumbent instead wants to reduce entry. The compounding effect of these two forces may lead to either excessive entry or foreclosure, and possibly to a fixed rebate for exclusivity given to all buyers.
    Keywords: foreclosure,excessive entry,exclusionary behavior,incomplete information
    Date: 2021–08–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03328387&r=
  66. By: Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki; Pajarinen, Mika
    Abstract: Abstract In this study, we analyse the size and role of the Finnish event industry by utilising both industry- and firm-level data. Furthermore, we study the impacts of the Covid-19 crisis on companies operating in the event industry. Based on our results, the event industry accounts for 1.2% of the Finnish GDP. It should be noted that in addition to companies, the event industry consists of associations, foundations and other non-profit organisations. Depending on the definition, the Finnish event industry included in 2019 approximately 8,354–9,126 companies with 15,200–19,500 employees (full-time equivalent), which corresponds to 0.9–1.2% of the employment of all companies. The companies operating in the event industry generated EUR 800–1,200 million value added, corresponding to 0.6–0.9% of the value added of all companies. The turnover decreased between 2019 and 2020 for 70% of these companies. In every fourth of the companies, turnover decreased by at least 50%. Due to update delays of the firm-level data, these shares are probably downward biased because we were not able to take into account the role of companies that that ceased operations.
    Keywords: Event industry, Event, Significance, Covid-19, Impact, Role, Definition
    JEL: L16 L8 L84
    Date: 2021–09–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rif:report:116&r=
  67. By: Rodrigo Ignacio Barra Novoa (Universidad de Tarapaca)
    Abstract: Dieser Artikel bietet eine erste Annäherung an die Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Pandemie auf das makro- und mikroökonomische Umfeld in Chile, wobei repräsentative Daten aus den jüngsten formellen Erhebungen im Land verwendet werden. In diesem Fall ist die Zahl der aktiven Unternehmen zum Teil aufgrund der sozialen Krise, die am 18. Oktober 2019 begann, stark zurückgegangen, und in den meisten Branchen waren Verluste aufgrund der Pandemiekrise zu verzeichnen, die nach wie vor zu Arbeitsplatzverlusten und geringer Rentabilität der Unternehmen führt. Diese ersten Ergebnisse haben Auswirkungen auf die Politik der Zentralbank und können Vorhersagen für mittel- und langfristige Prognosen, insbesondere für das wirtschaftliche und soziale Wachstum des Landes, liefern.
    Abstract: This article offers a first approximation of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Chilean macro and microeconomic environment, using representative data from the latest formal surveys in the country. Here, the number of active firms plummeted in part due to the social crisis that began on October 18, 2019, and losses were felt in most industries due to the pandemic crisis that continues to generate job losses and low business profitability. These first results have implications for central bank policies and can predict medium and medium-term projections, especially for the country's economic and social growth.
    Abstract: Cet article propose une première approximation des impacts de la pandémie COVID-19 sur l'environnement macro et microéconomique chilien, en utilisant des données représentatives des dernières enquêtes formelles du pays. Ici, le nombre d'entreprises actives s'est effondré en partie en raison de la crise sociale qui a débuté le 18 octobre 2019, et des pertes ont été ressenties dans la plupart des industries en raison de la crise pandémique qui continue de générer des pertes d'emplois et une faible rentabilité des entreprises. Ces premiers résultats ont des implications pour les politiques des banques centrales et peuvent prédire les projections à moyen et moyen terme, notamment pour la croissance économique et sociale du pays.
    Date: 2021–05–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03331327&r=
  68. By: Hanim, Muhammad Iqbal Jauhar
    Abstract: Sales is an important stage for an entrepreneur to make a profit during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also benefits from the opportunity where the demand for sports equipment is always in demand. But in reality, not always the goods sold sell well in the market. This is the concern of researchers about the concept of good sales and in accordance with the current policy of restricting community activities. Selling online is a profitable way to overcome restrictions on community activities in the field. This type of research is descriptive qualitative research with case study research methods. The stages carried out in this research are: (1) topic selection, and research cases, (2) literature study stage, (3) research problem formulation and research focus, (4) data collection stage, (5) data processing stage, ( 6) Data analysis stage, and (7) Conclusion. The results show that there is an increase in daily online sales of sports equipment every month in the first half of 2021. However, there are days without sales transactions.
    Date: 2021–09–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:352vx&r=
  69. By: Antonin Pottier (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marc Fleurbaey (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Aurélie Méjean (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Stéphane Zuber (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We develop an integrated assessment model with endogenous population dynamics accouting for the impact of global climate change on mortality through five channels (heat, diarrhoeal disease, malaria, dengue, undernutrition). An age-dependent endogenous mortality rate, which depends linearly on global temperature increase, is introduced and calibrated. We consider three emission scenarios (business-as-usual, 3°C and 2°C scenarios) and find that the five risks induce deaths in the range from 160,000 per annum (in the near term) to almost 350,000 (at the end of the century) in the business-as-annual. We examine the number of life-years lost due to the five selected risks and find figures ranging from 5 to 10 millions annually. These numbers are too low to impact the aggregate dynamics and we do not find significant feedback effects of climate mortality to production, and thus emissions and temperature increase. But we do find interesting evolution patterns. The number of life-years lost is constant (business-as-usual) or decreases over time (3°C and 2°C). For the stabilisation scenarios, we find that the number of life-years lost is higher today than in 2100, due to improvements in generic mortality conditions, the bias of those improvements towards the young, and an ageing population. From that perspective, the present generation is found to bear the brunt of the considered climate change impacts.
    Keywords: Mortality risk,Integrated assessment model,Endogenous population,Impacts,Climate change
    Date: 2020–12–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:ciredw:halshs-03048602&r=
  70. By: Etienne Fouqueray (FED 4229 - Fédération Territoires - Université de Poitiers - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, RURALITES - RURALITES - Université de Poitiers); Emmanuel Nadaud (FED 4229 - Fédération Territoires - Université de Poitiers - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, RURALITES - RURALITES - Université de Poitiers)
    Abstract: COMPRENDRE LA PERFORMANCE ET LE DÉCLIN DES TERRITOIRES D'INDUSTRIE. APPROCHE QUALITATIVE ANGOULÊME-COGNAC La présente étude s'intéresse au cas du territoire d'industrie Angoulême-Cognac au sein duquel figure la zone d'emploi de Cognac caractérisée par des effets locaux industriels positifs sur les périodes 2007-2016 et 2016-2018. Son objectif est de comprendre l'effet local positif identifié sur cette zone d'emploi en intégrant plus largement le territoire d'industrie dans lequel elle s'inscrit. De fait, la dynamique industrielle sur la zone d'emploi d'Angoulême est également étudiée, bien que présentant des effets locaux négatifs. Plusieurs thématiques liées aux effets locaux ont été traitées : le fonctionnement du marché du travail ; la dynamique interterritoriale ; l'effet Covid-19 ; l'ancrage territorial et le rapport entre les multinationales et le territoire. Ce document est un rapport de recherche détaillé. Il a donné lieu à la publication d'un ouvrage: "Angoulême-Cognac: appréhender la diversité des territoires industriels", Les Docs de la Fabrique, Paris, Presse des Mines, 2021.
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03331848&r=
  71. By: Enrique Pinzon (StataCorp)
    Abstract: Stata 17 introduced two commands to fit difference-in-differences (DID) models and difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) models. One of the commands, didregress, is for repeated cross-section models, and the other command, xtdidregress, is for longitudinal or panel data. In this presentation, I will briefly talk about the theory of DID and DDD, and then there will be a practical application about how to fit the models using the new commands. Likewise, some aspects related to standard errors that are appropriate under different scenarios will be addressed. Graphical diagnostics and tests relevant to the DID and DDD specifications, as well as new areas of development in the DID literature, will also be discussed.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:21&r=
  72. By: Sebastian Kripfganz (University of Exeter Business School); Vasilis Sarafidis (BI Norwegian Business School)
    Abstract: We introduce the xtivdfreg command in Stata, which implements a general instrumental variables (IV) approach for estimating panel data models with a large number of time series observations, T, and unobserved common factors or interactive effects, as developed by Norkute, Sarafidis, Yamagata, and Cui (2021, Journal of Econometrics) and Cui, Norkute, Sarafidis, and Yamagata (2020, ISER Discussion Paper). The underlying idea of this approach is to project out the common factors from exogenous covariates using principal components analysis, and to run IV regression in both of two stages, using defactored covariates as instruments. The resulting two-stage IV (2SIV) estimator is valid for models with homogeneous or heterogeneous slope coefficients, and has several advantages relative to existing popular approaches. In addition, the xtivdfreg command extends the 2SIV approach in two major ways. Firstly, the algorithm accommodates estimation of unbalanced panels. Secondly, the algorithm permits a flexible specification of instruments. It is shown that when one imposes zero factors, the xtivdfreg command can replicate the results of the popular ivregress Stata command. Notably, unlike ivregress, xtivdfreg permits estimation of the two-way error components panel data model with heterogeneous slope coefficients.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:4&r=
  73. By: Nguyen, Lien; Jokimäki, Hanna; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Saloniki, Eirini Christina; Batchelder, Laurie; Malley, Juliette; Lu, Hui; Burge, Peter; Trukeschitz, Birgit; Forder, Julien
    Abstract: This study developed Finnish preference weights for the seven-attribute Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit for carers (ASCOT-Carer) and investigated survey fatigue and learning in best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments. An online survey that included a BWS experiment using the ASCOT-Carer was completed by a sample from the general population in Finland. A block of eight BWS profiles describing different states from the ASCOT-Carer were randomly assigned to each respondent, who consecutively made four choices (best, worst, second best and second worst) per profile. The analysis panel data had 32,160 choices made by 1005 respondents. A scale multinomial logit (S-MNL) model was used to estimate preference weights for 28 ASCOT-Carer attribute levels. Fatigue and learning effects were examined as scale heterogeneity. Several specifications of the generalised MNL model were employed to ensure the stability of the preference estimates. The most and least-valued states were the top and bottom levels of the control over daily life attribute. The preference weights were not on a cardinal scale. We observed the position effect of the attributes on preferences associated with the best or second-best choices. A learning effect was found. The established preference weights can be used in evaluations of the effects of long-term care services and interventions on the quality of life of service users and caregivers. The learning effect implies a need to develop study designs that ensure equal consideration to all profiles (choice tasks) in a sequential choice experiment.
    Keywords: adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit for carers (ASCOT-Carer); best-worst scaling (BWS); evaluation; informal care; learning and fatigue effects; outcome measurement; quality of life; scale multinomial logit
    JEL: C35 C90 I18 I31 I39
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:111885&r=
  74. By: David, Lucinda (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: In order to unpack the context that enable place leaders to enact transformative policies in their local economies, this paper conducts a meta-analysis using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). This paper finds that there are three solution paths, which makes manifestations of place leadership possible. Path 1 combines networks, assets, and leadership skills. Path 2 combines agenda, assets, autonomy, and networks. Path 3 combines agenda, autonomy, network, and leadership skills. Having three paths suggests that different regions can share similar conditions that can enable place leadership but that, importantly; there is no one single condition or ‘recipe’ for doing so
    Keywords: place leadership; context; QCA
    JEL: D02 R58
    Date: 2021–09–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:lucirc:2021_011&r=
  75. By: Antonin Pottier (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marc Fleurbaey (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Aurélie Méjean (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Stéphane Zuber (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We develop an integrated assessment model with endogenous population dynamics accouting for the impact of global climate change on mortality through five channels (heat, diarrhoeal disease, malaria, dengue, undernutrition). An age-dependent endogenous mortality rate, which depends linearly on global temperature increase, is introduced and calibrated. We consider three emission scenarios (business-as-usual, 3°C and 2°C scenarios) and find that the five risks induce deaths in the range from 160,000 per annum (in the near term) to almost 350,000 (at the end of the century) in the business-as-annual. We examine the number of life-years lost due to the five selected risks and find figures ranging from 5 to 10 millions annually. These numbers are too low to impact the aggregate dynamics and we do not find significant feedback effects of climate mortality to production, and thus emissions and temperature increase. But we do find interesting evolution patterns. The number of life-years lost is constant (business-as-usual) or decreases over time (3°C and 2°C). For the stabilisation scenarios, we find that the number of life-years lost is higher today than in 2100, due to improvements in generic mortality conditions, the bias of those improvements towards the young, and an ageing population. From that perspective, the present generation is found to bear the brunt of the considered climate change impacts.
    Keywords: Mortality risk,Integrated assessment model,Endogenous population,Impacts,Climate change
    Date: 2020–12–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:halshs-03048602&r=
  76. By: Sobyra, Robert; Sigler, Thomas; Charles-Edwards, Elin
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of human capital in explaining divergent employment growth within advanced economies. It adds a spatial dimension to William J. Baumol’s theory of ‘unbalanced growth’ by linking it with the concept of ‘job polarization’. We develop a theory of ‘geographical unbalanced growth’ that explains divergent employment trajectories in terms of skill restructuring. The theory is operationalized via a novel shift–share extension, which is applied to Australian data. We find evidence of ongoing regional divergence and for our proposed mechanism. The findings reinforce the importance of active policies to attract high-skilled jobs to non-metropolitan regions.
    Date: 2021–09–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:2ywd8&r=
  77. By: Cheng, John W.
    Keywords: synchronous online classes,COVID-19 isolation and distress,sense of coherence,social capital
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:itsb21:238014&r=
  78. By: Barr, Nicholas
    Abstract: This paper explores the nature of reciprocity between workers and pensioners, starting from the observation that what pensioners consume has mostly to be produced by younger workers, and therefore reciprocity in some form is inherent. The opening section argues that a worker can try to arrange consumption in retirement by (a) storing current production or (b) building claims on future production. However, storing current production (the squirrels model) does not work well, so that the main vehicle is building claims on future production. There are two approaches to doing so – through promises (which lie at the core of Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) plans), or by accumulating financial assets which can be exchanged for goods and services (the basis of funded plans). The second part of the paper establishes that a central element in assessing pension arrangements is the extent to which investment is in productive assets. The third part considers the durability of different pension regimes. The paper’s central conclusions are (a) that reciprocity is inherent in pension plans, (b) that the specifics of pension design are in many ways secondary, and (c) that what really matters are economic growth (increasing what is available to share between workers and pensioners) and good government (which will manage PAYG pensions responsibly and/or sustain the economic stability and regulatory capacity that underpin funded pensions).
    Keywords: pensions; funding; pay-as-you-go; reciprocity; social security; saving; investment
    JEL: D63 E21 E22 E24 J14 J18
    Date: 2021–09–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:111927&r=
  79. By: Ahmed, Akhter; Hoddinott, John F.; Roy, Shalini
    Abstract: In Bangladesh, social protection programs have the potential to uplift the most vulnerable out of poverty. Until recently, however, these programs have had little impact on nutrition. Results from a randomized controlled trial in Bangladesh – the Transfer Modality Research Initiative – provides the proof of concept that combining social safety net transfers with nutrition behavior change communication (BCC) can significantly improve household food security and child nutrition, and these impacts can be sustained over time.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; nutrition; social protection; social safety nets; cash transfers; policies; poverty; food security; behavior change communication
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:prnote:1261696987&r=
  80. By: Acharya, Tri D.; Jenn, Alan T.; Miller, Marshall R.; Fulton, Lew M.
    Abstract: Researchers at UC Davis developed “Spatial Transportation Infrastructure, Energy, Vehicles, and Emissions (STIEVE),” an optimization model for hydrogen refueling stations in California. The model uses inputs from the California Statewide Travel Demand Model (CSTDM) and other sources to determine heavy-duty vehicle travel demand across the state, and the corresponding, localized energy demand. The model then determines which of the transportation analysis zones (areas based on census geography used to replicate areas of trip origins and destinations) delineated by the CSTDM are optimal areas for refueling stations and the number of stations needed in each zone to meet demand while minimizing costs. The final step is a suitability analysis that identifies each station’s specific location within a designated transportation analysis zone, based on a determined footprint for the refueling station.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt2qw8464c&r=
  81. By: global financial governance issues, IRC Task Force on IMF
    Abstract: The global recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting deterioration in many countries’ public finances have increased the risk of sovereign debt crises. Although crisis prevention remains paramount, these developments have made it imperative to re-examine the adequacy of the current toolkit for crisis management and resolution, in a context where changes in the creditor base and in the composition of public debt instruments have brought about new challenges in terms of reduced transparency and additional barriers to achieving inter-creditor equity. This report focuses on the international architecture for sovereign debt restructurings (SODRs), as seen through the lenses of the International Monetary Fund (IMF or “the Fund”) and with a special attention to the role that the Fund can play in facilitating orderly restructuring processes. It provides a set of findings and recommendations in relation to certain key elements of the Fund’s lending framework that have important ramifications on SODR processes, namely debt sustainability assessments (DSAs), the exceptional access policy (EAP) for financing above normal access limits, and the criteria for lending to countries with payments arrears to private creditors (LIA) or official bilateral creditors (LIOA). It also considers other indirect channels through which the Fund can affect SODRs, including its support for enhancing the transparency and public disclosure of sovereign debt information, its collaboration with the Paris Club and the G20 debt-related initiatives, the promotion of contractual standards for sovereign debt, and the monitoring of relevant legislative developments. JEL Classification: F34, F55, H63
    Keywords: debt restructuring regime, International Monetary Fund, sovereign debt, sovereign default
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ecb:ecbops:2021262&r=
  82. By: Robert Spizzichino; Gilles Maréchal (ESO - Espaces et Sociétés - IGARUN - Institut de Géographie et d'Aménagement - UN - Université de Nantes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UA - Université d'Angers - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UM - Le Mans Université); Jean-Claude Devèze
    Abstract: S'inspirant de la pensée anti-utilitariste de Marcel Mauss, les « convivialistes » 1-des économistes, sociologues, anthropologues, philosophes, ingénieurs, etc.-réfléchissent à de nouvelles voies pour sortir des impasses du paradigme néo-libéral et agro-industriel. Divers sujets leur permettent d'envisager un avenir commun en cherchant des alternatives. L'article traite de la table, lieu qui rassemble, par l'alimentation et la façon de la produire qui sont de puissants leviers de changement.
    Date: 2021–02–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03331514&r=
  83. By: Robert Grant (BayesCamp Ltd)
    Abstract: In this talk, I will review the range of current software that can be used for Bayesian analysis. By considering the features, interfaces and algorithms, the users and their backgrounds, the popular models and use cases, I will identify areas where Stata has a strategic or technical advantage, and where useful advances can be built into future versions or community-contributed commands, without excessive effort. Stata has developed Bayesian modelling within the framework of its own ado syntax, which has some strengths (for example, the bayes: prefix on familiar and tested commands) and some weaknesses (for example, the limitations to specifying a complex bespoke likelihood or prior). On the other hand, there are Stata components such as the SEM Builder GUI, which would potentially be very popular with beginners in Bayes if they were adapted. I will also examine the concept of a probabilistic programming language to specify a model in linked conditional formulas and probability distributions, and how it can work with Stata.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:10&r=
  84. By: Daniele Girardi (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst (USA)); Sai Madhurika Mamunuru (Department of Economics, Whitman College (USA)); Simon D Halliday (School of Economics, University of Bristol (UK)); Samuel Bowles (Santa Fe Institute (USA))
    Abstract: It is widely held that studying economics makes you more selfish and politically conservative. We use a difference-in-differences strategy to disentangle the causal impact of economics education from selection effects. We estimate the effect of four different intermediate microeconomics courses on students’ experimentally elicited social preferences and beliefs about others, and policy opinions. We find no discernible effect of studying economics (whatever the course content) on self-interest or beliefs about others’ self-interest. Results on policy preferences also point to little effect, except that economics may make students somewhat less opposed to highly restrictive immigration policies.
    Keywords: endogenous preferences, economics education, social preferences, self-interest, generosity, altruism, reciprocity, microeconomics, teaching
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ums:papers:2021-07&r=
  85. By: Kramer, Berber; Waweru, Carol; Waithaka, Lilian; Eyase, Jean; Chegeh, Joseph; Kivuva, Benjamin; Cecchi, Francesco
    Abstract: Climate change has exacerbated the frequency and severity of extreme weather events affecting the livelihoods of millions of smallholder farmers across Sub-Saharan Africa. Risks such as increased droughts, pests, floods, and heatwaves are projected to increase significantly in future years. The formal seed sector is an important entry point to help farmers better manage these risks, as it provides access to high-quality certified seeds of improved stress-tolerant varieties, selected and bred to maximize productivity in good years, whilst reducing the impact of climate change risks in bad years. The challenge, however, is that the formal market is not always inclusive and is more accessible to middle- or largescale (and often male) farmers. Smaller farmers (often female) are more likely to obtain seeds from informal sources (friends or peers) or collect their own seeds from the crops they grow. This creates social inequities in distribution channels for quality seeds; and in qualitative research, farmers informed us that the COVID-19 pandemic has further restricted their access to inputs.
    Keywords: KENYA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; models; modelling; inclusion; seeds; farmers; entrepreneurship; seed delivery
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:prnote:1265314309&r=
  86. By: J.Ignacio Conde-Ruiz (Universidad Complutense de Madrid and ICAE (Spain).); Juan-José Ganuza (Universitat Pompeu Fabra and Barcelona GSE.); Manu García (Washington University in St. Louis and ICAE.); Luis A. Puch (Universidad Complutense de Madrid and ICAE (Spain).)
    Abstract: We analyze all the articles published in the top five (T5) Economics journals be- tween 2002 and 2019 in order to find gender differences in their research approach. We implement an unsupervised machine learning algorithm: the Structural Topic Model (STM), so as to incorporate gender document-level meta-data into a probabilistic text model. This algorithm characterizes jointly the set of latent topics that best fits our data (the set of abstracts) and how the documents/abstracts are allocated to each latent topic. Latent topics are mixtures over words where each word has a probability of belonging to a topic after controlling by journal name and publication year (the meta-data). Thus, the topics may capture research fields but also other more subtle characteristics related to the way in which the articles are written. We find that fe- males are unevenly distributed along the estimated latent topics, by using only data driven methods. This finding relies on “automatically” generated built-in data given the contents in the abstracts of the articles in the T5 journals, without any arbitrary allocation of texts to particular categories (as JEL codes, or research areas).
    Keywords: Machine Learning; Gender Gaps; Structural Topic Model; Gendered Language; Research Fields.
    JEL: I20 J16 Z13
    Date: 2021–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ucm:doicae:2109&r=
  87. By: Nicolai Suppa (Centre d'Estudis Demografics, Autonomous University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: The Global Multidmensional Poverty Index (MPI) is a cross-country poverty measure published by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative since 2010. The estimation requires household survey data because multidimensional poverty measures seek to exploit the joint distribution of deprivations in the identification step of poverty measurement. Analyses of multidimensional poverty draw on several aggregate measures (e.g., the headcount ratio), dimensional quantities (e.g., indicator contributions), and auxiliary statistics (e.g., non-response rates). Robustness analyses of key parameters (e.g., poverty cutoffs) and several levels of analysis (e.g., subnational regions) further increase the number of estimates. In 2018 the underlying workflow has been revised and subjected to continuous development, which for the first time allowed figures to be calculated for 105 countries in a single round. In 2021, this workflow was substantially expanded to include the estimation of changes over time. In 2021 the regular global MPI release includes 109 countries (with 1291 subnational regions) whereas changes over time are provided for 84 countries with 793 subnational regions over up to three years. In total this release builds on 220 micro datasets. For a large-scale project like this, a clear and efficient workflow is essential. This presentation introduces key elements of the workflow and presents solutions with Stata for particular problems, including the structure of a comprehensive results file, which facilitates both analysis and production of deliverables, the usability of the estimation files, the collaborative nature of the project, the country briefing production, and how some of the additional challenges introduced by the incorporation of changes over time have been addressed so far. This presentation seeks to share the gained experience and to subject both the principal workflow and selected solutions to public scrutiny.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:2&r=
  88. By: Hariharan, Naveen Kunnathuvalappil
    Abstract: Cyber-attacks on critical infrastructure, as well as the possibility of cyber-terrorism and even cyberwarfare, pose a threat to societies on a larger scale. Stakeholders are vulnerable to information theft, service disruptions, privacy and identity theft, fraud, espionage and sabotage. This article provides a brief overview of risk management, with a particular emphasis on cyber security and cyber-risk assessment. This article provides an overview of risk management, with a particular emphasis on cyber security detection, prevention, and mitigation techniques. We showed how organizations could mitigate their cyber risk with careful management.
    Date: 2020–09–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:skxec&r=
  89. By: Bertram, Christine; Quaas, Martin; Reusch, Thorsten B.H.; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Wolff, Claudia; Rickels, Wilfried
    Abstract: Carbon sequestration and storage in mangroves, salt marshes and seagrass meadows is an essential coastal ‘blue carbon’ ecosystem service for climate change mitigation. Here we offer a comprehensive, global and spatially explicit economic assessment of carbon sequestration and storage in three coastal ecosystem types at the global and national levels. We propose a new approach based on the country-specific social cost of carbon that allows us to calculate each country’s contribution to, and redistribution of, global blue carbon wealth. Globally, coastal ecosystems contribute a mean ± s.e.m. of US$190.67 ± 30 bn yr−1 to blue carbon wealth. The three countries generating the largest positive net blue wealth contribution for other countries are Australia, Indonesia and Cuba, with Australia alone generating a positive net benefit of US$22.8 ± 3.8 bn yr−1 for the rest of the world through coastal ecosystem carbon sequestration and storage in its territory.
    Keywords: Climate-change mitigation,Economics,Marine biology
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:ifwkie:240209&r=
  90. By: Eric Dunipace
    Abstract: Weighting methods are a common tool to de-bias estimates of causal effects. And though there are an increasing number of seemingly disparate methods, many of them can be folded into one unifying regime: causal optimal transport. This new method directly targets distributional balance by minimizing optimal transport distances between treatment and control groups or, more generally, between a source and target population. Our approach is model-free but can also incorporate moments or any other important functions of covariates that the researcher desires to balance. We find that the causal optimal transport outperforms competitor methods when both the propensity score and outcome models are misspecified, indicating it is a robust alternative to common weighting methods. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of our method in an external control study examining the effect of misoprostol versus oxytocin for treatment of post-partum hemorrhage.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.01991&r=
  91. By: Centro de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo
    Abstract: Este texto reúne los análisis de los profesores de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas e investigadores del CID de la Universidad Nacional sobre la actual coyuntura del ciclo de movilizaciones en curso en Colombia, con particular referencia al análisis de los sujetos del paro, sus paradigmas y supuestos sesgos ideológicos, y sobre opciones de políticas públicas para salir adelante como país. *** This study gathers the analyses of the professors of the Faculty of Economics and the researchers of the CID of the Universidad Nacional on the ongoing cycle of mobilizations in Colombia, with particular reference to the analysis of the subjects of the strike, their paradigms and alleged ideological biases, and on public policy options to move forward as a country.
    Keywords: campesinos, indígenas, policía, reforma, bioeconomía, economía heterodoxa, regla fiscal, informalidad, acuerdo de paz, ingreso mínimo garantizado; género; identidad social
    JEL: H12 H23 H41 H51 H53 J15 J16 J24
    Date: 2021–09–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000426:019563&r=
  92. By: Tania Babina; Alex Xi He; Sabrina T. Howell; Elisabeth Ruth Perlman; Joseph Staudt
    Abstract: U.S. universities, which are important producers of new knowledge, have experienced a shift in research funding away from federal and towards private industry sources. This paper compares the effects of federal and private university research funding, using data from 22 universities that include individual-level payments for everyone employed on all grants for each university year and that are linked to patent and Census data, including IRS W-2 records. We instrument for an individual’s source of funding with government-wide R&D expenditure shocks within a narrow field of study. We find that a higher share of federal funding causes fewer but more general patents, more high-tech entrepreneurship, a higher likelihood of remaining employed in academia, and a lower likelihood of joining an incumbent firm. Increasing the private share of funding has opposite effects for most outcomes. It appears that private funding leads to greater appropriation of intellectual property by incumbent firms.
    Keywords: R&D, Science, Universities, Innovation, Entrepreneurship
    JEL: O3 G18 G38 I2
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cen:wpaper:21-26&r=
  93. By: Richard Foltyn; Jonna Olsson
    Abstract: Using biennial data from the Health and Retirement Study, we estimate age-dependent health dynamics and survival probabilities at annual frequency conditional on race, sex, and health. The health gradient in life expectancy is steep and persists after controlling for socioeconomic status. Moreover, even conditional on health and socioeconomic status, the racial gap in life expectancy remains large. Simulations show that this gap affects savings rates but does not play a major role in explaining the racial wealth gap. However, differences in mortality imply that black individuals on average can expect to receive 15% less in Social Security benefits in present value terms.
    Keywords: Life expectancy, health dynamics, racial life expectancy gap
    JEL: C23 E21 I14 J14
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gla:glaewp:2021_17&r=
  94. By: Benjamin Monnery; Saïd Souam; Anna Montagutelli
    Abstract: In France as in other countries, prison faces the challenge of securing inmates' reentry and preventing recidivism. Theoretically, prison work offers a direct opportunity to improve reentry prospects, but only one quarter of prisoners have access to work today in France, compared to 36% twenty years ago. This article provides a summary of the challenges at stake with prison work. It reviews the theoretical and empirical research on the impacts of rehabilitation programs and discusses the potentiel effects of prison work on social welfare. The article also makes the case that the supply of prison work and public spending in this area are insufficient in France, considering the externalities involved. Finally, the article develops public policy recommendations for prison work to deliver its full potential.
    Keywords: prison ; work ; reentry ; recidivism ; public policies
    JEL: K42 K14 J45
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:drm:wpaper:2021-26&r=
  95. By: Tong, Antonia
    Abstract: The 21st century sees a sharp increase in political, military, and economic competition. A country's competitive position in the world is measured by the strength of its economy. Since 2009 bitcoin was created, the decentralized economy became the trending research topic on google in 2021. Many developing countries try their best to find a way to decentralize their high-cost operations and optimize possible resources. Decentralization, as opposed to centralization, is the procedure through which a firm's operations, especially those concerning planning and management, are spread or outsourced away from the centralized, dominant place, group, and bureaucracy. It is definitive as a component of the decentralized economy since it is a set of commodities that enable the community to have sovereignty over an individual’s wealth without requiring third parties, such as a bank. Regional essential services are chosen by publicly elected officials in a decentralized economy system, whereas policy decisions are decided by a parliament comprised of elected members from each region in a centralized economic system. Two types of parliamentary conduct are explored. This thesis offers a foundation for choice, comparative, and a category of schemes for managerial decision is established, and decentralized (in the classic sense), centralized, and unconstrained economic subclasses are studied in both the United States and China. It also identified and discussed the channels through which a decentralized economic system can contribute to the economic growth. In a basic illustrative structure, parameters for rating the schemes are developed and used. It is discovered that a universal predilection for one of the subcategories cannot be justified without significantly reducing the model's possibilities in the United States and China.
    Date: 2021–09–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:thesis:m986x&r=
  96. By: Claire Rimbaud (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Alice Soldà (Heidelberg University)
    Abstract: Pro-social individuals face a trade-off between their monetary and moral motives. Hence, they may be tempted to exploit the uncertainty in their decision environment in order to reconcile this trade-off. In this paper, we investigate whether individuals with belief-dependent preferences avoid the monetary cost of behaving according to their moral standards by strategically acquiring information about others'expectations. We test the predictions of an information acquisition model in an online experiment. We use a modified trust-game in which we introduce uncertainty about the second movers' beliefs about first-movers' expectations. Our design enables to (i) identify participants with belief-based preferences and (ii) investigate their information acquisition strategy.Consistent with our predictions of subjective preferences, we find that most individuals classified as belief-dependent strategically select their source of information to avoid the cost of their conscience.
    Keywords: Belief-dependent preferences,illusory preferences,information acquisition,self-serving biases,experiment Belief-dependent preferences,experiment
    Date: 2021–08–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:halshs-03325963&r=
  97. By: George Vamvakas (Department of Biostatistics & Health Informatics, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London)
    Abstract: The use of auxiliary variables with maximum likelihood parameter estimation for surveys that miss data by design is not a widespread approach. Although efficiency gains from the incorporation of Normal auxiliary variables in a model have been recorded in the literature, little is known about the effects of non-Normal auxiliary variables in the parameter estimation. We simulate growth data to mimic SCALES, a two-stage longitudinal survey of language development. We allow a fully observed Poisson stratification criterion to be correlated with the partially observed model responses and develop five models that host the auxiliary information from this criterion. We compare these models with each other and with a weighted model in terms of bias, efficiency, and coverage. We apply our best performing model to SCALES data and show how to obtain growth parameters and population norms. Parameter estimation from a model that incorporates a non-Normal auxiliary variable is unbiased and more efficient than its weighted counterpart. The auxiliary variable method can produce efficient population percentile norms and velocities. When a fully observed variable, which dominates the selection of the sample and which is strongly correlated with the incomplete variable of interest exists, its utilisation appears beneficial.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:8&r=
  98. By: Zhao Xu (StataCorp)
    Abstract: Stata 16 introduced tight integration with Python, allowing users to embed and execute Python code from all of Stata's programming environments, such as Command Window, do-files and ado-files. Stata 17 introduced the pystata Python package. With this package, users can call Stata from various Python environments, including Jupyter Notebook, Jupyter Lab, Spyder IDE, PyCharm IDE, and system command-line environments that can access Python (Windows Command Prompt, macOS terminal, Unix terminal). In this talk, I will introduce two ways to run Stata from Python: the IPython magic commands and a suite of API functions. I will then demonstrate how to use them to seamlessly pass data and results between Stata and Python.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:12&r=
  99. By: Nicolás Urdaneta Andrade
    Abstract: Este artículo estudia la existencia de sesgos de género en las evaluaciones de docencia de una universidad en Colombia. Para esto, se utiliza un modelo de regresión lineal con efectos fijos de estudiante y que controla por características de los estudiantes, profesores y los cursos. Se encuentra que, en promedio, las profesoras de planta reciben evaluaciones 0.07 desviaciones estándar menores que sus pares masculinos. Mientras que, no hay diferencias por género entre asistentes graduados ni profesores de cátedra. Sin embargo, las heterogeneidades son amplias. En cursos con profesores de 35-55 años, con más de 50 estudiantes, o entre menor sea la fracción de estudiantes mujeres, las profesoras son penalizadas más fuertemente. En estos casos se encuentran sesgos entre 0.1-0.2 desviaciones estándar y representan el 40% de las evaluaciones. Adicionalmente, las mujeres tienden a ser descritas con palabras relacionadas a características personales ("amable" o "comprensiva") y los hombres con temas asociados al curso o con adjetivos positivos ("tema", "parcial", "crack"). A partir de lo anterior, se proponen medidas que disminuyan los sesgos en los estudiantes y un análisis de las evaluaciones consciente de las diferencias por género
    Keywords: genero; profesor; evaluación docente; sesgos.
    JEL: J16 I21 I29 C52
    Date: 2021–08–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000089:019557&r=
  100. By: Céline Merlin-Brogniart (CLERSÉ - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Lars Fuglsang (Roskilde University); Ada Scupola (Roskilde University); Anne Hansen (Roskilde University); Rolf Rønning (The Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences); Siv Magnussen (The Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences); Alberto Peralta (UAH - Universidad de Alcalá - University of Alcalá); Miklós Rosta (Corvinus University of Budapest); Márton Katona (Corvinus University of Budapest); Éva Révész (Corvinus University of Budapest)
    Abstract: In the context of the modernization of public management in Europe, the attention paid to social entrepreneurs for innovation is increasingly important. This paper reveals that these actors significantly contribute to the development of collaborative governance aimed at improving social innovation related to public service through their role as initiator, boundary spanner or network leader. However, the public sector actors involved in the governance also have a significant role to play in enabling these innovations to emerge. This paper analyzes the forms and processes of innovation taken by this multi-actors collaborative governance. It is based on the study of 25 case studies associated with five countries of the European Union.
    Date: 2021–01–21
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-03333560&r=
  101. By: MORIKAWA Masayuki
    Abstract: Using panel data from original surveys conducted in June 2020 and July 2021, this study analyzes the changes in adoption and productivity of working from home (WFH) during the COVID-19 pandemic. First, the results indicate that the mean WFH productivity has improved by more than ten percentage points in the past year, although it is still approximately 20% lower compared to when working in the office. 1) "Selection effect" arising from the exit of workers with relatively low WFH productivity from the WFH practice and 2) the improvement in WFH productivity through the "learning effect" contributed almost equally to the productivity growth of WFH. Second, additional working hours extracted from reduced commuting are approximately 3.0% and 0.7% of the total labor input of WFH workers and all workers, respectively. Even after adjusting for additional working hours from reduced commuting, the conclusion of relatively low productivity at home remains essentially unchanged. Third, the percentage of employees who want to continue frequent WFH after the end of the pandemic has increased substantially, suggesting that WFH may become a popular workstyle.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eti:dpaper:21078&r=
  102. By: Lassana Toure (Université de Ségou); Atoumane Diagne; Amadou Traore
    Abstract: This paper reports an analysis of the statistical data and a socioeconomic impact analysis of COVID-19. The pandemic started in Asia, particularly China, in December 2019 and continued until it peaked there at the end of February 2020. Europe has seen a dramatic increase in the number of confirmed cases and deaths since March 2020. At the same time, and to a lesser extent, North America, including the USA, has gradually taken over and now contains more new positive cases than anywhere else in the world. In contrast, South America, like Brazil, was the epicentre of the pandemic at the end of August 2020. Africa and Oceania are modestly affected by the pandemic. Econometric estimates were made assuming that the COVID-19 pandemic continues until December 2021. The results show that the duration of the peak of the pandemic would not exceed 400 days worldwide, if during the first 24 months the number of new cases never exceeds 800,000, and in the absence of an effective vaccine and treatment. The measures currently being implemented in many countries to prevent the spread of the disease (social distancing, closing of markets, confinement, banning of gatherings, etc.) are having a profound impact on the various markets and, through them, on the living conditions of households. The number of unemployed may increase. World trade and world prices of financial assets are in free fall. The State and the Central Banks will be obliged to intervene to revive economic activity and regulate certain prices of necessity. This pandemic, through barrier measures, is causing new social developments across the planet. It emphasises the idea that science, techniques and technologies are largely limited. Health and social systems are gradually destabilised. The pandemic suddenly affects religions, socio-professional activities, cultures, the functioning of transport and consumption systems. A new social and economic order is gradually taking shape in place of individualism, notably with a return to communitarian values and the emergence of new behaviours.
    Keywords: COVID-19 Impact Analysis,Econometric Forecasting,Global Economy,Societies,New World Order
    Date: 2021–05–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03334548&r=
  103. By: Laurent, Thibault; Margaretic, Paula; Thomas-Agnan, Christine
    Abstract: The rapidly increasing dimensionality and throughput of flow data require new tools for analysis and interpretation. This paper provides open source tools for the exploration and analysis of origin-destination spatial flow data. We integrate in a single open source R software tool existing visualization techniques for complex OD flow data, as well as new graphical representations. We discuss implementation of these tools from a practitioner point of view. These tools should help scholars to extract meaningful relations between entities accounting at the same time for the intensity of the movements (or relations) and the geography linking the spatial units
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tse:wpaper:125949&r=
  104. By: Natalia Poiatti (Instituto de Relações Internacionais - USP)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how the announcements of the European Central Bank have impacted the cost of sovereign borrowing in central and peripheral European countries. Using the xtbreak command (Ditzen, Karavias and Westerlund, 2021) in Stata, we tested whether the variations of European sovereign spreads can be explained by economic fundamentals in a model that allows for two structural breaks: the first, when investors realized the fiscal sustainability of the EMU should be understood in a decentralized fashion, when the ECB announced it would not bail out Greece; the second, when the ECB realized the existence of the euro was in check and announced it would be able to financial assist the countries in financial trouble. We show that a model that allows for structural breaks after the ECB announcements can explain most of the variations in European sovereign spreads.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:11&r=
  105. By: Tii N. Nchofoung (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Arsène A. Njamen Kengdo (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Elvis D. Achuo (University of Dschang, Cameroon)
    Abstract: The objectives of this paper are to verify the linear and the non-linear effects of infrastructural development on inclusive human development in Africa. The results of the system GMM estimations show a positive effect of infrastructural development on inclusive development across all the infrastructural development indexes employed, except the ICT infrastructural composite index which presents an insignificant negative effect. Besides, a non-linear effect of infrastructures on inclusive development was established across all the infrastructure indicators except for the ICT indicator. Negative thresholds for complementary policies are established for the African Infrastructure Development Index (AIDI) and the transport index while positive thresholds are apparent for the electricity index and the water and sanitation infrastructure index (WSS). Accordingly, in order to sustain the positive incidence of the AIDI and transport index on human development, complementary policies should be engaged to avoid an overall negative effect on human development when the indexes are respectively, 31.12% and 25.56%. In the same vein, the electricity index and WSSI should exceed critical levels of respectively 49.79% and 41.92%, to engender an overall positive effect on inclusive human development.
    Keywords: Infrastructure; Inclusive development: Africa
    JEL: N67 N77 C23 I00 O55
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:abh:wpaper:21/039&r=
  106. By: Ignatov Aleksandr (RANEPA); Larionova Marina (RANEPA); Popova Irina (RANEPA); Sakharov Andrey (RANEPA); Shelepov Andrey (RANEPA)
    Abstract: The whole complex of pandemic, economic, and social crises has become a kind of a stress test for the system of multilateral cooperation as it is weakened by geopolitical conflicts, contradictions between the key members and growing mistrust due to stalled reforms of international organizations and their inability to cope with a host of global issues. Even prior to the pandemic outbreak, 2020 did not promise to be easy. Deepening inequality, deceleration of economic growth, acceleration of climate change, fiercer competition for digital technologies, and the fragmentation of cyberspace demanded joint efforts at the regional and global levels. The human toll, contraction of GDP by 5.2%, a 13% drop in trade, a 60% plunge in oil prices,4 and a loss of an equivalent of 495 mn of full time jobs5 have aggravated long-term challenges by simultaneously casting aside cooperation to overcome them. In this context, it was paramount to balance the urgent agenda and long-term objectives.
    Keywords: Russian economy, international organizations, international institutional arrangements
    JEL: F5 F53 F55
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gai:ppaper:ppaper-2021-1137&r=
  107. By: Oxelheim, Lars (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Randøy, Trond (School of Business and Law)
    Abstract: Based on historical analogies, we emphasize a connection between financial crises and technological shifts where the shift calls for a structural economic transformation. We discuss how political pressures related to this structural transformation pave the way for the return of a new form of Mercantilism. This time it is the competition for high-tech jobs that drives politicians to be more nationalistic. Our conclusion is that the race for jobs in a period of technology shift, coupled with experimental efforts by central banks, will lead to the need for a post-covid 19 reorganization of international companies’ global logistics chain. The current pandemic will act as a catalyst to this very transformation.
    Keywords: Global logistic chain; Post-Covid era; State aid; Technology shift; Job creation
    JEL: E58 F16 F23 F34 G01
    Date: 2021–09–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:1404&r=
  108. By: Roberto Blanco (Banco de España); Sergio Mayordomo (Banco de España); Álvaro Menéndez (Banco de España); Maristela Mulino (Banco de España)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the financial vulnerability of the Spanish corporate sector. The simulations conducted show that the crisis significantly increased firms’ liquidity needs in 2020, although the measures adopted by national and international authorities eased access to credit under favourable conditions, which substantially mitigated the short-term liquidity risks. However, the sharp fall in profitability levels, coupled with debt growth, appears to have resulted in a marked increase in the proportion of vulnerable firms (i.e. those with negative equity or high debt levels), which would be more pronounced among SMEs and the sectors hardest hit by the pandemic. The projections for the period 2021-2023 indicate a gradual decline in these percentages, in keeping with the expected recovery in activity. The results also suggest that, as a result of the crisis, the proportion of firms at risk of becoming non-viable on account of persistent losses through to 2023 would rise by between 2 pp and 3 pp, while the proportion of those that will remain viable but struggle to repay their debts out of their expected future earnings (overindebted firms) would rise by between 3 pp and 4.7 pp. In addition, the simulations show that the unsustainable debt of firms that have become overindebted but remain viable would stand between €9 billion and €18.6 billion, depending on the scenario considered, with the bulk of this amount accounted for by SMEs.
    Keywords: COVID-19, liquidity needs, profitability, indebtedness, credit, solvency, viability
    JEL: E51 E52 G21
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bde:opaper:2119e&r=
  109. By: Nobuyuki Hanaki; Keigo Inukai; Takehito Masuda; Yuta Shimodaira
    Abstract: We summarize the experimentally measured characteristics of the registered participants of the experiments conducted at the Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University. Measured characteristics include fluid intelligence, risk preference (risk aversion, prudence, and temperance), social value orientation, theory of mind, personality (Big Five and Grit), ability to backward induct, as well as their general trust. We discuss reliability of these measures and correlation among them.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dpr:wpaper:1141&r=
  110. By: Alex Bryson (Univerity College London, NIESR, and IZA); Andrew E. Clark (Paris School of Economics, CNRS and IZA); Colin P. Green (Norwegian University of Science and Technology and IZA)
    Abstract: A small literature has shown that individual wellbeing varies with the price of company stock, but it is unclear whether this is due to wealth effects among those holding stock, or more general effects on sentiment, with individuals taking rising stock prices as an indicator of improvements in the economy. We contribute to this literature by using two data sets to establish the relationship between share prices on the one hand and worker wellbeing on the other. First, we use data on share price movements and employee stock holding in a single corporation and provide suggestive evidence that an increase in the firm’s stock price increases the wellbeing of those who belong to its employee share purchase plan (ESPP), and that these effects are greatest among those making the largest monthly contributions to the program who have the most to gain (or lose) from stock price fluctuations. There is also some tentative evidence that the wellbeing effects of a rise in the share price are greatest among those with the largest shareholdings. We then use almost 30 years of British panel data to show that employee job satisfaction moves with share prices among those whose pay is partly determined by company fortunes. Taken together these results suggest that the well-being effects of share prices work at least partly via changes in wealth.
    Keywords: Job Satisfaction; Wellbeing; Share Prices; Share Ownership; Profit-Sharing
    JEL: J28 J33 J54 J63 J81 M52
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:qss:dqsswp:2126&r=
  111. By: de Gendre, Alexandra (University of Sydney); Lynch, John (University of Adelaide); Meunier, Aurélie; Pilkington, Rhiannon (University of Adelaide); Schurer, Stefanie (University of Sydney)
    Abstract: We estimate the impact on child health of the unanticipated introduction of the Australian Baby Bonus, a $3,000 one-off unconditional cash transfer at birth. Using regression discontinuity methods and linked administrative data from South Australia, we find that treated babies had fewer preventable, acute, and urgent hospital presentations—medical care available without co-payments—in the first two years of life. The payment later increased demand for elective care, which requires planning, medical referrals, and often co-payments. Our effects are strongest for disadvantaged families. Our findings suggest that up to 34% of the payout were recouped within the first year.
    Keywords: unconditional cash transfers, baby bonus, child health, health care utilization, regression discontinuity design, natural experiment, linked administrative data
    JEL: I14 I38
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14693&r=
  112. By: Nicholas J. Cox (University of Durham, UK)
    Abstract: Ordered or ordinal variables, such as opinion grades from Strongly disagree to Strongly agree, are common in many fields and a leading data type in some. Alternatively, orderings may be sought in the data. In archaeology and various environmental sciences, there is a problem of seriation, at its simplest finding the best ordering of rows and columns given a data matrix. For example, the goal may be to place archaeological sites in approximate date order according to which artefacts have been found where. Graphics for such data may appear to range from obvious but limited (draw a bar chart if you must) to more powerful but obscure (enthusiasts for complicated mosaic plots or correspondence analyses need to convince the rest of us). Alternatively, graphics are avoided and the focus is only on tabular model output with estimates, standard errors, P-values and so forth. The need for descriptive or exploratory graphics remains. This presentation surveys various graphics commands by the author, made public through the Stata Journal or SSC, that should not seem too esoteric, principally friendlier and more flexible bar charts and dedicated distribution or quantile plots. Specific commands include tabplot, floatplot, qplot and distplot. Mapping grades to scores and considering frequencies, probabilities or cumulative probabilities on transformed scales are also discussed as simple strategies.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:22&r=
  113. By: Sabrine Acosta Schnell (UCR - Universidad de Costa Rica)
    Abstract: Mini-cities are negotiated and advertised as new real estate products that contribute to various changes for adapting local realities and to the challenges imposed by metropolises. This article deals with how the real estate market uses the historical Costa Rican green exceptionalism and the architectural theory of New Urbanism (NU) to inspire the design of mixed-use projects called mini-cities, in Costa Rica and, thus justify the sale and promotion of alleged "new" urban products. The methodological strategy includes a brief historical analysis of concepts that concatenate in a discussion about advertising discourse and landscaping techniques, since this is a window for understanding the "discursive mechanisms" of various actors. The selected case study is the oldest Costa Rican mini-city: Avenida Escazú. The contribution of the article is a reflection on the symbolic advertising discourse, from the perspective of urban geography and semiotics, to identify how the private sector uses green exceptionalism to justify the "novelties" in the dynamics of consumption in mini-cities. It offers to go beyond a classic binary conclusion and, in this way, questions and highlights the complexity of the NU in Costa Rica. It is concluded that the private sector participates in the mutation of spaces, practices and exchanges in various urban forms, providing what the public sector has not been able to satisfy: the feeling of security, cleanliness, fashion, tranquility and comfort related to traditional urban forms.
    Abstract: Las miniciudades son negociadas y publicitadas como nuevos productos inmobiliarios que contribuyen a diversos cambios para adaptarse a las realidades locales y a los retos que imponen las metrópolis. Este artículo trata sobre cómo el mercado inmobiliario utiliza el excepcionalismo verde costarricense y la teoría arquitectural del Nuevo Urbanismo (NU) para inspirar el diseño de los proyectos de uso mixto llamados miniciudades en Costa Rica, y así justificar la venta y promoción de supuestos "nuevos" productos urbanos. La estrategia metodológica incluye un breve análisis histórico de conceptos que concatenan en una discusión sobre el discurso publicitario y las técnicas de paisajismo ya que esta es una ventana para la comprensión de los "mecanismos discursivos" de diversos actores. El caso de estudio seleccionado es la miniciudad costarricense más antigua: Avenida Escazú. La contribución del artículo es una reflexión sobre del discurso simbólico publicitario, desde la perspectiva de la geografía urbana y la semiótica, para identificar cómo el sector privado utiliza el excepcionalismo verde para justificar las "novedades" en las dinámicas de consumo en las miniciudades. Se va más allá de una clásica conclusión binaria y, de esta forma, se cuestiona y resalta la complejidad del NU en Costa Rica. Se concluye que, el sector privado participa de la mutación de espacios, prácticas e intercambios en diversas formas urbanas, brindando lo que el sector público no ha podido satisfacer: el sentimiento de seguridad, de limpieza, de moda, de tranquilidad y de comodidad asociadas a las formas urbanas tradicionales.
    Keywords: mini-cities,New Urbanism,Advertising discourses – pragmatics - persuasion - strategy– dialogism,green excepcionalism,Semiotic analysis,Miniciudades,Nuevo Urbanismo,discurso publicitario,excepcionalismo verde,análisis semióticos
    Date: 2021–03–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03330467&r=
  114. By: WATANABE Mariko; KAWASHIMA Fujio; KAMO Tomoki; KAWASE Tsuyoshi
    Abstract: This paper conducts an analysis on the policy documents issued by China regarding the entry to Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP, hereafter). The Chinese governments expressed their interest toward entry in 2020. Analysis of the documents revealed their political purpose and expected actions towards achieving their goals. In 2020, President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang respectively referred to their intention to start talks on the entry to CPTPP. This paper examines the following points: (1) their basic attitude toward the arena of international rule making, (2) China's general attitude towards the WTO, (3) their policy they called Legal Work on Foreign Issues, (4) individual rules in chapters on SOE, Labor and E-Commerce of the TPP framework and applicability of China, (5) impacts of the U.S. and UK actions towards CPTPP on China's stance. We found that China is taking actions toward achieving their policy of Legal Work on Foreign Issues which consist of (1) enhancing their "institutional discourse power" through international rule making, and (2) legislation against extraterritorial application by foreign entities from 2021 to 2025. It is highly likely that they regard the entry to CPTPP as an important step in building their institutional discourse power, whose concrete goal is the building of an FTAAP (Free Trade Agreement of Asia-Pacific), beginning with entry into CPTPP in addition to RCEP.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eti:rpdpjp:21016&r=
  115. By: Patrick Mervent (CREOGN - Centre de recherche de l'École des officiers de la gendarmerie nationale)
    Abstract: La situation de crise et de confinement liée à l'épidémie de Covid-19 engendre une intensification du recours au télétravail et aux modalités de réunion virtuelle. Certaines entreprises étaient déjà plus ou moins préparées au télétravail, mais pas pour y faire face de manière aussi massive et sur un temps aussi long. La pression gouvernementale se fait toujours plus forte pour que le télétravail devienne la règle, chaque fois que c'est possible. Dans ces conditions, les salariés se sentent parfois isolés au travail et même coupés des autres. Dans certains cas, notamment dans les petites structures, faute d'avoir pu déployer les moyens nécessaires, le télétravail s'opère depuis les équipements personnels des collaborateurs, dont le niveau de sécurité ne peut pas être évalué et encore moins garanti. Or, à l'image d'une chaîne, la sécurité d'un système informatique s'évalue au niveau de sécurité du maillon le plus faible. Ainsi, une porte blindée est inutile dans un bâtiment si les fenêtres sont ouvertes sur la rue et plus le bâtiment est grand et complexe, plus les opportunités d'effraction sont nombreuses. Ainsi, une grande entreprise travaillant avec des petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) qui autorisent le télétravail avec du matériel personnel, s'expose elle-même à bien des dangers.
    Keywords: Covid-19,télétravail,informatique,sécurité
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03327817&r=
  116. By: Karin GALLANDAT (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine),; Pierre-Yves DURAND (Agence française de développement),; Thierry VANDEVELDE (Fondation Veolia),; Jaime SAIDI (ministère de la Santé, République démocratique du Congo)
    Abstract: Around 2.4 billion cases of diarrhoeal disease were recorded globally in 2015, causing approximately 500,000 deaths among children under five. Over 60% of these deaths were attributed to poor access to water and sani-tation. Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal disease which, if left untreated, can lead to death within hours. Each year, 1.3 to 4 million cases and 95,000 deaths - half of them affecting children under the age of five - are estimated to be due to cholera. In sub-Saharan Africa, more than half of all chol-era cases occur in “hotspots” accounting for less than 4% of the total population. The Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC) strategy targets these hotspots.
    Keywords: République démocratique du Congo
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2021–09–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:avg:wpaper:en12768&r=
  117. By: Nybok, Martin (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Stuhler, Jan (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: We use complete-count register data to describe various features of intergenerational mobility in Sweden. First, we document the extent of regional variation in educational and income mobility across Swedish municipalities, and describe its spatial pattern. Second, we study the stability of such regional rankings to the choice of mobility statistic. Third, we show that income inequality and mobility are negatively related, across all mobility measures. Fourth, we exploit variation in local exposure to show that the 1990s economic crisis and the 2007-2008 fi nancial crisis had a negative eff ect on income mobility.
    Keywords: The geography of intergenerational mobility; multigenerational mobility; income inequality; recession
    JEL: J62 R00
    Date: 2021–09–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:ifauwp:2021_011&r=
  118. By: Ian R White (MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, London, UK); Tim P Morris (MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, London, UK); Deborah Ford (MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, London, UK)
    Abstract: Covariate adjustment in a randomised trial aims to provide more powerful comparisons of randomised groups. We describe the challenges of planning how to do this in the ODYSSEY trial, which compares two HIV treatment regimes in children. ODYSSEY presents three challenges: (1) the outcome is time-to-event (time to virological or clinical failure); (2) interest is in the risk at a landmark time (96 weeks after randomisation); and (3) the aim is to demonstrate non-inferiority (defined as the risk difference at 96 weeks being less than 10 percentage points). The statistical analysis plan is based on the Cox model with predefined adjustment for three covariates. We describe how to use the margins command in Stata to estimate the marginal risks and the risk difference. This analysis does not allow for uncertainty in the baseline survivor function. We compare confidence intervals produced by normal theory and by bootstrapping, and (for the risks) using the log-log transform. We compare these methods with Paul Lambert's standsurv, which is based on a parametric survival model. We also discuss an inverse probability of treatment weighting approach, where the weights are derived by regressing randomised treatment on the covariates.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:6&r=
  119. By: Micki Hill (University of Leicester, Leicester, UK); Paul C Lambert (University of Leicester, Leicester, UK and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden); Michael J Crowther (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden)
    Abstract: Inverse probability weighting (IPW) can be used to estimate marginal treatment effects from survival data. Currently, IPW analyses can be performed in a few steps in Stata (with robust or bootstrap standard errors) or by using stteffects ipw under some assumptions for a small number of marginal treatment effects. stipw has been developed to perform an IPW analysis on survival data and to provide a closed-form variance estimator of the model parameters using M-estimation. This method appropriately accounts for the estimation of the weights and provides a less computationally intensive alternative to bootstrapping. stipw implements the following steps: (1) A binary treatment/exposure variable is modelled against confounders using logistic regression. (2) Stabilised or unstabilised weights are estimated. (3) A weighted streg or stpm2 (Royston-Parmar) survival model is fitted with treatment/exposure as the only covariate. (4) Variance is estimated using M-estimation. As the stored variance matrix is updated, post-estimation can easily be performed with the appropriately estimated variance. Useful marginal measures, such as difference in marginal restricted survival time, can thus be calculated with uncertainties. stipw will be demonstrated on a commonly used dataset in primary biliary cirrhosis. Robust, bootstrap and M-estimation standard errors will be presented and compared.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:15&r=
  120. By: Susan, Shaheen
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2021–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdl:itsrrp:qt2zp0z4cn&r=
  121. By: Mohammadjavad Javadinasr (Yalda); Tassio B. Magassy (Yalda); Ehsan Rahimi (Yalda); Motahare (Yalda); Mohammadi (Kouros); Amir Davatgari (Kouros); Abolfazl (Kouros); Mohammadian; Deborah Salon; Matthew Wigginton Bhagat-Conway; Rishabh Singh Chauhan; Ram M. Pendyala; Sybil Derrible; Sara Khoeini
    Abstract: The explosive nature of Covid-19 transmission drastically altered the rhythm of daily life by forcing billions of people to stay at their homes. A critical challenge facing transportation planners is to identify the type and the extent of changes in people's activity-travel behavior in the post-pandemic world. In this study, we investigated the travel behavior evolution by analyzing a longitudinal two-wave panel survey data conducted in the United States from April 2020 to October 2020 (wave 1) and from November 2020 to May 2021(wave 2). Encompassing nearly 3,000 respondents across different states, we explored pandemic-induced changes and underlying reasons in four major categories of telecommute/telemedicine, commute mode choice, online shopping, and air travel. Upon concrete evidence, our findings substantiate significantly observed and expected changes in habits and preferences. According to results, nearly half of employees anticipate having the alternative to telecommute and among which 71% expect to work from home at least twice a week after the pandemic. In the post-pandemic period, auto and transit commuters are expected to be 9% and 31% less than pre-pandemic, respectively. A considerable rise in hybrid work and grocery/non-grocery online shopping is expected. Moreover, 41% of pre-covid business travelers expect to have fewer flights (after the pandemic) while only 8% anticipate more, compared to the pre-pandemic. Upon our analyses, we discuss a spectrum of policy implications in all mentioned areas.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.07988&r=
  122. By: Yamashita, Takuro; Murooka, Takeshi
    Abstract: We study an adverse selection environment, where a rational seller can trade a good of which she privately knows its value to a buyer, and there are gains from trade. The buyer’s types differ in their degree of inferential abilities: A rational type correctly infers the value of the good from the seller’s offer, whereas a naive type under-appreciates the correlation between the seller’s private information and offer. We characterize the optimal menu mechanism that maximizes the social surplus. Notably, no matter how severe the adverse selection is (in particular, even when no trade is the unique possible outcome if all agents are rational), all types of buyers trade in the optimal mecha- nism. The rational buyer’s trade occurs at the expense of the naive buyer’s losses. We also investigate a consumer-protection policy of limiting the losses and discuss its implications.
    Keywords: Adverse selection; Inferential naivety; Mechanism design; Behavioral contract theory; Consumer protection
    JEL: D82 D86 D90 D91
    Date: 2021–09–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tse:wpaper:125925&r=
  123. By: Burdin, Gabriel (Leeds University Business School); Kato, Takao (Colgate University)
    Abstract: We describe the nature, scope and effects of various non-mandated participatory work practices in Japan, the U.S. and Europe through the lens of complementarity in organizations. Specifically, rather than treating each work practice in isolation, we consider it an element of HIWS (High Involvement Work System), an employment system comprised of clusters of complementary work practices. In so doing, we present a coherent and complete picture of non-mandatory participatory work practices. Furthermore, by applying the common framework of viewing participatory work practices as complementary elements of HIWS to seemingly disparate forms of work practices in different parts of the world, we shed light on how participatory work practices play out in diverse institutional, cultural and regulatory environments.
    Keywords: High Involvement Work System, High Performance Work System, employee participation
    JEL: M5 J5
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14694&r=
  124. By: Thoma, Johanna
    Abstract: Behavioural economics has taught us that human agents don’t always display consistent, context-independent and stable preferences in their choice behaviour. Can we nevertheless do welfare economics in a way that lives up to the anti-paternalist ideal most economists subscribe to? I here discuss Sugden’s powerful critique of most previous attempts at doing so, which he dubs the ‘New Consensus’, as appealing to problematic notions of latent preference and inner rational agency. I elaborate on a fundamental rethinking of the normative foundations of anti-paternalist welfare measurement that often remains implicit in the behavioural welfare economics literature Sugden discusses, but which is required to make these accounts minimally plausible. I argue that, if we go along with this rethinking, Bernheim and Rangel’s (2007, 2009) choice-theoretic framework withstands Sugden’s criticism. Sugden’s own, more radical proposal is thus under-motivated by his critique of the ‘New Consensus’.
    Keywords: behavioural economics; welfare economics; anti-paternalism; preference purification; choice
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2021–08–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:111789&r=
  125. By: Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Mishra, Abinash; Mohaghegh, Mohsen
    Abstract: Income distribution-based targeted interventions are quite common in developing economies. However, often due to institutional frictions, identification of the recipients happens at a lower frequency than the frequency of movement across income groups, leading to mis-identification of true and false recipients. What are the general equilibrium effects of such interventions? To measure the effects, we develop a heterogeneous agent production economy where agents face uninsurable income risks and we calibrate it to a novel panel dataset on monthly household income and consumption in India. We study the effects of persistent (identity-based) shocks as opposed to the usual temporary (income-based) income shocks, the difference being that in persistent payments individuals are guaranteed a payment across periods, regardless of their income status in future. We find that temporary interventions have muted distributional effects, while identity-based stimulus of the same size give rise to more prominent effects. In particular, a persistent income shock to the poorest decile equivalent to 0.6% of GDP leads to a 0.543% increase in consumption.
    Date: 2021–09–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iim:iimawp:14661&r=
  126. By: Deepankar Basu (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst)
    Abstract: In linear econometric models with proportional selection on unobservables, omitted variable bias in estimated treatment effects are roots of a cubic equation involving estimated parameters from a short and intermediate regression, the former excluding and the latter including all observable controls. The roots of the cubic are functions of delta, the degree of proportional selection on unobservables, and R_max, the R-squared in a hypothetical long regression that includes the unobservable confounder and all observable controls. In this paper a simple method is proposed to compute roots of the cubic over meaningful regions of the delta-R_max plane and use the roots to construct bounding sets for the true treatment effect. The proposed method is illustrated with both a simulated and an observational data set.
    Keywords: treatment effect, omitted variable bias
    JEL: C21
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ums:papers:2021-10&r=
  127. By: Asjad Naqvi (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria)
    Abstract: The presentation will cover innovative use of Stata to create data visualizations that can compete with standard industrial languages like R and Python. Several existing and new concepts like heat plots, stacked area graphs, fully customized maps, streamplots, joy plots, polar plots, spider graphs, and several new visualization templates currently under development will be showcased. The presentation will also discuss the importance of customized color schemes to fine tune the graphs. Propositions for improvements in Stata will be highlighted.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:23&r=
  128. By: Arsenis, Panagiotis; Flores, Miguel; Petropoulou, Dimitra
    Abstract: Universities are under increasing pressure to equip graduates with a broader set of competencies, such as communication, teamwork and leadership skills, that go beyond subject-specific knowledge. This, alongside growing student numbers in higher education, creates pedagogic challenges, especially with regards to assessment design. Conventional assessment modalities, such as individual essay writing, are costly to scale up and poorly suited for the development of further desired competencies. To address these challenges in the context of a first-year economics module, we replaced a 1,000-word individual written assignment with a group video assignment, where students were required to work in small teams to create a three-minute video on a contemporary economic issue. Focus groups and module evaluation questionnaires were used to elicit students’ perceptions of how the group video assessment contributed to their learning experience and skill development, how it compares with other modes of assessment, as well as suggestions for improved implementation. Our analysis generates insights on all these aspects. Students reported a preference for diversity in assessment methods, and found the video assignment to be a positive, engaging but also challenging experience, which provided the opportunity for collaboration and development of diverse skills.
    Keywords: assessment; employability skills; higher education; technology; Taylor & Francis deal
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–04–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:108926&r=
  129. By: Tii N. Nchofoung (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Elvis Dze Achuo (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study aims to empirically verify the effects of natural resource rents on inclusive human development in developing countries. The results from the IV Tobit regression show that natural resource rents have a positive direct effect on inclusive human development in developing countries and that this relationship varies by regional groupings, income levels, level of development and export structure. Looking at the transmission mechanisms, when the interactive variables of governance and environmental quality is introduced, the modulating channel through governance exerts a robust negative synergy effect in the sample of developing countries and positive synergy effects for Africa and low-income countries. When the interactive variable of CO2 emissions is introduced for Africa, a negative net effect of natural resource rents on inclusive human development is obtained. This was up to a policy threshold of 25.4412 of CO2 emissions when the negative effect is nullified. For Asia and the Latin America and Caribbean, a positive net effect is obtained. This is up to a CO2 emissions threshold of 29.038 and 3.6752 respectively, when the positive effect is nullified. Besides, the high income and the upper-middle income countries produce a negative net effect of resource rents on inclusive human development through CO2 modulation, with up to positive CO2 emission thresholds of 37.9365 and 23.6257 respectively. Policy implications are highlighted. In summary, contingent on engaged specificities, where conditional effects are negative, negative thresholds for complementary policies have been provided and in scenarios where conditional impacts are positive, actionable positive thresholds have been provided.
    Keywords: Resource Rents, Inclusive Human Development, Institutional Quality, Environmental Quality.
    JEL: P48 O11 C23
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:abh:wpaper:21/025&r=
  130. By: Otero Gomez, Daniel; Mateus C, Rafael; Laniado, Henry
    Abstract: This document is aimed at the study of the probability of acquiring the HIV virus in a certain population. A meticulous analysis is included regarding the understanding had, in order to design an accurate probabilistic model for each scenario. Based on a data recollection regarding HIV transmission, various specific situations were proposed to study deeper how vulnerable is an individual to acquiring HIV according to the number of interactions and the type of encounter had with an HIV carrier.
    Date: 2019–12–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:tgmj5&r=
  131. By: Deepankar Basu (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst); Ramaa Vasudevan (Department of Economics, Colorado State University.)
    Abstract: We revisit the hypotheses of unequal exchange and deteriorating terms of trade in the specific context of import-intensive, export- led strategies of developing countries which rely on integration into GVCs for access to markets in developed countries using a stylized two-country two-commodity Classical- Marxian trade model. Two sources of asymmetry can be distinguished: market power arising from the competition between suppliers that depresses the prices at which the final good is supplied; and monopoly power arising from the lead firms control and ownership of intangible assets including brand and design. The model explores some implications of these two sources of asymmetry.
    Keywords: Unequal Exchange, Global Value Chains, Classical Trade Model
    JEL: F02 F23 O19
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ums:papers:2021-13&r=
  132. By: PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
    Abstract: This study aims to analyze information architecture, content, governance, website design, analyze the image of the West Aceh Regency Government, and to analyze how big the relationship between public relations activities through the website (website information architecture, website content, website governance, website design) to the formation of the image of the West Aceh District Government. The research population is website visitors acehbaratkab.go.id. The total population is 261,943 people and by using the Taro Yamane formula, a sample of 100 people is obtained. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling and accidental sampling. This research data collection using a questionnaire. The data collected was processed using correlation analysis to see the relationship between Public Relations Activities Through the Website and the Image of the Government of West Aceh Regency. The results of the study found that public relations activities through the Aceh Barat website which consisted of website information architecture showed good results, website content showed poor results, website management showed poor results, website design showed good results. Findings related to the image of the Government of West Aceh from personality, reputation, value, corporate identity show good average results
    Date: 2021–08–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:5sgn9&r=
  133. By: Pierre Levasseur (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Cet article étudie les dynamiques de la relation entre la corpulence et les salaires au Mexique, un pays émergent fortement touché par l'obésité. Dans cette étude empirique, nous utilisons les données de panel issues de l'enquête ménage Mexican Family Life Survey (2002-2012). Premièrement, nous examinons de façon descriptive la relation corpulence-salaire et son évolution dans le temps. Nous appliquons ensuite un modèle par doubles différences fournissant des estimations robustes à l'hétérogénéité invariante dans le temps. Nos résultats montrent que la relation entre la corpulence et les salaires horaires dépend du genre, de l'année d'enquête et du statut professionnel. Tandis que les résultats révèlent des pénalités salariales au cours du temps pour les travailleurs des services en surpoids, nous observons une acceptation relative de l'excès de poids dans d'autres secteurs d'emploi, en particulier dans les emplois à haute qualification. Nos résultats ont ainsi des implications importantes en termes de politiques publiques.
    Keywords: Mexico,Overweight,Obesity,Wages
    Date: 2021–08–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03335825&r=
  134. By: Richard Arena (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (... - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015 - 2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Muriel Dal-Pont Legrand (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (... - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015 - 2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Roger Guesnerie (CdF (institution) - Collège de France)
    Date: 2021–04–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:halshs-03325544&r=
  135. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: This price bulletin was developed by researchers at IFPRI Malawi with the goal of providing clear and accurate information on the variation of weekly retail prices of selected agricultural commodities that are important for food security and nutrition in Malawi. The reports are intended as a resource for those interested in agricultural markets in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, food prices, legumes, roots, tubers, cereals, prices, agricultural products, markets, food security, nutrition
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:masspb:10b&r=
  136. By: Cuong Le Van (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Ngoc-Sang Pham (EM Normandie - École de Management de Normandie, Métis Lab EM Normandie - EM Normandie - École de Management de Normandie)
    Abstract: We present some mathematical tools widely used in courses taught in (under)graduate programs in economics. We hope that readers can learn how to apply mathematical results in economics and how to prove them. We focus on two topics: finite-dimensional convex optimization and discrete-time dynamical systems. We also present several applications in economics.
    Date: 2021–08–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:halshs-03328380&r=
  137. By: Felix Holzmeister (Department of Economics, University of Innsbruck); Christoph Huber (Institute of Markets and Strategy, Vienna University of Economics and Business); Stefan Palan (Institute of Banking and Finance, University of Graz)
    Abstract: Risk is one of the key aspects in financial decision-making and therefore an integral part of the behavioral economics and finance literature. Focusing on the conceptualization of the term ``risk'', which researchers have addressed from numerous angles, this comment aims to offer a critical perspective on the interactions between risk preferences (a latent trait), risk perceptions (how individuals judge whether something is risky), and risk-taking behavior as distinct concepts, and hence to guide future research on (individual-level) decision-making processes in this direction.
    Date: 2021–09–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:grz:wpsses:2021-06&r=
  138. By: Josué Diwambuena; Raquel Fonseca; Stefan Schubert
    Abstract: This paper investigates how Italian labour market institutions influence business cycle fluctuations. We apply a DSGE model that features Italian labour market rigidities and we estimate the latter on Italian data using Bayesian techniques to assess the effects of demand, supply, and labour market shocks on the macroeconomy, and to measure their significance for economic fluctuations. Our results show: First, technology, time preference and wage bargaining shocks are key drivers of economic fluctuations across horizons. Second, matching efficiency and wage bargaining shocks are significant sources of unemployment and vacancies fluctuations but their role is limited for output fluctuations. Third, labour market relaxation policies have only marginally contributed to the reduction in unemployment. Last, accounting for wage rigidities influences labour market dynamics and helps the model to fit data well. We, therefore, urge policymakers to support additional changes in labour market institutions. Cet article étudie comment les institutions du marché du travail italien influencent les fluctuations du cycle économique. Nous appliquons un modèle DSGE qui présente les rigidités du marché du travail italien et nous estimons ce dernier sur des données italiennes en utilisant des techniques bayésiennes afin d'évaluer les effets des chocs de demande, d'offre et du marché du travail sur la macroéconomie, et de mesurer leur importance pour les fluctuations économiques. Nos résultats montrent : Premièrement, les chocs liés à la technologie, à la préférence temporelle et à la négociation salariale sont les principaux moteurs des fluctuations économiques à travers les horizons. Deuxièmement, les chocs d'efficacité d'appariement et de négociation salariale sont des sources significatives de fluctuations du chômage et des postes vacants, mais leur rôle est limité pour les fluctuations de la production. Troisièmement, les politiques d'assouplissement du marché du travail n'ont que marginalement contribué à la réduction du chômage. Enfin, la prise en compte des rigidités salariales influence la dynamique du marché du travail et permet au modèle de bien s'ajuster aux données. Nous exhortons donc les décideurs politiques à soutenir des changements supplémentaires dans les institutions du marché du travail.
    Keywords: DSGE,Labour market frictions,Bayesian estimation,Italy, DSGE,frictions sur le marché du travail,estimation bayésienne,Italie
    JEL: E24 E32 C51 C52
    Date: 2021–09–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cir:cirwor:2021s-33&r=
  139. By: Bekaert, Els; Constant, Amelie F.; Foubert, Killian; Ruyssen, Ilse
    Abstract: Aspirations provide the underlying dynamics of the behavior of individuals whether they are realized or not. Knowledge about the characteristics and motives of those who aspire to leave the host country is key for both host and home countries to formulate appropriate and effective policies in order to keep their valued immigrants or citizens and foster their (re-)integration. Based on unique individual-level Gallup World Polls data, a random utility model, and a multinomial logit we model the aspirations or stated preferences of immigrants across 138 countries worldwide. Our analysis reveals selection in characteristics, a strong role for soft factors like social ties and sociocultural integration, and a faint role for economic factors. Changes in circumstances in the home and host countries are also important determinants of aspirations. Results differ by the host countries' level of economic development.
    Keywords: Economics of Immigrants,Geographic Labor Mobility,Public Policy,Micro-economic Behavior,Underlying Principles,International Migration,Large Data Sets,Modeling and Analysis
    JEL: J15 J61 J68 D01 F22 C55
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:glodps:930&r=
  140. By: Francesca Caselli (International Monetary Fund); Matilde Faralli (Imperial College London); Paolo Manasse (University of Bologna); Ugo Panizza (IHEID, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva)
    Abstract: This paper studies whether countries benefit from servicing their debts during times of widespread sovereign defaults. Colombia is typically regarded as the only large Latin American country that did not default in the 1980s. Using archival research and formal econometric estimates of Colombia's probability of default, we show that in the early 1980s Colombia's fundamentals were not significantly different from those of the Latin American countries that defaulted on their debts. We also document that the different path chosen by Colombia was due to the authorities' belief that maintaining a good reputation in the international capital market would have substantial long-term payoffs. We show that the case of Colombia is more complex than what is commonly assumed. Although Colombia had to re-profile its debts, high-level political support from the US allowed Colombia to do so outside the standard framework of an IMF program. Our counterfactual analysis shows that in the short to medium run, Colombia benefited from avoiding an explicit default. Specifically, we find that GDP growth in the 1980s was higher than that of a counterfactual in which Colombia behaved like its neighboring countries. We also test whether Colombia's behavior in the 1980s led to long-term reputational benefits. Using an event study based on a large sudden stop, we find no evidence for such long-lasting reputational gains.
    Keywords: Sovereign Debt; Default; Reputation
    JEL: F34 F32 H63
    Date: 2021–09–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gii:giihei:heidwp18-2021&r=
  141. By: Roddy, Áine
    Abstract: Child chronic illness/ disability can present significant challenges for children, families and society that require appropriate policy responses; yet little is known about the demands placed on families resources from an economics perspective in terms of its impact on household income and the extra income required to achieve the same standard of living as families who do not have a child with a chronic illness/disability. The paper uses data from the Growing Up in Ireland National survey dataset for nine year olds. It is the first study to empirically investigate the impact of child chronic illness/disability on earnings, standard of living and the extra cost of disability together. It is also the first study to explicitly address endogeneity in the standard of living model by using a two-stage process where residuals were harvested to provide efficient estimates. The findings show that families experience significant disadvantage and economic hardship due to reduced household income and a lower standard of living due to the extra cost of disability that would require considerable income to compensate. Policy implications of these findings suggest that a tiered approach to disability support payments which encompass broader criteria for inclusion based on varying severity levels be introduced to alleviate the financial hardship and compromised economic wellbeing of families affected. In addition, more innovative policies are required to implement appropriate timely access to health and social care services and flexi parental employment, which in turn requires the provision of adequate access to high quality educational and care facilities.
    Keywords: child disability; family income; household standard of living; extra cost of disability; economic hardship; Springer deal
    JEL: C31 I31 J14
    Date: 2021–09–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:111833&r=
  142. By: Vincenzo Verardi (Université Libre de Bruxelles); Ben Jann (University of Bern)
    Abstract: Pairwise comparison-based estimators are commonly used in statistics. In the context of panel data fixed-effects estimations, Aquaro and Cizek (2013) have shown that a pairwise-differences based estimator is equivalent to the well-known within estimator. Relying on this result, they propose to "robustify" the F.E. estimator by applying a robust regression estimator to pairwise-difference transformed data. In collaboration with Ben Jann, we made available the xtrobreg command that implements this estimator in Stata for both balanced and unbalanced panels. As will be shown in the presentation, the flexibility of the xtrobreg command allows it to be used well beyond the context of panel robust regressions.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:17&r=
  143. By: Josué Diwambuena; Raquel Fonseca; Stefan Schubert
    Abstract: This paper investigates how Italian labour market institutions influence business cycle fluctuations. We apply a DSGE model that features Italian labour market rigidities and we estimate the latter on Italian data using Bayesian techniques to assess the effects of demand, supply, and labour market shocks on the macroeconomy, and to measure their significance for economic fluctuations. Our results show: First, technology, time preference and wage bargaining shocks are key drivers of economic fluctuations across horizons. Second, matching efficiency and wage bargaining shocks are significant sources of unemployment and vacancies fluctuations but their role is limited for output fluctuations. Third, labour market relaxation policies have only marginally contributed to the reduction in unemployment. Last, accounting for wage rigidities influences labour market dynamics and helps the model to fit data well. We, therefore, urge policymakers to support additional changes in labour market institutions.
    Keywords: DSGE, Labour market frictions, Bayesian estimation, Italy.
    JEL: E24 E32 C51 C52
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rsi:creeic:2105&r=
  144. By: Mikhaylova, Oxana; Sivak, Elizaveta
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed daily life across the world and affected multiple social institutions. It may also have modified parents’ gendered division of labour. Current research on family functioning during the pandemic has provided mixed evidence on the influence of at-home work and at-home schooling on mothers’ and fathers’ involvement in childcare, child’s education and housework. In this paper, we use data from 1359 Russian mothers to study whether fathers' participation in these activities was influenced by the increased need for parental help in schooling and more opportunities for help due to remote work during the lockdown. We find that fathers’ involvement was higher if they worked remotely during the lockdown and if the child needed much additional help with schooling after school closures. These results hold true even after controlling for fathers’ pre-pandemic involvement. In line with conditional fatherhood theory, mothers’ engagement with remote schooling was almost unrelated to their employment status and work arrangement. Overall, our evidence supports the ‘needs exposure’ hypothesis that additional family needs in combination with switching to remote work can increase fathers’ involvement. However, evaluating the duration of these changes and their long-term influence on families’ functioning would require further research.
    Date: 2021–09–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:cz6ky&r=
  145. By: Matthew D. Cocci; Mikkel Plagborg-M{\o}ller
    Abstract: Calibration, the practice of choosing the parameters of a structural model to match certain empirical moments, can be viewed as minimum distance estimation. Existing standard error formulas for such estimators require a consistent estimate of the correlation structure of the empirical moments, which is often unavailable in practice. Instead, the variances of the individual empirical moments are usually readily estimable. Using only these variances, we derive conservative standard errors and confidence intervals for the structural parameters that are valid even under the worst-case correlation structure. In the over-identified case, we show that the moment weighting scheme that minimizes the worst-case estimator variance amounts to a moment selection problem with a simple solution. Finally, we develop tests of over-identifying or parameter restrictions. We apply our methods empirically to a model of menu cost pricing for multi-product firms and to a heterogeneous agent New Keynesian model.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.08109&r=
  146. By: Mateus C, Rafael; Zuluaga, Susana Alvarez; Orozco, Mariajose Franco; Marín, Paula Alejandra Escudero
    Abstract: Agent-Based Models (ABM) have become a very useful tool to simulate the propagation of infectious diseases. To enhance the scope of these simulation models, some authors have combined ABMs with ODE models which are called Hybrid ABMs, and allows the simulation of models that demand a very high computational cost. In the present project, the main approach is to develop hybrid ABMs to understand the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya considering some geospatial characteristics of the city of Bello, Colombia. Some assumptions were considered to develop the computational model to understand and verify if the transmission dynamics were happening according to their theoretical behavior. The results obtained were satisfactory, and for future work, the idea is to integrate more components and make the model more realistic.
    Date: 2021–06–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:wmxzd&r=
  147. By: PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
    Abstract: This study aims to see the community participation in the satellite area in the construction and maintenance of Drainage in the Village Marindal II District Patumbak Deli Serdang. The research method used to answer the problem in this research is the method of qualitative research approach. Data obtained through in-depth interviews, literature study and documentation. Informant research comes from the elements of sub-district government and community. The results of the research show that the participation, involvement and utilization of drainage facilities are running well.
    Date: 2020–11–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:by5kc&r=
  148. By: Heidland, Tobias; Krüger, Finja
    Abstract: In den Wahlprogrammen der Parteien für die Bundestagswahl 2021 finden sich sehr unterschiedliche Migrationsbilder. Einige Programme sind stärker auf Verhinderung, andere eher auf die sich bietenden Chancen fokussiert. Die Autoren stellen fest, dass alle Parteien das Thema Flucht und Asyl in ihren Programmen überbetonen, obwohl dies nur etwa ein Drittel der Migration der letzten Jahre ausmacht. Trotz unterschiedlicher Positionen gibt es in einigen Kernthemen wie Integration und einer europäischen Lösung mit Flucht/Asyl Einigkeit zwischen einzelnen Parteien, die sich in anderen Politikbereichen deutlich unterscheiden. In vielen Bereichen sind die Wahlprogramme unspezifisch und bieten kaum konkrete Vorschläge, was Koalitionsverhandlungen erleichtern wird. Angesichts der rapiden Alterung der Gesellschaft und des sich weiter verschärfenden Fachkräftemangels sehen die Autoren eine chancenorientierte Einwanderungspolitik als dringend notwendig an.
    Keywords: Bundestagswahl,Wahlprogramme,Migration,Flucht,Asyl,Fachkräfte,German parliamentary election,election manifestos,migration,refugee flows,asylum,skilled labor
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:ifwkpb:157&r=
  149. By: Victor Aguirregabiria; Allan Collard-Wexler; Stephen P. Ryan
    Abstract: This survey is organized around three main topics: models, econometrics, and empirical applications. Section 2 presents the theoretical framework, introduces the concept of Markov Perfect Nash Equilibrium, discusses existence and multiplicity, and describes the representation of this equilibrium in terms of conditional choice probabilities. We also discuss extensions of the basic framework, including models in continuous time, the concepts of oblivious equilibrium and experience-based equilibrium, and dynamic games where firms have non-equilibrium beliefs. In section 3, we first provide an overview of the types of data used in this literature, before turning to a discussion of identification issues and results, and estimation methods. We review different methods to deal with multiple equilibria and large state spaces. We also describe recent developments for estimating games in continuous time and incorporating serially correlated unobservables, and discuss the use of machine learning methods to solving and estimating dynamic games. Section 4 discusses empirical applications of dynamic games in IO. We start describing the first empirical applications in this literature during the early 2000s. Then, we review recent applications dealing with innovation, antitrust and mergers, dynamic pricing, regulation, product repositioning, advertising, uncertainty and investment, airline network competition, dynamic matching, and natural resources. We conclude with our view of the progress made in this literature and the remaining challenges.
    Keywords: Dynamic games; Industrial organization; Market competition; Structural models; Estimation; Identification; Counterfactuals
    JEL: C57 C63 C73 L11 L13
    Date: 2021–09–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tor:tecipa:tecipa-706&r=
  150. By: Otero Gomez, Daniel; MANRIQUE, MIGUEL ANGEL CORREA; Sierra, Omar Becerra; Toro, Mauricio; Millan, David Andres Romero; Mateus C, Rafael
    Abstract: When it comes to choosing a career path, senior high-school students struggle to make a decision. The purpose of this research is to help such students select a career track by providing a match-based scored recommendation of academic and professional routes, promoting the development of the government-aided quality educational system by reducing the student dropout. Recommendations are based on the results of the Colombian standardized Saber 11 examination (which is similar to SAT [Scholastic Assessment Test] scores in the U.S.), and how other students with similar characteristics (demographic, socio-economic, family information) performed in their undergraduate tests and the Colombian standardized Saber Pro exam (which is similar to GRE -Graduate Record Examination- scores in the U.S.). Collected information was bundled with their career choice and the recommendation system was developed using Machine Learning and Deep Learning techniques, ROC (Receiver operating characteristic) curve was computed for each career and found on average the AUC (Area under the ROC Curve) score was 0.86 despite the high variability between them. In addition, a business metric was built and evaluated.
    Date: 2020–09–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:5xwf6&r=
  151. By: Paul, J.; Agatz, N.A.H.; Fransoo, J.C.
    Abstract: Despite the continued growth of e-grocery sales, few companies actually make any profits in this retail segment. Increasing market shares and associated drop densities may render profitable operations possible, but higher delivery fees seem essential to achieving profitability. Yet such higher fees may put e-groceries at a disadvantage as compared with the traditional store channel, which remains highly competitive. This study models customer choice between the e-grocery channel and the store channel as well as the effects of that choice on those channels’ operational costs and market shares. We identify conditions under which e-grocery retail can be profitable, and we estimate our model’s parameters using secondary industry data. Our results indicate that e-grocery is profitable when household density is high and store density is low. When customer valuation of the e-grocery channel increases substantially, the result may be cannibalization of the store channel’s sales to the extent that stores encounter losses. Thus there are three paths to e-grocery profitability:(i) a substantial increase in the relative consumer valuation of the online channel; (ii) a focus on areas with high household density and low store density; (iii) a long-term subsidy of the online channel until stores begin to close.
    Keywords: E-Grocery, Customer-channel model, Channel cannabalization
    Date: 2021–09–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ems:eureri:135677&r=
  152. By: Roos, Ernst (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tiu:tiutis:dd9e7b35-a770-4f8d-a85c-86c6aef23167&r=
  153. By: PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
    Abstract: At a time when banking is facing difficulties to make the debtor which is not problematic, UMK became an alternative credit channeling of banking. There is little industry in the city of Medan have a very strategic role, both in the Equalization of opportunities, equitable spread of the Interest of the industry that supports the development, employment equity, and aims to form indentations the Community industry is small, independent, tough, and developed into a major industry. This research aims to analyze the role of the Service industry and are experts in developing small industries in the city of Medan. This research uses descriptive qualitative approach method. Results of the study showed a number of productive activities performed by the Department of industry and experts and the weakness of the perpetrators of the small and medium industries to expand the network of ekternal.
    Date: 2021–08–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:qxrwz&r=
  154. By: Icks, Andrea
    Abstract: Aims: Health-related changes in leisure time are supposed to be implicitly considered by participants of health state valuations. The amount of empirical research on whether respondents in fact include the effects of morbidity on leisure into health state valuations is limited and the results are inconclusive. In this exploratory study, we analyze whether time aspects of diabetes self-care might explain the ratings of the health state (HSR) in addition to the effects of physical and mental health-related quality of life. Methods: Using the data from participants with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in the population-based KORA FF4 study (n=190, 60% Male, mean age 69±10 years), multiple logistic regression models were fitted to explain HSR (good vs. poor) in terms of the SF12 physical and mental component scores, time spent on diabetes self-care and a range of background variables. We assume that if time spent on diabetes self-care competes with other leisure activities and implicitly plays a role in HSR, this additional effect should be seen in regression models. Results: There was no significant association between time spent on diabetes self-care and HSR in models without interaction. Significant interaction term was found between physical score of SF12 and time spent on self-care. In models with interaction self-care time has a small, but significant impact on the HSR. In particular, for a fixed physical score of SF12 value under 40, more time increases the chance to rate the health state as "good", while for physical score value above 40 there is a reverse effect. Conclusions: The additional impact of self-care time on HSR in our sample is small and more complex than a simple linear association. More research is needed on whether inclusion of health-related leisure time changes in the denominator of cost-effectiveness analysis is sufficient.
    Keywords: patient time use,diabetes mellitus,health economic evaluation,population-based study
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:udewwd:234&r=
  155. By: Fernanda Ricotta (University of Calabria); Victoria Golikova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Boris Kuznetsov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate whether CEO characteristics (owner-manager status, age and gender) influence firm innovative performance and test empirically if the effect differs for market and transition economies. We use cross-sectional data of manufacturing firms in six EU countries and in Russia. To address heterogeneity, we explore innovation performance by size among SMEs and large businesses and by Pavitt sector. In both institutional settings, the presence of a family CEO either has no effect or improves innovative performance. On the contrary, the role of CEO gender is different in Russia and in the EU. In the EU, female CEOs are associated with less innovation, especially in SMEs and in the traditional sector. In Russia, CEO gender is not associated with differences in innovative performance and when it is (for the traditional sector), it favors female-run firms. For CEO age, considering product innovations, the oldest group of CEOs are less active in European firms while mature CEOs are more innovative in Russia.
    Keywords: CEO age, gender, manager-owner status, innovation, manufacturing firms
    JEL: D21 L60 P50
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hig:wpaper:251/ec/2021&r=
  156. By: Meenagh, David (Cardiff Business School); Minford, Patrick (Cardiff Business School); Wickens, Michael (Cardiff Business School)
    Abstract: We ask whether Bayesian estimation creates a potential estimation bias as compared with standard estimation techniques based on the data, such as maximum likelihood or indirect estimation. We investigate this with a Monte Carlo experiment in which the true version of a New Keynesian model may either have high wage/price rigidity or be close to pure flexibility; we treat each in turn as the true model and create Bayesian estimates of it under priors from the true model and its false alternative. The Bayesian estimation of macro models may thus give very misleading results by placing too much weight on prior information compared to observed data; a better method may be Indirect estimation where the bias is found to be low.
    Keywords: Bayesian; Maximum Likelihood; Indirect Inference; Estimation Bias
    JEL: C11 E12
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdf:wpaper:2021/22&r=
  157. By: Dominique Benoit; Esther E.N. van der Zee; Michael Darmon; An A.K.L. Reyners; Victoria Metaxa; Djamel Mokart; Alexander Wilmer; Pieter Depuydt; Andreas Hvarfner; Katerina Rusinova; Jan G.Zijlstra; François Vincent; Dimitrios Lathyris; Anne-Pascale Meert; Jacques Devriendt; Emma Uyttersprot; Erwin Jo E.J.O. Kompanje; Ruth R.D. Piers; Elie Azoulay
    Abstract: Background: Whether Intensive Care Unit (ICU) clinicians display unconscious bias towards cancer patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of critically ill patients with and without perceptions of excessive care (PECs) by ICU clinicians in patients with and without cancer. Methods: This study is a sub-analysis of the large multicentre DISPROPRICUS study. Clinicians of 56 ICUs in Europe and the United States completed a daily questionnaire about the appropriateness of care during a 28-day period. We compared the cumulative incidence of patients with concordant PECs, treatment limitation decisions (TLDs) and death between patients with uncontrolled and controlled cancer, and patients without cancer. Results: Of the 1641 patients, 117 (7.1%) had uncontrolled cancer and 270 (16.4%) had controlled cancer. The cumulative incidence of concordant PECs in patients with uncontrolled and controlled cancer versus patients without cancer was 20.5%, 8.1%, and 9.1% (p
    Keywords: Bias; Cancer; Critical care; ICU; Perception of care; Prognostication; Treatment limitation
    Date: 2021–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ulb:ulbeco:2013/331296&r=
  158. By: Dr Mohammad Rafiqul Islam; Dr Nicholas Sim
    Abstract: How does food consumption improve educational outcomes is an important policy issue for developing countries. Applying the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) 2014, we estimate the returns of food consumption to education and investigate if more educated individuals tend to consume healthier bundles than less-educated individuals do. We implement the Expected Outcome Methodology, which is similar to Average Treatment on The Treated (ATT) conceptualized by Angrist and Pischke (2009). We find that education tends to tilt consumption towards healthier foods. Specifically, individuals with upper secondary or higher levels of education, on average, consume 31.5% more healthy foods than those with lower secondary education or lower levels of education. With respect to unhealthy food consumption, more highly-educated individuals, on average, consume 22.8% less unhealthy food than less-educated individuals. This suggests that education can increase the inequality in the consumption of healthy food bundles. Our study suggests that it is important to design policies to expand education for all for at least up to higher secondary level in the context of Indonesia. Our finding also speaks to the link between food-health gradient and human capital formation for a developing country such as Indonesia.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.08124&r=
  159. By: Rosalinda, Annisa; fernos, jhon
    Abstract: The research objective was to find out how to analyze the causes of problems at BMT At Taqwa Cabang Bandar Buat Padang. The data analysis method is descriptive using quantitative and qualitative analysis methods. Where the qualitative method is a method used to obtain related information through interviews with BMT At Taqwa Cabang Bandar Buat Padang and using quantitative methods, namely the method used to perform calculations by processing data in table form. The result of the research on the development rate of the number of Non-Performing Financing in 2018 was 16,55% and decreased in 2019 by 9,84% and in 2020 it increased by 17,02%. Problem financing at BMT At Taqwa cabang Bandar Buat Padang is caused by internal and external factors, internal factors, namely factors that come from within, such as not beig accurate in analyzing financing and monitoring / supervision that has not been maximed by BMT. Meanwhile, external factors are factors caused by outside parties, such as a decrease in customer operating income and the customer deliberately delays financing.
    Date: 2021–09–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:bfny9&r=
  160. By: Hidayat, Muhammad (STIE Nobel Indonesia); Latief, Fitriani; hidayah, Nur; Asbara, Nurkhalik Wahdanial
    Abstract: This community service activity was carried out in Kabba Village which was intended to provide assistance related to the revitalization of the BUMDes in Kabba Village. This service was carried out in two stages, namely field observations and implementation of assistance through the Focus Group Discussion (FGD) method which focused on three problems, namely Identification of Business Prospects, Selection of appropriate businesses and assistance in preparing BUMDes Financial Reports. From the FGD, it can be concluded that there are three prospective businesses to be managed and appropriate business analysis steps have also been submitted In this service activity, In this community service, training on the preparation of financial reports is also carried out which is intended to make sure that financial statements can be prepared in accordance with accounting standards in Indonesia.
    Date: 2021–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:pavw5&r=
  161. By: Itani, Ibrahim MS; Cassidy, Michael J. PhD; Daganzo, Carlos F. PhD
    Abstract: An agent-based, multichannel simulation of a downtown area reveals the impacts of both redistributing traffic demand with time-dependent congestion pricing, and supplying extra capacity by banning left turns. The downtown street network was idealized, and loosely resembles central Los Angeles. On the demand-side, prices were set based on time-ofday and distance traveled. On the supply side, left-turn maneuvers were prohibited at all intersections on the network. Although both traffic management measures reduced travel costs when used alone, the left-turn ban was much less effective than pricing. When combined with pricing under congested conditions, however, the left-turn ban’s effectiveness increased considerably—it more than doubled in some cases. Furthermore, the two measures combined reduced travel costs in synergistic fashion. In some cases, this synergistic effect was responsible for 30% of the cost reduction. This strong synergy suggests that turning bans should be considered as an added option when contemplating congestion pricing.
    Keywords: Engineering, Traffic congestion, congestion pricing, demand, left turns, travel costs, traffic management, traffic simulation
    Date: 2021–08–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdl:itsrrp:qt71j7z3wv&r=
  162. By: Financial Markets Department (Bank of Japan)
    Date: 2021–09–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boj:bojron:mor210909&r=
  163. By: Kettlewell, Nathan (University of Technology, Sydney); Tymula, Agnieszka (University of Sydney)
    Abstract: This paper describes the Australian Twins Economic Preferences Survey (ATEPS). The dataset comprises a wide variety of preference and behavioral measures (risk aversion, impatience, ambiguity aversion, trust, confidence) elicited using incentivised decision tasks. 1,120 Australian adult twins (560 pairs) completed the survey, making it one of the largest datasets containing incentivised preference measures of twins. As the survey was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, we also collected information on experiences related to the pandemic, along with a variety of questions on political attitudes and mental wellbeing. We hope that ATEPS can make a valuable contribution to social science and genetics research.
    Keywords: economic preferences, twins, twin study
    JEL: D90 D91 I10 Y90
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14702&r=
  164. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: The Monthly Maize Market Report was developed by researchers at IFPRI Malawi with the goal of providing clear and accurate information on the variation of maize prices in selected markets throughout Malawi. The reports are intended as a resource for those interested in maize markets in Malawi, namely producers, traders, consumers, or other agricultural stakeholders.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, maize, market prices, retail prices, food prices, regional prices, agricultural stakeholders
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:masspr:july2021&r=
  165. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: This price bulletin was developed by researchers at IFPRI Malawi with the goal of providing clear and accurate information on the variation of weekly retail prices of selected agricultural commodities that are important for food security and nutrition in Malawi. The reports are intended as a resource for those interested in agricultural markets in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, food prices, legumes, roots, tubers, cereals, prices, agricultural products, markets, food security, nutrition
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:masspb:10a&r=
  166. By: Shreya Biswas
    Abstract: The study examines the relationship between mobile financial services and individual financial behavior in India wherein a sizeable population is yet to be financially included. Addressing the endogeneity associated with the use of mobile financial services using an instrumental variable method, the study finds that the use of mobile financial services increases the likelihood of investment, having insurance and borrowing from formal financial institutions. Further, the analysis highlights that access to mobile financial services have the potential to bridge the gender divide in financial inclusion. Fastening the pace of access to mobile financial services may partially alter pandemic induced poverty.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.07077&r=
  167. By: Robert Ialenti
    Abstract: We assess how rising exports of US liquefied natural gas (LNG) affect the convergence of natural gas prices worldwide. Using standard principal component analysis and cointegrating techniques, we show that the degree of co-movement between global benchmark prices for natural gas has strengthened since the United States began the large-scale export of LNG in 2016. At the same time, we find that global natural gas prices do not yet adhere to the relative law of one price. Our results also suggest that issues related to storage access in Alberta between 2017 and 2019 have limited price co-movements between major benchmarks for natural gas in the United States and Canada. In addition, we use vector error correction models to show that natural gas prices in Europe and Asia respond negatively to increased exports of US LNG. These results may have implications for the development of future LNG export capacity in Canada.
    Keywords: International topics; Market structure and pricing
    JEL: C32 F15 K41 L95
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bca:bocadp:21-14&r=
  168. By: Laczó, Ferenc
    Abstract: In this study the concept of commodities is formulated according to the utility theory; following the principle of price elasticity of demand, differences of uncompensated and compensated price changes will be clearly interpreted; as the uncompensated and compensated price changes have different averaging properties, so two different CPI formulas need to be defined; arbitrary price changes are broken down into uncompensated and compensated price change to obtain a complete, dual CPI formula.
    Keywords: Economic Value of a Commodity; Uncompensated vs. Compensated Price Change; Common Units in Measurements; Dual CPI Formula; Supply-Driven and Demand-Driven Economy
    JEL: E31
    Date: 2021–06–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:109724&r=
  169. By: Akihiko Noda
    Abstract: This study examines the dynamic asset market linkages under the COVID-19 global pandemic based on market efficiency, in the sense of Fama (1970). Particularly, we estimate the joint degree of market efficiency by applying Ito et al.'s (2014; 2017) Generalized Least Squares-based time-varying vector autoregression model. The empirical results show that (1) the joint degree of market efficiency changes widely over time, as shown in Lo's (2004) adaptive market hypothesis, (2) the COVID-19 pandemic may eliminate arbitrage and improve market efficiency through enhanced linkages between the asset markets; and (3) the market efficiency has continued to decline due to the Bitcoin bubble that emerged at the end of 2020.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.02933&r=
  170. By: Forscher, Teddy; Deakin, Elizabeth PhD; Walker, Joan PhD
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic brought about dramatic shifts in travel, including shopping trips. We investigated changes in eshopping for food and non-food items by supplementing an April to May 2018 household travel survey (n=3,956 households) conducted by the Sacramento Area Council of Governments (SACOG) with a May 2020 follow-on panel survey (n=313 households) during one week early in the pandemic. Results demonstrate that impacts from added pickups and deliveries in the SACOG region during the first two months of the COVID-19 pandemic were limited and did not overwhelm curb management at retail, restaurant, and grocery establishments. Results also show that during the pandemic e-commerce tended to replace non-food shopping trips, but complemented restaurant and grocery trips. However, Forty percent of the sample households — predominantly lower income and/or older populations — still shopped only in-store for food while more affluent households appear to have isolated themselves from virus exposure through more extensive online shopping. We recommend extending the forms of accepted payment for online shopping and reducing fees and markups based upon payment method to reduce barrier to online shopping for those with limited resources. We identify possible consequences (e.g., more vehicle miles traveled and higher demand for curbside parking) if e-commerce food purchasing continues to grow post-pandemic or if in-person retail shopping returns to normal.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2021–03–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdl:itsrrp:qt6mx0w7hj&r=
  171. By: NURHAYATI, NUNUNG
    Abstract: Kualitas Sistem Informasi Akuntansi merupakan hal yang sangat penting bagi suatu organisasi. Melalui Sistem Informasi Akuntansi yang berkualitas, user akan memperoleh informasi yang berkualitas pada saat yang tepat untuk pengambilan keputusan. Fenomena yang terjadi pada organisasi di Indonesia menunjukkan bahwa sistem informasi akuntansi belum berkualitas sehingga berdampak pada belum berkualitasnya informasi akuntansi.
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:thesis:wzgqh&r=
  172. By: Rodrigo Dorantes-Gilardi (El Colegio de México); Aurora A. Ramírez-Álvarez (El Colegio de México); Diana Terrazas-Santamaría (El Colegio de México)
    Abstract: Several inequalities between genders have been reported over the last decades in academia. Female researchers tend to have a lower pay, write fewer articles and receive fewer cites than their male counterparts, among other disparities. Co-authorship with highly cited scholars tend to give an advantage to early career researchers. Indeed, the impact of researchers that collaborate with super-cited (SC) authors at their early career stage tends to be greater than for those scientists who do not. The question of whether this advantage is favors male or female scientists has not been addressed yet. By conditioning on career length (at least ten years), we study the effect on male and female economists from collaborating with a SC author within the first five years of their career. Since collaboration is not likely random, we employ a matching model using pre-collaboration network characteristics to compare similar authors. We find a positive effect on the impact and the probability of being SC afterward; however, this effect is not statistically different between men and women. On the productivity side, we do not find an effect for any gender. To further explore these results, we study whether repeated collaboration with SC co-authors may be a possible mechanism in the years that follow.
    Keywords: super-cited authors, gender inequality, collaboration network, economics.
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:emx:ceedoc:2021-05&r=
  173. By: Vladimir Gligorov (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Richard Grieveson (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Peter Havlik; Gabor Hunya (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Olga Pindyuk (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Leon Podkaminer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sandor Richter (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Hermine Vidovic (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: To mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, this paper aims to assess developments in Central, East and Southeast Europe (CESEE) over the past three decades, and to look forward to what the next 30 years might bring. First, we measure the convergence of per capita income, wages and life expectancy in CESEE with Western Europe since 1989, and examine demographic trends. We find that, after a difficult start, many countries have become significantly wealthier and their populations much healthier. However, for others, the outcomes of the first 30 years are less positive, and a large number of countries in CESEE have already experienced significant population decline. Second, our experts look back at the situation in 1989, and to what extent their expectations have played out, reflecting on both successes and disappointments. Third, we analyse current trends in the region, and attempt to project what will come next. Here, we focus on automation, digitalisation, institutions, demographics and geopolitics. We find evidence of institutional regression, demographic challenges, and a changing geopolitical backdrop that will have important implications for much of the region. However, we also see reasons for optimism, including the opportunities provided by digitalisation and automation, and an active civil society that could in time force positive change.
    Keywords: CESEE, Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, transition, convergence, demographics
    JEL: E00 E02 F02 J11 P20 P30 O52
    Date: 2019–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wii:eopape:4&r=
  174. By: Bertrand SAVOYE; Maxime TERRIEUX; Cécile VALADIER; Sylvain BELLEFONTAINE,; Cécile DUQUESNAY,; Marion HEMAR,; Benoît JONVEAUX,; Laura MARIE,; Emmanuelle MONAT,; Jules PORTE,; Meghann PULOC’H
    Abstract: Semestrial Panoramas are special issues of the MacroDev series written by AFD analysts; They present a synthesis of macronomic et socioeconomic analyses of emerging and developing countries. In addition to short, country-focused articles, a thematic section sheds light on broader economic and structural issues affecting these countries.
    Keywords: Afrique, Côte d'Ivoire, Tchad, Zambie, Équateur, Birmanie, Géorgie, Ouzbékistan, Sri Lanka, Trois Océans, Madagascar
    JEL: E
    Date: 2021–09–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:avg:wpaper:en13039&r=
  175. By: Pauline Pedehour (Université de Nantes); Lionel Richefort (Université de Nantes)
    Abstract: This study develops a model of water extraction with endogenous social norms. Many users are connected by a unique shared resource that can become scarce in case of over-exploitation. Preferences of individuals are guided by their extraction values and their taste for conformity to social norms which provide incentives to follow others. As the main result of this study, the uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium is established under a sufficient condition. Afterward, some comparative statics analysis shows the effects of change in individual heterogeneous parameters, conformism, and density of the network on the global quantity extracted. Welfare and social optimum properties are established to avoid the tragedy of the commons and sub-optimal consumptions of water. Lastly, this theoretical framework is completed by extensions to highlight levers of water preservation, including the calibration of social norm incentives.
    Keywords: Comparative statics, Conformism, Nash equilibrium, Network, Social norms, Water extraction
    JEL: D04 D80 Q01 Q25
    Date: 2021–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2021.20&r=
  176. By: Bryson, Alex (University College London); Clark, Andrew E. (Paris School of Economics); Green, Colin P. (Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU))
    Abstract: A small literature has shown that individual wellbeing varies with the price of company stock, but it is unclear whether this is due to wealth effects among those holding stock, or more general effects on sentiment, with individuals taking rising stock prices as an indicator of improvements in the economy. We contribute to this literature by using two data sets to establish the relationship between share prices on the one hand and worker wellbeing on the other. First, we use data on share price movements and employee stock holding in a single corporation and provide suggestive evidence that an increase in the firm's stock price increases the wellbeing of those who belong to its employee share purchase plan (ESPP), and that these effects are greatest among those making the largest monthly contributions to the program who have the most to gain (or lose) from stock price fluctuations. There is also some tentative evidence that the wellbeing effects of a rise in the share price are greatest among those with the largest shareholdings. We then use almost 30 years of British panel data to show that employee job satisfaction moves with share prices among those whose pay is partly determined by company fortunes. Taken together these results suggest that the well-being effects of share prices work at least partly via changes in wealth.
    Keywords: job satisfaction, wellbeing, share prices, share ownership, profit-sharing
    JEL: J28 J33 J54 J63 J81 M52
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14706&r=
  177. By: Ximeng Fang; Timo Freyer; Chui Yee Ho; Zihua Chen; Lorenz Goette
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic induces a typical social dilemma situation, as engaging in preventive behaviors such as social distancing is costly for individuals, but generates benefits that accrue to society at large. The extent to which individuals internalize the social impact of their actions may depend on their (pro-)social preferences. We leverage a nationally representative survey in Germany (n = 5,843), conducted during the second coronavirus wave, to investigate the role of prosociality in reducing the spread of COVID-19. At the individual level, higher prosociality is strongly positively related to compliance with recommended public health behaviors. At the regional (NUTS-2) level, higher average prosociality is associated with significantly lower incidence and growth rates of COVID-19 infections. This association is robust to controlling for a host of regional socio-economic factors, and mediated by stronger average compliance with public health measures. Our correlational results thus confirm the notion that voluntary behavioral change due to prosocial motivations can play an important role in the pandemic.
    Keywords: COVID-19, collective action, prosociality, economic preferences, online survey
    JEL: D64 I12 I18 H41
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bon:boncrc:crctr224_2021_319&r=
  178. By: Roberto Blanco (Banco de España); Sergio Mayordomo (Banco de España); Álvaro Menéndez (Banco de España); Maristela Mulino (Banco de España)
    Abstract: En este documento se analiza el impacto de la crisis del COVID-19 sobre la vulnerabilidad financiera del sector corporativo español. Las simulaciones realizadas muestran que la crisis habría elevado significativamente las necesidades de liquidez de las empresas en 2020, s bien las medidas adoptadas por las autoridades nacionales e internacionales facilitaron el acceso al crédito en condiciones favorables, lo que mitigó sustancialmente los riesgos de liquidez a corto plazo. Sin embargo, la fuerte caída de los niveles de rentabilidad, unida al crecimiento del endeudamiento, se habría traducido en un aumento notorio de la proporción de compañías vulnerables (es decir, aquellas con patrimonio neto negativo o con niveles de endeudamiento elevados), que habría sido más acusado dentro de las pymes y en los sectores más afectados por la pandemia. Las proyecciones para el período 2021-2023 anticipan una progresiva disminución de estos porcentajes, en línea con la reactivación prevista de la actividad. Los resultados también apuntan a que, como consecuencia de la crisis, se produciría un incremento de entre 2 puntos porcentuales (pp) y 3 pp de la proporción de empresas con riesgo de ser inviables por tener pérdidas continuadas hasta 2023, y de entre 3 pp y 4,7 pp en la de aquellas que seguirían siendo viables pero que tendrían dificultades para hacer frente a sus deudas con sus ingresos futuros esperados (empresas sobreendeudadas). Asimismo, las simulaciones realizadas muestran que la deuda no sostenible de las empresas que habrían pasado a encontrarse en esta última situación se situaría entre los 9 mm y los 18,6 mm de euros, según el escenario considerado, concentrándose la mayor parte de este importe en el segmento de las pymes.
    Keywords: COVID-19, necesidades de liquidez, rentabilidad, endeudamiento, crédito, solvencia, viabilidad
    JEL: E51 E52 G21
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bde:opaper:2119&r=
  179. By: Victor Aguirregabiria; Allan Collard-Wexler; Stephen P. Ryan
    Abstract: This survey is organized around three main topics: models, econometrics, and empirical applications. Section 2 presents the theoretical framework, introduces the concept of Markov Perfect Nash Equilibrium, discusses existence and multiplicity, and describes the representation of this equilibrium in terms of conditional choice probabilities. We also discuss extensions of the basic framework, including models in continuous time, the concepts of oblivious equilibrium and experience-based equilibrium, and dynamic games where firms have non-equilibrium beliefs. In section 3, we first provide an overview of the types of data used in this literature, before turning to a discussion of identification issues and results, and estimation methods. We review different methods to deal with multiple equilibria and large state spaces. We also describe recent developments for estimating games in continuous time and incorporating serially correlated unobservables, and discuss the use of machine learning methods to solving and estimating dynamic games. Section 4 discusses empirical applications of dynamic games in IO. We start describing the first empirical applications in this literature during the early 2000s. Then, we review recent applications dealing with innovation, antitrust and mergers, dynamic pricing, regulation, product repositioning, advertising, uncertainty and investment, airline network competition, dynamic matching, and natural resources. We conclude with our view of the progress made in this literature and the remaining challenges.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.01725&r=
  180. By: Céline Merlin-Brogniart (CLERSÉ - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Christine Liefooghe (TVES - Territoires, Villes, Environnement & Société - ULR 4477 - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - Université de Lille); Miklós Rosta (Corvinus University of Budapest); Márton Katona (Corvinus University of Budapest)
    Abstract: In the context of social innovation, collaborative governance and in particular innovation networks has gained importance. This paper focuses on the potential for scaling up according to the institutional arrangements and context of different countries. A grid for analyzing the degree of state control of citizens' and local initiatives is proposed in order to study the different forms and intensity of scaling up.
    Date: 2021–01–21
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-03333566&r=
  181. By: Dorosh, Paul A.; Thurlow, James; Pradesha, Angga; Raihan, Selim
    Abstract: Bangladesh has successfully improved national food security over the last two decades, primarily by increasing rice production and consumption. However, the country’s food system remains vulnerable to periodic floods and droughts that seriously affect agricultural production and prices. While food imports can cushion the effects of these short-term climate shocks, there is always uncertainty about whether shortages in global commodity markets will coincide with domestic production shortfalls, leading to particularly adverse outcomes, especially for poor farmers and net consumers. This is one of the reasons why Bangladesh’s government has maintained a long-standing public grain procurement and storage system, as well as a large social protection program that distributes subsidized rice and wheat to poor households. These programs, together with investments in farm productivity, have enhanced the resilience of Bangladesh’s food system to climate and world market shocks. Heightened climate variability in recent years has also led the government to increase stocks and make substantial new investments to expand public grain storage capacity.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, food policies, policies, costs, agriculture, investment, infrastructure, targeting
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprpp:9&r=
  182. By: PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
    Abstract: This research discusses about the decentralization of public service delivery by local government through the delegation of authority from the regent to the head of sub district, which is based on Permendagri No. 4 Tahun 2010 tentang Pedoman Pelayanan Administrasi Terpadu Kecamatan (The Guidelines for Integrated Administrative Services by Sub District). The purpose of this research was to describe the implementation stages of PATEN and determine the factors that influence the implementation of Permendagri No. 4 of 2010 on guidelines for integrated administrative services by sub district in Padangsidimpuan. By using the qualitative methods, this research resulted several important findings such as the coordination between relevant agencies have not maximized, the quality and quantity of sub district officials have not adequately, and also the availability of facilities and infrastructure owned in Implementation Policies Permendagri No. 4 of 2010. Based on the content and context of policy, the most influential factors in the implementation of PATEN in Padangsidimpuan consist of the parties whose interests are affected, the position of the policy makers, the availability of resources, and also the compliance and responsiveness. Based on the result of research analysis, sub district plays an important role as a service center that closest to the community, especially in the large areas and hard to reach. Therefore, beside the broad authority according to its portion, sub district also needs to be supported by the funding, facilities and infrastructure, and the adequate of both quality and quantity of sub district officials.
    Date: 2021–02–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:xmnp5&r=
  183. By: Tansel, Aysit; Öztürk, Ceyhan; Erdil, Erkan
    Abstract: We examine the relationship between wealth and health through prominent growth indicators and cognitive ability. Cognitive ability is represented by nutritional status. In this study, the proxy variable for nutritional status is BMI since there is a strong relationship between cognitive ability and nutrition. We use the reduced form equation in the cubic specification of time preference rate to estimate this relationship. We assume that the time preference rate is one of the outputs of cognitive ability. The growth indicators utilized are GDP per capita, schooling, overall and manufacturing productivities, and savings. We estimate our models using the FE, GMM estimators, and long difference OLS and IV estimation through balanced panel data for 47 countries for the 1980-2009 period, which is a representative period of the neo-liberal and globalization economic policy implications. Furthermore, by using the 1980-2009 period, we may eliminate the ripple effects of the 2007-2009 financial crisis. Although there is ample evidence that the association between GDP per capita, overall and manufacturing productivities, and BMI could be cubic, we take the results of the long-difference quadratic specification into consideration and conclude that the relationship between all prominent growth indicators and BMI is inverse U-shaped. In other words, cognitive ability has a significant potential to progress growth and economic development only in a healthy status.
    Keywords: Cognitive ability,time preference rate,BMI,productivity,health,schooling,growth,economic development
    JEL: E21 I15 I25 J24 O11 Q18
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:glodps:929&r=
  184. By: Marette, Stéphan (Paris-Saclay); Disdier, Anne-Célia (PSE); Bodnar, Anastasia (USDA OCE); Beghin, John C (UNL)
    Abstract: New Plant Engineering Techniques (NPETs) may significantly improve both production and quality of foods. Consumers and regulators around the world might be reluctant to accept such products, which may cripple adoption and global market penetration of these products. We develop a parsimonious economic model for R&D investment in food innovations to identify conditions under which NPET technology emerges in a context of international trade. The framework integrates consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the new food, the uncertainty of R&D processes, the associated regulatory cost of approval, and the competition between domestic and foreign products. With generic applicability, the model enables the quantitative analysis of new foods that could be introduced in markets and then traded across borders. We apply the framework to a hypothetical case of apples improved with NPETs. Simulation results suggest that import bans and high values of sunk costs can reduce R&D investment in NPETs to suboptimal levels.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Industrial Organization, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nbaesp:313493&r=
  185. By: Denter, Philipp; Ginzburg, Boris
    Abstract: Political agents often attempt to influence elections through "troll farms" that flood social media platforms with messages from fake accounts that emulate genuine information. We study the ability of troll farms to manipulate elections. We show that such disinformation tactics is more effective when voters are otherwise well-informed. Thus, for example, societies with high-quality media are more vulnerable to electoral manipulation.
    Keywords: Fake News, Disinformation, Troll Farms, Elections, Social Media, Information Aggregation, Fact-Checking
    JEL: D72 D83
    Date: 2021–09–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:109634&r=
  186. By: Sébastien Gadat (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jonas Kahn (IMT - Institut de Mathématiques de Toulouse UMR5219 - INSA Toulouse - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - Toulouse - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Clément Marteau (ICJ - Institut Camille Jordan [Villeurbanne] - ECL - École Centrale de Lyon - Université de Lyon - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - INSA Lyon - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon - Université de Lyon - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Cathy Maugis (IMT - Institut de Mathématiques de Toulouse UMR5219 - INSA Toulouse - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - Toulouse - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this paper, we consider a parametric density contamination model. We work with a sample of i.i.d. data with a common density, f* = (1 - lambda*)phi + lambda*phi (. - mu*), where the shape phi is assumed to be known. We establish the optimal rates of convergence for the estimation of the mixture parameters (lambda*, mu*) is an element of (0, 1) x R-d. In particular, we prove that the classical parametric rate 1/ root n cannot be reached when at least one of these parameters is allowed to tend to 0 with n.
    Keywords: L-2 contrast,Parameter estimation,Rate of convergence,Two-component contamination mixture model
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03328654&r=
  187. By: Ian Fillmore (Washington University in St. Louis)
    Abstract: This paper compares a hypothetical $15 federal minimum wage to the most recent federal minimum wage increase, in 2007, from $5.15 to $7.25. I describe a straightforward method for using publicly available data from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program to assess whether a proposed minimum wage increase is within historical experience. I illustrate the method by comparing the occupations and industries most directly affected by the 2007 increase with those that would be affected by a $15 minimum wage. By any measure, a $15 minimum wage is far outside historical experience, casting doubt on whether published estimates of the effects of the minimum wage apply at all. I find that the frontier of historical experience is a minimum wage between $9 and $11 per hour. I recommend that future minimum wage proposals include a similar analysis to assess whether the proposal is within historical experience. Finally, I argue for future research to take advantage of several recent state-level minimum wage hikes to estimate heterogeneous employment effects by occupation and industry.
    Keywords: employment, Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics, OEWS
    JEL: J31 J38
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hka:wpaper:2021-048&r=
  188. By: Ferreira, Francisco H G; Firpo, Sergio P; Messina, Julián
    Abstract: The Gini coefficient of labor earnings in Brazil fell by nearly a fifth between 1995 and 2012, from 0.50 to 0.41. The decline in other measures of earnings inequality was even larger, with the 90-10 percentile ratio falling by almost 40 percent. Applying micro-econometric decomposition techniques, this study parses out the proximate determinants of this substantial reduction in earnings inequality. Although a falling education premium did play a role, in line with received wisdom, this study finds that a reduction in the returns to labor market experience was a much more important factor driving lower wage disparities. It accounted for 53 percent of the observed decline in the Gini index during the period. Reductions in horizontal inequalities – the gender, race, regional and urban-rural wage gaps, conditional on human capital and institutional variables – also contributed. Two main factors operated against the decline: a greater disparity in wage premia to different sectors of economic activity, and the “paradox of progress”: the mechanical inequality-increasing effect of a more educated labor force when returns to education are convex.
    Keywords: earnings inequality; Brazil; returns to experience; OUP deal
    JEL: D31 J31
    Date: 2021–03–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:110471&r=
  189. By: Jeremy Greenwood (University of Pennsylvania); Nezih Guner (CEMFI, Centro de Estudios Monetarios y Financieros); Ricardo Marto (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: The 20th century beheld a dramatic transformation of the family. Some Kuznets style facts regarding structural change in the family are presented. Over the course of the 20th century in the United States fertility declined, educational attainment waxed, housework fell, leisure increased, jobs shifted from blue to white collar, and marriage waned. These trends are also observed in the cross-country data. A model is developed, and then calibrated, to address the trends in the US data. The calibration procedure is closely connected to the underlying economic logic. Three drivers of the great transition are considered: neutral technological progress, skilled-biased technological change, and drops in the price of labor-saving household durables.
    Keywords: Average weekly hours, blue-collar jobs, calibration, college premium, education, family economics, fertility, housework, Kuznets, leisure, market work, marriage, neutral technological progress, price of labor-saving household durables, skilled-biased technological change, white-collar jobs.
    JEL: D10 E13 J10 O10
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cmf:wpaper:wp2021_2105&r=
  190. By: Yanti, Putri; Putra, Yosep Eka
    Abstract: The purpose this research is to discuss about liquidity risk analysis at “Bank Negara Indonesia” (Persero) Tbk. The writer uses quantitative method. The type of data used is secondary data, which is obtained from published reports of “Bank Negara Indonesia” (Persero) Tbk the period 2016 to 2020. The result of this study indicate that the Cash Ratio can be said to be healthy because it is in accordance with Bank Indonesia regulations with an average ratio of 4,05%. The Quick Ratio is in the healthy criteria because the average value is greater than 100%. Loan to Deposit Ratio is in good condition because its value is below 75%. This means that the bank is able to fulfill its obligations immediately with its liquid assets and is able to provide depositors requests when withdrawing funds so that the bank’s liquidity risk is in a healty condition and well maintained.
    Date: 2021–08–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:xgq6y&r=
  191. By: Liao, Jingchi; Peng, Cameron; Zhu, Ning
    Abstract: We propose an extrapolative model of bubbles to explain the sharp rise in prices and volume observed in historical financial bubbles. The model generates a novel mechanism for volume: because of the interaction between extrapolative beliefs and disposition effects, investors are quick to not only buy assets with positive past returns but also sell them if good returns continue. Using account-level transaction data on the 2014–2015 Chinese stock market bubble, we test and confirm the model’s predictions about trading volume. We quantify the magnitude of the proposed mechanism and show that it can increase trading volume by another 30%.
    Keywords: OUP deal
    JEL: G11 G12
    Date: 2021–06–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:110514&r=
  192. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Mouna Amari (University of Sfax, Tunisia); Anis Jarboui (University of Sfax, Tunisia); Khaireddine Mouakhar (Normandy Business School, France)
    Abstract: The study examines the dynamic interrelationships among the school enrolment rates and the rate of employment (via unemployment rates) in Nigeria. The study employed Autoregressive estimates and an unrestricted VAR approach to analyze these relationships. The study lends credence to the new-growth theory (i.e. endogenous models) that more investments in human capital, through education especially at higher levels, will allow human capital to evolve dynamically and increase long-run growth in Nigeria. This tendency engenders multiplier effects in stimulating sustainable development given that education-driven growth facilitates employment. The growth literature has been definitive on the role of human capital in achieving long-run economic growth. Therefore, investments in education have been identified as a vital channel for building human capital and achieving long run development objectives. Thus, in the nascent quest for sustainable development, this study takes the new growth theory a step higher by examining the modulating effects of educational-driven growth (i.e. via school enrolments rates) in setting the pace for employment patterns in Nigeria.
    Keywords: Inclusive, Education, Inequality, Technology, Thresholds
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aak:wpaper:21/004&r=
  193. By: Muhammad, Andrew; Griffith, Andrew P.; Martinez, Charles C.; Thompson, Jada
    Abstract: For the last five years (2016-2020), beef and beef products have been a top-five U.S. agricultural export. In 2019, for instance, U.S. beef exports were valued at $8.1 billion, third behind soybeans ($18.7 billion) and tree nuts ($9.1 billion).1 Japan is the most important foreign market for U.S. beef (around $2 billion annually), accounting for around 25 percent of total U.S. exports (See Figure 1) (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2021a). Thus, the U.S. beef sector is concerned when Japanese policies change in favor of competing countries, resulting in a disadvantage for U.S. beef exports. This was actually an issue when the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) entered into force in December 2018.2 The CPTPP countries that export beef to Japan (e.g., Australia, Canada, New Zealand and Mexico) faced immediate tariff reductions and a tariff phase-down from about 40 percent to nine percent over a 15-year period (Muhammad and Griffith, 2018). Fortunately, the U.S. was able to negotiate similar tariff reductions for U.S. beef in the U.S.-Japan Trade Agreement (USJTA), which entered into force January 2020. However, unlike beef from CPTPP countries, U.S. beef products face more restrictive safeguard measures in Japan (Imaizumi, 2021). Safeguard measures are used to limit excessive import growth by allowing governments to increase tariffs on a product when imports exceed a certain level during a specified period. The World Trade Organization (WTO) and agreements like CPTPP and USJTA allow the Japanese government to increase tariffs on beef when imports exceed a certain volume during a specified period. This specified volume is often referred to as a safeguard trigger. For instance, if Japan’s annual beef imports from CPTPP countries exceeded 601,800 metric tons (MT) (around 1,327 million pounds) from April 2019–March 2020, the Japanese government could have enforced a higher tariff to limit beef imports from CPTPP countries (Imaizumi, 2018).3 Japan’s safeguard trigger for U.S. beef negotiated under USJTA is currently 242,000 MT (around 534 million pounds), which is significantly lower than the CPTPP safeguard trigger. While the relatively higher safeguard trigger could be due to CPTPP including multiple countries and USJTA only including the U.S., Japan essentially imports beef from two countries, the U.S. and Australia. Imports from other CPTPP countries are significantly smaller by comparison. Thus, the more generous CPTPP safeguard trigger is predominantly applied to Australian beef, whereas U.S. beef is facing a significantly more restrictive safeguard trigger. To put this in context, U.S. beef exports to Japan exceeded 242,000 MT the last five years (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2021a). Given this fact, it was no surprise when the Japanese government announced in March 2021 that imports of U.S. beef from April 2020 to March 2021 reached 242,229 MT, exceeding the safeguard trigger, and that tariffs on U.S. beef would temporarily increase from their current level (25.8 percent) to 38.5 percent for a 30-day period (Imaizumi, 2021). The goal of this report is to examine how Japan’s beef safeguard measures could impact the competitiveness of U.S. beef, vis-à-vis beef from competing countries like Australia. While there is some evidence that Japanese consumers do not consider U.S. beef and Australian beef to be perfect substitutes and have different preferences based on product attributes (e.g., U.S. grain-fed beef versus Australian grass-fed beef), prior research suggests that price competition is still important and that tariffs could affect the competitiveness of U.S. beef in Japan, resulting in less imports of U.S. beef and increased imports of Australian beef (Muhammad et al., 2018). In this report, we provide background on the U.S. beef sector and Japanese beef imports, details on Japan’s beef tariffs and safeguard measures in the CPTPP and USJTA, and lastly, we present findings on how temporary tariff increases due to safeguard measures impacts U.S. beef exports relative to other exporting countries in the Japanese market.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaeer:313523&r=
  194. By: Pereira, Francis; Fife, Elizabeth
    Abstract: A global and growing shortage of medical doctors and nurses, exacerbated by increasing life expectancy, is generating greater cost pressures on health care around the world. Many industry analysts and health care professionals have argued that early detection and preventive care, as well as education, is a solution to the escalating costs of medical care. In this respect, telemedicine can help alleviate these pressures, as well as extend medical services to under-served or unserved areas.
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:itsb21:238046&r=
  195. By: Alberto Cavallo; Oleksiy Kryvtsov
    Abstract: We use a detailed micro dataset on product availability to construct a direct high-frequency measure of consumer product shortages during the 2020–2021 pandemic. We document a widespread multi-fold rise in shortages in nearly all sectors early in the pandemic. Over time, the composition of shortages evolved from many temporary stockouts to mostly discontinued products, concentrated in fewer sectors. We show that product shortages have significant but transitory inflationary effects, and that these effects can be associated with elevated cost of replenishing inventories.
    JEL: D22 E31 E37
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:29209&r=
  196. By: Miguel Riviere (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sylvain Caurla (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Forest sector models encompass a set of models used for forest-related policy analysis. As representations of a complex human-environment system, they incorporate multiple facts from their target, the forest sector, which is usually understood as comprising forests, forestry and forest industries. Even though they pursue similar goals and display similarities, forest sector models show divergences in their representation of the forest sector. In this paper, we question and discuss the determinants behind the representation of facts in forest sector models, and try to highlight the reasons behind modelling practices. The forest sector's boundaries are often unclear, and it comprises facts of different natures for which dynamics take place on different time and spatial scales. As a result, modelling practices vary, and both empirical data and theory play varying roles in representing facts. Early models were developed in the 1970s and find their roots in traditional forest economics, the economics of natural resources, econometrics, but also transportation problems and system dynamics. Because they developed within a small but well-connected field, early efforts were influential in shaping current practices. Numerical simulation and scenario analysis are used as means of enquiry into model worlds: in that, forest sector models are a classical example of model use in economics, and they constitute a good example of how simulation models have been developed for decision-support purposes. Forest sector modelling is heavily influenced by its applied uses, and policy contexts shape both questions asked and how facts are introduced in scenario storylines. Understanding the determinants of modelling choices is necessary to ensure sound modelling practices. Forest sector models are now used to address issues wider than timber production. Practices turn to integration into multi-model frameworks to expand the boundaries of the system studied, but also towards the use of qualitative methods as new ways of representing facts, in particular deep changes that quantitative models may not be able to capture.
    Abstract: Les modèles de secteur forestier sont des outils utilisés dans le cadre d'exercices de prospective portant sur la filière forêt-bois. En tant que représentations de systèmes complexes, ces derniers incorporent de multiples faits issus de leur cible dans le monde réel, et qui peuvent être de différentes natures : dynamiques naturelles, procédés industriels, comportements économiques. Bien que poursuivant des objectifs semblables, ces modèles divergent dans le choix des faits représentés ainsi que dans celui des méthodes utilisées pour les représenter. Dans cet article, nous mettons en lumière les déterminants derrière les représentations du secteur forestier dans les modèles de filière, et remettons ainsi en perspective les pratiques de modélisation, notamment vis-à-vis de leur ancrage historique et méthodologique. Le secteur forestier constitue a priori un ensemble bien défini, mais ses limites exactes sont souvent floues. Elles varient selon la région du monde ou l'échelle spatiale considérée, et comprennent des dynamiques intervenant sur des échelles temporelles souvent disjointes. En résultent des choix de modélisation variés, utilisant à divers degrés théorie et données empiriques. Les premiers modèles furent développés dans les années 1970 et trouvent leur inspiration dans l'économie forestière et celle des ressources naturelles, mais aussi dans la dynamique des systèmes et les problèmes de transport optimal. Héritières d'une recherche au sein d'un champ restreint, les pratiques de modélisation du secteur forestier se sont fortement influencées entre elles, et l'empreinte des premiers modèles se retrouve encore aujourd'hui. La recherche repose sur des simulations numériques permettant d'explorer les futurs possibles par analyse de scénario, et le modélisateur observe le modèle afin d'en tirer des conclusions à propos du système représenté. En cela, les modèles de secteur forestier constituent un exemple archétypal de l'émergence de la simulation en économie comme procédé d'appui à la décision. En retour, le contexte dans lequel un modèle est développé a une forte influence sur les pratiques de modélisation, qu'il guide. Les modèles de secteur forestier sont aujourd'hui utilisés pour traiter de thématiques environnementales, et les pratiques se tournent vers une intégration de plus en plus forte avec d'autres modèles, permettant de repousser les limites du système représenté, mais aussi vers le recours à des méthodes qualitatives comme une nouvelle manière de représenter les faits difficiles à prendre en compte à l'aide de modèles quantitatifs.
    Keywords: Forest economics,Mathematical model,Simulation model,Prospective,Economie forestière,Modèle mathématique,Modèle de simulation
    Date: 2020–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03088084&r=
  197. By: Marianne Lefebvre (UA - Université d'Angers); Jesus Barreiro-Hurlé (Joint Research center - European Commission); Ciaran Blanchflower (UA - Université d'Angers); Liesbeth Colen (University of Göttingen - Georg-August-Universität Göttingen); Laure Kuhfuss (The James Hutton Institute); Jens Rommel (SLU - Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Tanja Šumrada (University of Ljubljana); Fabian Thomas (OS UAS - Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences - Hochschule Osnabrück); Sophie Thoyer (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In order to keep pace with the evolution of the objectives and means of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy, evaluation tools also need to adapt. A set of tools that have proved highly effective in other policy fields is economic xperiments. These allow the testing of a new policy before its implementation, provide evidence of its specific effects, and identify behavioural dimensions that can influence policy outcomes. We argue that agricultural policy should be subject to economic experiments, providing examples to illustrate how they can inform CAP design. We identify the additional efforts needed to establish further proof-of- concept, by running more –and more robust –experiments related to the CAP. This can happen only by integrating experimental evaluation results within the policy cycle and addressing ethical and practical challenges seriously. To do so, researchers would benefit from a concerted European effort to promote the methodology across the EU; organise the replication in time and across Europ of experiments relevant for the CAP; and build a multi-national panel of farmers willing to participate in experiments. Steps are being taken in this direction by the Research Network of Economics Experiments for CAP evaluation (REECAP).
    Abstract: Face à l'évolution des objectifs et des moyens de la politique agricole commune de l'Union européenne, les outils d'évaluation doivent également s'adapter. Les expérimentations économiques sont un ensemble d'outils qui se sont avérés très efficaces dans d'autres domaine d'action des pouvoirs publics. Elles permettent de tester une nouvelle politique avant sa mise en oeuvre, fournissent des informations sur les effets spécifiques de cette politique et identifient les dimensions comportementales qui peuvent influencer ses résultats. Nous soutenons que la politique agricole devrait être l'objet d'expérimentations économiques et fournissons des exemples pour illustrer comment celles-ci peuvent éclairer la formulation de la PAC. Nous identifions les efforts supplémentaires nécessaires pour établir d'autres preuves de concept, en menant des expérimentations liées à la PAC plus nombreuses -et plus robustes. Cela ne peut se faire qu'en intégrant les résultats des évaluations expérimentales dans le cycle de la politique et en s'attaquant sérieusement aux défis éthiques et pratiques. Pour ce faire, les chercheurs bénéficieraient d'un effort européen concerté pour promouvoir la méthodologie à travers l'Union européenne ; organiser la réplication dans le temps et à travers l'Europe d'expérimentations pertinentes pour la PAC ; et constituer un panel multinational d'agriculteurs désireux de participer à ces expérimentations. Des mesures sont prises dans ce sens par le Réseau de recherche sur les expérimentations économiques pour l'évaluation de la PAC (REECAP).
    Keywords: Experimental economics,Common Agricultural Policy,Evaluation tools
    Date: 2021–08–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03329617&r=
  198. By: Catron, Peter; Loria, Maria Vignau
    Abstract: Research on immigrant economic integration generally focuses on the influence of human capital on later occupational success. This research, however, often ignores other individual-level and contextual-level influences on later attainment and when in settlement they are likely to matter. We therefore create a unique panel dataset that follows a Mexican refugee population from arrival and through settlement in the early twentieth century. This novel data source allows us to examine both individual and contextual characteristics on occupational attainment at different points in time. Our analyses show that individual characteristics beyond human capital measures are likely to matter at first arrival, but their effects attenuate over time. This is especially true for perceived skin complexion, persons travelled with, and age which hold large effects on occupational outcomes at first arrival, but smaller effects after longer settlement. Furthermore, we are able to explore the role context of settlement plays on economic attainment. Consistent with previous research, we find that more favorable contexts are associated with better outcomes than less favorable contexts. This research has implications for the understanding of the adaptation and integration of refugee and immigrant populations by shedding light on what and when different variables influence later attainment.
    Date: 2021–09–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:qgj3p&r=
  199. By: Morando, Greta (University of Westminster)
    Abstract: It has been found that migrants and natives are affected differently by fluctuations in the business cycle. This paper analyses whether this is the case when considering the most recent economic downturn triggered by the Covid-19 pandemic. By using UK data, it finds that unemployment has increased for both natives and migrants as has, consequently, the benefits which are aimed to support non-employed households. The rise in these outcomes is particularly important for EU migrants. EU migrants have also been more likely to experience a decrease in pay during the pandemic. Natives, EU workers, and non-EU workers have all suffered similar decreases in hours worked. Since migrants are likely to adjust to negative shocks by return or re-migration, these findings suggest that the recent increase in emigration from the UK can be partly explained by the negative effects of the pandemic on migrants labour market outcomes.
    Keywords: COVID-19, migration, UK labour market
    JEL: F22 J01 J20 J61
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14699&r=
  200. By: Hélène Dernis (OECD); Laurent Moussiegt (OECD); Daisuke Nawa (OECD); Mariagrazia Squicciarini (OECD)
    Abstract: This study proposes an exploratory analysis of the characteristics of Artificial Intelligence (AI) “actors”. It focuses on entities that deploy AI-related technologies or introduce AI-related goods and services on large international markets. It builds on the OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Micro-data Lab infrastructure, and, in particular, on Intellectual Property (IP) rights data (patents and trademarks) combined with company-level data. Statistics on AI-related patents and trademarks show that AI-related activities are strongly concentrated in some countries, sectors, and actors. Development of AI technologies and/or goods and services is mainly due to start-ups or large incumbents, located in the United States, Japan, Korea, or the People’s Republic of China, and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. A majority of these actors operate in ICT-related sectors. The composition of the IP portfolio of the AI actors indicates that AI is frequently combined with a variety of sector-specific technologies, goods, or services.
    Date: 2021–09–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:stiaac:121-en&r=
  201. By: PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
    Abstract: The replanting, which was carried out for the first time in the Kuamang Valley hamlet in 2018, which was funded by the BPDPKS grant, was carried out on an area of 110 hectares that participated in the registration of 51 oil palm farmers. However, in its implementation there are various obstacles that make the program not run well in Lembah Kuamang Hamlet. This research method uses a qualitative method with the selection of informants by purposive sampling. The results of the study found that the oil palm replanting policy at KUD Citra Merkadi Dusun Lembah Kuamang had not run according to the rules set out in the Minister of Agriculture Regulation No. 6 of 2018 concerning Palm Oil Relanting Guidelines which occurred due to various obstacles that arise in the implementation of replanting coconut plantations. oil palm in the hamlet of Lembah Kuamang, Pelapat Ilir sub-district, Bungo regency. Constraints in replanting are the difficulty of communicating with operators who handle the implementation of rejuvenation of oil palm plantations in the village of Kuamang valley, the absence of socialization to the community of oil palm farmers and the workforce who have experienced complete cessation due to non-current wages from contractors. As for the efforts made by the Village Unit Cooperative (KUD) in solving the problems that are happening in the valley of Kuamang, the village unit cooperative gives a warning to the contractors and operators and finally decides on a contract with the operator and looks for another contractor who is more professional
    Date: 2021–05–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:24yg5&r=
  202. By: Jörn H. Block (emlyon business school); Alexander Groh; Lars Hornuf; Tom Vanacker; Silvio Vismara
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial finance markets are in a dynamic state. New market niches and players have developed and continue to emerge. The rules of the game and the methods for receiving financial backing have changed in many ways. This editorial and the special issue of Small Business Economics focus on crowdfunding (CF) and initial coin offerings (ICOs), which are two distinct but important entrepreneurial finance market segments of the future. Although the two market segments initially appear to be similar, we identify differences between them. Our comparison focuses on the stakeholders, microstructures, regulatory environments, and development of the markets. We conclude with suggestions for future ICO and CF research.
    Keywords: Initial Coin Offerings,Initial Token Offerings,Crowdfunding,Entrepreneurial Finance
    Date: 2021–08–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03337456&r=
  203. By: Jérôme Pouyet (THEMA - Théorie économique, modélisation et applications - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université, ESSEC Business School - Essec Business School); Thomas Trégouët (THEMA - Théorie économique, modélisation et applications - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université)
    Abstract: We analyze vertical integration between platforms providing operating systems to manufacturers of devices in presence of indirect network effects between buyers of devices and developers of applications. Vertical integration creates market power over non-integrated manufacturers and application developers. That market power provides the merged entity with the ability to coordinate pricing decisions across both sides of the market, which allows to better internalize network effects. Vertical integration does not systematically lead to foreclosure and can benefit all parties, even in the absence of efficiency gains. Its competitive impact depends on the strength and the structure of indirect network effects.
    Keywords: vertical integration,platform markets,network effects,foreclosure
    Date: 2021–08–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03328392&r=
  204. By: Lassana Toure (Université de Ségou); Ousmane Konipo; Atoumane Diagne
    Abstract: This paper reports an analysis of the operating account and the economic profitability of farms according to the typology of cotton farmers in the CMDT zones of Fana and Koutiala in Mali, highlighting the causes of the level of profitability. The methodological approach adopted was first of all a descriptive and inferential analysis of the sociodemographic characteristics of the farms, the farm account and the economic profitability by type of farm (well-equipped, equipped and less equipped). It has been found that only wellequipped farms make a positive profit if we value family labour and organic manure. The other types of farms had difficulty covering the costs involved in seed cotton production. Cotton farmers use far too much family labour (10 people on average) without seeing their profits increase exponentially. As a result, the productivity of family labour is extremely low (almost 216 FCFA of Average Labour Remuneration Rate on average overall), making the activity economically unprofitable from this point of view. Moreover, producers of the equipped or less equipped type have negative IRRs (respectively-15% and-36%) as opposed to the well-equipped type with an IRR of 26%. Therefore, only producers of the well-equipped type have an economically profitable activity from the point of view of capital productivity, considering the 12% threshold set by credit institutions. At the end of this investigation, we propose to train cotton farmers in farm management by helping them to better optimise their production costs; reorient some active members of the household towards other incomegenerating activities; grant access to equipment credit for both well-equipped and lessequipped farms so that they can increase their yields and net cotton profits; and easily grant access to land to farms, especially well-equipped ones, so that they can sow more land.
    Keywords: Export Crops,Profitability Indicators,CMDT,Fana,Koutiala
    Date: 2021–04–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03334546&r=
  205. By: Juan Carlos Hallak (Universidad de Buenos Aires / CONICET); Andrea González (Universidad de Buenos Aires)
    Abstract: This paper describes two Argentine case studies of firm’s integration in global value chains (GVCs) that target non-mass market segments in developed countries. The cases involve a manufacturer of high-end footwear and a manufacturer of customized automotive parts. Based on the common findings in these two cases, we build a conceptual framework that emphasizes relational links as an opportunity of GVC insertion for middle-income countries that cannot buttress their international competitiveness on low wages. We call these modes of insertion manufacturing with co-design.
    Keywords: GVC; non-mass goods; design; relational links; middle-income countries
    Date: 2021–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aoz:wpaper:81&r=
  206. By: Ines Fachbach (Department of Operations and Information Systems, University of Graz); Gernot Lechner (Department of Operations and Information Systems, University of Graz); Marc Reimann (Department of Operations and Information Systems, University of Graz; Newcastle Business School, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne)
    Abstract: Repair is a central component of a circular economy to extend the operational phase of products. Yet, the number of repair service providers as well as demand for repair have declined over the last decades, while more products than ever before were sold. Thus, for a successful transition from a linear to a circular economy the demand for repair services must be boosted to promote repair business. A starting point to achieve this goal is to increase knowledge about the decision-making process of consumers related to repair. This is the aim of this study: we investigate consumers' intention (1) to make use of repair service providers, (2) to self-repair broken items, and (3) to use repair service providers incorporated in a repair network. An extensive literature research revealed a comprehensive set of influencing factors concerning repair decisions covering environmental, social, and economic aspects. Based on these insights, a quantitative online survey was designed, and distributed in Styria, Austria. By means of a structural equation model the acquired data of 900 respondents was analysed. The results emphasise the trade-off between acting environmentally friendly and economic aspects like repair cost and time, but also highlight the effect of government intervention–in the form of setting up a network and financial support for repair–on shaping this trade-off. Furthermore, past behaviour is found to strongly drive repair intention. Finally, disparities between urban and rural areas, as well as in the maximum accepted prices and times for repair of different product types were identified. As a result our research not only contributes to scientific literature by shedding light on the role of repair networks for repair decisions, and the trade-off between environmental, social and economic aspects. It is also relevant for supporting repair companies' decision making, as well as public authorities interested in promoting repair.
    Date: 2021–09–14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:grz:wpsses:2021-05&r=
  207. By: Pengyu Chen (University of Birmingham); Yiannis Karavias (University of Birmingham); Elias Tzavalis (University of Birmingham)
    Abstract: This presentation introduces a new Stata command, xtbunitroot, which implements the panel data unit root tests developed by Karavias and Tzavalis (2014). These tests allow for one or two structural breaks in deterministic components of the series and can be seen as panel data counterparts of the tests by Zivot and Andrews (1992) and Lumsdaine and Papell (1997). The dates of the breaks can be known or unknown. The tests allow for intercepts and linear trends, non-normal errors, cross-section heteroskedasticity and dependence. They have power against homogeneous and heterogeneous alternatives, and can be applied to panels with small or large time series dimensions. We will describe the econometric theory and illustrate the syntax and options of the command, with some empirical examples.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:19&r=
  208. By: Isaac K. Ofori (University of Insubria, Varese, Italy); Pamela E. Ofori (University of Insubria, Varese, Italy); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Motivated by the momentous rise in ICT diffusion, the implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area agreement, and the expected rebound of foreign direct investment inflow to Africa from 2022, this study examines the joint effects of industrialisation and ICT diffusion on resource mobilisation in Africa. To this end, we use data on 42 African countries for the period 1996 – 2020 for the analysis. First, we provide evidence robust to several specifications from the dynamic system GMM to show that although unconditionally both industrialisation and ICT diffusion enhance (i) goods and services tax (GST), and (ii) profits, corporate and income tax (PCIT) mobilisation efforts in Africa, the effects of the former are rather remarkable in the presence of the latter. Particularly, the results show that, while ICTs amplify the effect of industrialisation on GST, only ICT usage and ICT skills matter for PCIT. Second, the study unveils ICT thresholds for complementary policies. Accordingly, industrialisation and ICTs are necessary and sufficient conditions for tax revenue mobilisation only below some ICT thresholds. Above these ICT thresholds, complementary policies are needed to maintain the overall positive incidence on tax revenue mobilisation. Policy recommendations are provided in the end.
    Keywords: AfCFTA; Africa; ICT access; ICT diffusion; Industrialisation; Tax; Revenue
    JEL: C33 F6 H2 H71 O33 O55
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:exs:wpaper:21/058&r=
  209. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: This price bulletin was developed by researchers at IFPRI Malawi with the goal of providing clear and accurate information on the variation of weekly retail prices of selected agricultural commodities that are important for food security and nutrition in Malawi. The reports are intended as a resource for those interested in agricultural markets in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, food prices, legumes, roots, tubers, cereals, prices, agricultural products, markets, food security, nutrition
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:masspb:9b&r=
  210. By: Saeed Marzban; Erick Delage; Jonathan Yumeng Li; Jeremie Desgagne-Bouchard; Carl Dussault
    Abstract: The problem of portfolio management represents an important and challenging class of dynamic decision making problems, where rebalancing decisions need to be made over time with the consideration of many factors such as investors preferences, trading environments, and market conditions. In this paper, we present a new portfolio policy network architecture for deep reinforcement learning (DRL)that can exploit more effectively cross-asset dependency information and achieve better performance than state-of-the-art architectures. In particular, we introduce a new property, referred to as \textit{asset permutation invariance}, for portfolio policy networks that exploit multi-asset time series data, and design the first portfolio policy network, named WaveCorr, that preserves this invariance property when treating asset correlation information. At the core of our design is an innovative permutation invariant correlation processing layer. An extensive set of experiments are conducted using data from both Canadian (TSX) and American stock markets (S&P 500), and WaveCorr consistently outperforms other architectures with an impressive 3%-25% absolute improvement in terms of average annual return, and up to more than 200% relative improvement in average Sharpe ratio. We also measured an improvement of a factor of up to 5 in the stability of performance under random choices of initial asset ordering and weights. The stability of the network has been found as particularly valuable by our industrial partner.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.07005&r=
  211. By: Situmorang, Dokman Marulitua
    Abstract: Trade activities that occurred at the border between Bengkayang Regency and Sarawak, specifically in Siding and Jagoi Babang districts, were in fact able to encourage domestic production. This study aims to see which management is in line with related fields in Bengkang Regency, the champion of Bengkayang Regency in Indonesia with Sarikin in Sarawak, Malaysia, which until now still uses traditional Cross-border Post or still uses the old-fashioned concept. The research method is Library Research and Field Research. As for the population in this study are the Customs and Excise staff of Jagoi Babang, the Border Society of Jagoi Babang, the Trans?Border Post Guard Officer, the Jagoi Babang Entrepreneur. The border trade model is also run coordinated and integrated by BUMDes Together by synergizing the management of the potential for natural tourism, cultural tourism and culinary tourism and handicrafts (home industries) to be part of the goods offered
    Date: 2021–06–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:4xbzs&r=
  212. By: Loretta J. Mester
    Abstract: The conference’s theme of new avenues for monetary policy is particularly relevant given the economic challenges presented by the global pandemic. But even before the pandemic hit, structural changes to the economy, in particular, lower estimates of the neutral real interest rate, presented challenges for monetary policymakers and suggested that new thinking was needed to ensure achievement of our monetary policy goals. Recently, both the Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank (ECB) have undertaken reviews of their monetary policy frameworks to determine whether changes were needed to increase the effectiveness of their policy strategies. The ECB released the outcome of its review in July. The Fed’s revised strategy is now about a year old. Today, I will discuss the Fed’s revised strategy, how the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) has put the strategy into practice, and based on that experience, what I believe are areas that would benefit from further clarification. As always, the views I will present are my own and not necessarily those of the Federal Reserve System or of my colleagues on the Federal Open Market Committee.
    Date: 2021–09–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fip:fedcsp:93044&r=
  213. By: PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
    Abstract: Marketing strategy as an important aspect to maintain and expand opportunities to reach the market. Studies that explore the Bank's internal marketing strategies have been examined by previous research but based on competitive banking dynamics and highly dynamic market demands it is difficult to predict, the study of marketing strategies in the context of the Bank's companies is considered to be relevant for review at any time. This article aims to analyze the marketing strategies available at PT Bank Mandiri, Tbk Yogyakarta branch 2004 with the SWOT analysis method. Data was obtained through interviews with the management of the Bank Mandiri Yogyakarta branch. The analytical tool used is the analysis of industrial structure (Porter), SWOT. The results of the study through a SWOT analysis of the position of PT. Bank Mandiri in its marketing strategy uses a growth strategy.
    Date: 2020–08–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:763gv&r=
  214. By: Xiaowei Hu; Jaejin Jang; Nabeel Hamoud; Amirsaman Bajgiran
    Abstract: The inventories carried in a supply chain as a strategic tool to influence the competing firms are considered to be strategic inventories (SI). We present a two-period game-theoretic supply chain model, in which a singular manufacturer supplies products to a pair of identical Cournot duopolistic retailers. We show that the SI carried by the retailers under dynamic contract is Pareto-dominating for the manufacturer, retailers, consumers, the channel, and the society as well. We also find that retailer's SI, however, can be eliminated when the manufacturer commits wholesale contract or inventory holding cost is too high. In comparing the cases with and without downstream competition, we also show that the downstream Cournot duopoly undermines the profits for the retailers, but benefits all others.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.06995&r=
  215. By: Dessirama, Titania; Afriyeni, Afriyeni
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to find out how the application of operational risk that occurs in the teller and customer service units at PT. BPR Jorong Kampung Tangah Cabang Padang. This data collection method was collected through interviews with related parties. The analytical method in this study uses a descriptive method with an inductive mindset that explains the results of research regarding the facts that occur in the field, which are then analyzed according to existing theories. Based on the results of the study it was found that PT. BPR-JKT Cabang Padang has monitored and anticipated operational risks that will occur in every teller and customer service work unit in order to avoid things that damage the bank's good name, because tellers and customer service are front liners who will deal directly with customers. The monitoring and anticipation carried out by the bank has proven that there are fewer unwanted incidents at the teller unit, such as errors in inputting nominal money and account numbers during transactions, underpayments or overpayments to customers. As for the customer service unit, such as incorrect customer data input, the occurrence of complaints and others.
    Date: 2021–08–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:mektz&r=
  216. By: Gold, Natalie
    Abstract: “Das Adam Smith Problem” is the name given by eighteenth-century German scholars to the question of how to reconcile the role of self-interest in the Wealth of Nations with Smith’s advocacy of sympathy in Theory of Moral Sentiments. As the discipline of economics developed, it focused on the interaction of selfish agents, pursuing their private interests. However, behavioral economists have rediscovered the existence and importance of multiple motivations, and a new Das Adam Smith Problem has arisen, of how to accommodate self-regarding and pro-social motivations in a single system. This question is particularly important because of evidence of motivation crowding, where paying people can backfire, with payments achieving the opposite effects of those intended. Psychologists have proposed a mechanism for the crowding out of “intrinsic motivations” for doing a task, when payment is used to incentivize effort. However, they argue that pro-social motivations are different from these intrinsic motivations, implying that crowding out of pro-social motivations requires a different mechanism. In this essay I present an answer to the new Das Adam Smith problem, proposing a mechanism that can underpin the crowding out of both pro-social and intrinsic motivations, whereby motivations are prompted by frames and motivation crowding is underpinned by the crowding out of frames. I explore some of the implications of this mechanism for research and policy.
    Keywords: altruism; Das Adam Smith Problem; framing; institutions; markets; moral sentiments; motivation crowding; pro-sociality; self-interest; self-regard; trust
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2020–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:109218&r=
  217. By: Lundborg, Petter (Lund University); Plug, Erik (University of Amsterdam); Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: We introduce a novel strategy to study the intergenerational transmission of human capital, net of genetic skill transfers. For this purpose, we use unique data on children conceived through sperm and egg donation in IVF treatments in Denmark. Because the assignment of donors is not selective, the intergenerational human capital estimates allow for a causal nurture interpretation. Once we take account of genes, we find that only the education of mothers matters: the association between mother's education and child test scores is significant and large, whereas the association between father's education and child test scores is insignificant and practically zero.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, human capital, donor children
    JEL: I24 J62
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14708&r=
  218. By: Didier Laussel; Ngo Van Long; Joana Resende
    Abstract: A durable good monopolist faces a continuum of heterogeneous customers who make purchase decisions by comparing present and expected price-quality offers. The monopolist designs a sequence of price-quality menus to segment the market. We consider the Markov Perfect Equilibrium (MPE) of a game where the monopolist is unable to commit to future price-quality menus. We obtain the novel results that (a) under certain conditions, the monopolist covers the whole market in the first period (even when a static Mussa-Rosen monopolist would not cover the whole market), because this is a strategic means to convince customers that lower prices would not be offered in future periods, and that (b) this can happen only under the stage-wise Stackelberg leadership assumption (whereby consumers base their expectations on the value of the state variable at the end of the period). Conditions under which MPE necessarily involve sequentially trading are also derived. Un monopoleur de biens durables fait face à un continuum de clients hétérogènes qui prennent des décisions d'achat en comparant les offres qualité-prix actuelles et attendues. Le monopole conçoit une séquence de menus qualité-prix pour segmenter le marché. Nous considérons l'équilibre parfait de Markov (MPE) d'un jeu où le monopoleur est incapable de s'engager sur les futurs menus de qualité-prix. Nous prouvons que (a) dans certaines conditions, le monopoleur couvre l'ensemble du marché dans la première période (même lorsqu'un monopoleur statique de Mussa-Rosen ne couvrirait pas l'ensemble du marché), car c'est un moyen stratégique de convaincre les clients que des prix plus bas ne seraient pas proposés dans les périodes futures, et que (b) cela ne peut se produire que sous l'hypothèse de leadership par étapes de Stackelberg (dans laquelle les consommateurs fondent leurs attentes sur la valeur de la variable d'état à la fin de la période). Les conditions dans lesquelles le MPE implique nécessairement des échanges séquentiels sont également dérivées.
    Keywords: Intertemporal price discrimination,Durable goods monopoly,Product quality,Markov perfect equilibrium, Discrimination tarifaire intertemporelle,Monopoleur des biens durables,La qualité des produits,équilibre parfait de Markov
    JEL: C73 D42 L12 L15
    Date: 2021–09–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cir:cirwor:2021s-31&r=
  219. By: Carbajal-De-Nova, Carolina
    Abstract: The effect of wages on price inflation has been a foremost subject in economics. This paper evaluates the effect in Mexican manufacturing for two sets of periods. The first one, from 1994 to 2003, covers an initial period of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The second period encompass from 2007 to 2016, comprising the Great Recession. For both periods, data is available on a monthly frequency. A first equation deals with wages and bilateral nominal exchange rate impacts on the producer price inflation. A second equation measures the effect of this last variable, besides a bilateral nominal exchange rate and the wage effect on consumer price inflation. These equations follow Pujol and Griffiths (1997), using an error correction model and Granger causality tests. The results for the mentioned periods expose those wages have an almost null effect in both the inflation of producer and consumer prices.
    Keywords: wages; consumer price inflation; producer price inflation; bilateral nominal exchange rate.
    JEL: J00 J3
    Date: 2021–02–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:109555&r=
  220. By: Aliz Bertoloni Díaz
    Abstract: Este trabajo examina el impacto de la institución colonial de la Encomienda sobre la violencia del conflicto armado del siglo XX en Colombia. A pesar de haber sido una institución extractiva, hay evidencia que muestra que las regiones en donde estuvo presente desarrollaron capacidad estatal más temprano, desembocando en Estados locales más fuertes. El análisis muestra que estos Estados tuvieron menor cantidad de ataques violentos por parte de grupos insurgentes, paramilitares y estatales durante el conflicto interno de fines del siglo pasado. Se encontró que este efecto fue el resultado de la mayor capacidad estatal expresada en provisión de bienes públicos, explicada en gran parte por la presencia de la Encomienda en el siglo XVI y por el efecto de esta institución en la presencia de Estados coloniales locales a finales del siglo XVIII. Los resultados aquí presentes muestran la importancia de analizar la capacidad estatal a nivel sub-nacional, que explica resultados distintos del conflicto entre regiones del mismo país.
    Keywords: Encomienda, capacidad estatal, instituciones, conflicto armado, Colombia, colonialismo
    JEL: H12 H79 N36 N46 N9
    Date: 2020–08–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000089:019553&r=
  221. By: Margaux Escoffier (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Emmanuel Hache (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IRIS - Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques); Valérie Mignon (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique); Anthony Paris (LEO - Laboratoire d'Économie d'Orleans - UO - Université d'Orléans - Université de Tours - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment in the electricity mix for a panelof OECD and BRICS countries from 1997 to 2016 by paying particular attention to the impact of oil market con-ditions. Relying on a nonlinear, regime-switching specification, we show that rising oil prices stimulate PV de-ployment only if their growth rate exceeds 6.7% per annum. Although wefind that various other determinantsmatter—with the influence of some of them depending on the situation on the oil market—public policies playa crucial role.
    Keywords: Solar photovoltaic,Renewables deployment,Oil prices,Panel smooth transition regression.
    Date: 2021–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03339134&r=
  222. By: Emmanuel Laffort (CREG - Centre de recherche et d'études en gestion - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour); Nicolas Dufour (PSB - Paris School of Business)
    Abstract: La fraude dans les organisations est une réalité qui coûterait en moyenne près de 6% des dépenses des organisations (J. Gee, M. Button, 2017), un montant de nature à inciter les organisations à adresser cette réalité avec conviction. Or, la fraude, qu'elle soit interne ou externe est abordée du bout des lèvres et reconnue souvent d'encore plus loin. Afin d'apporter un éclairage sur la façon dont la lutte contre la fraude s'organise, nous avons donné la parole aux contrôleurs, managers et directeurs de plusieurs organismes agissant en tant que mutuelles de complémentaires de santé, qui, puisqu'elles sont fortement exposées à ce risque, sont des organisations ayant acquis une certaine maturité sur le sujet.
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03336041&r=
  223. By: Julia Anna Bingler (CER–ETH – Center of Economic Research at ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Chiara Colesanti Senni (Council on Economic Policies); Pierre Monnin (Council on Economic Policies)
    Abstract: Climate risks are now fully recognized as financial risks by asset managers, investors, central banks, and financial supervisors. Against this background, a rapidly growing number of market participants and financial authorities are exploring which metrics to use to capture climate risks, as well as to what extent the use of different metrics delivers heterogeneous results. To shed a light on these questions, we analyse a sample of 69 transition risk metrics delivered by 9 different climate transition risk providers and covering the 1,500 firms of the MSCI World index. Our findings show that convergence between metrics is significantly higher for the firms most exposed to transition risk. We also show that metrics with similar scenarios (i.e. horizon, temperature target and transition paths) tend to deliver more coherent risk assessments. Turning to the variables that might drive the outcome of the risk assessment, we find evidence that variables on metric's assumptions and scenario's characteristics are associated with changes in the estimated firms' transition risk. Our findings bear important implications for policy making and research. First, climate transition risk metrics, if applied by the majority of financial market participants in their risk assessment, might translate into relatively coherent market pricing signals for least and most exposed firms. Second, it would help the correct interpretation of metrics in financial markets if supervisory authorities defined a joint baseline approach to ensure basic comparability of disclosed metrics, and asked for detailed assumption documentations alongside the metrics. Third, researchers should start to justify the use of the specific climate risk metrics and interpret their findings in the light of the metric assumptions.
    Keywords: financial climate risks, corporate finance, climate risk metrics, climate transition risk, spearman's rank correlation, hierarchical cluster analysis, Ward's minimum variance criterion, Lasso regression analysis
    JEL: C83 D53 D81 G12 G32 Q54
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eth:wpswif:21-363&r=
  224. By: Lassana Toure (University of Segou)
    Abstract: In Mali, lack of access to agricultural credit becomes a factor behind low farmer income and even rural poverty. However, agricultural credit is seen as a tool to increase production as well as farm income. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of equipment credit on the income of cotton producers in Mali. To this end, a survey was carried out among 400 producers in 2019, 127 of whom had had their equipment credit applications accepted, compared to 273 who had not had their equipment credit applications accepted. The survey was carried out in the areas of the Compagnie Malienne de Développement de Textiles (CMDT) of Fana and Koutiala in Mali. The method of analysis is the estimation of the instrumental variables multiple regression model of credit, implementing the estimation method of Heckman (1979) to account for the zero profit for 16% of the producers. The results of the econometric model estimates show that the variables that lead to an increase in income at the 5% threshold are: access to credit, quantity sold of cotton, costs of material goods used on the farm, total area sown, quantity sold of other crops, selling price of other crops. In other words, access to equipment credit could enable cotton producers to improve their income by 35%. Equipment credit entitles farmers to use more capital goods on the farm. This use of equipment increases agricultural productivity and yields, and in turn increases farm income.Based on these results, we can make some policy recommendations to boost cotton production, make other crops more beneficial to producers andgrant more equipment credit.
    Keywords: Equipment credit,heckman,instrumental variable,cotton producer,agricultural income,CMDT,Mali
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03334545&r=
  225. By: PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
    Abstract: This research is a qualitative descriptive approach and the object of research is involved elements such as the school Principal, Vice Principal Curriculum and teachers at SMPN 7 Pematangsiantar. The focus of this research is to identify and analyze the implementation of Curriculum Policy, 2013 in SMPN 7 Pematangsianar using a model that was initiated by George C. Edward III in the form of communication, resources, disposition and bureaucratic structures that play a role in policy implementation. The data used is the verbal data from respondents information about the implementation of curriculum policy in 2013 in SMPN 7 Pematangsiantar. The technique of collecting data using interviews, observation and documentation. Analysis of the data in this study include stage data reduction, data presentation and data verification or conclusion. The results showed that the implementation of curriculum policy in 2013 in SMPN 7 Pematangsiantar generally running well but not optimal. Until runs in the third year, the evaluations are made every year to make more optimal implementation of this policy. In the communication factor, sub factor and consistency of information transmission has not gone well, from the sub factor clarity there is little problem. The vagueness of this information related to the curriculum changes that took effect too quickly
    Date: 2021–02–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:68gkf&r=
  226. By: Collard, Fabrice; Licandro, Omar
    Abstract: This paper embeds firm dynamics into the Neoclassical model and provides a simple framework to solve for the transitional dynamics of economies moving towards more selection. As in the Neoclassical model, markets are perfectly competitive, there is only one good and two production factors (capital and labor). At equilibrium, aggregate technology is Neoclassical, but the average quality of capital and the depreciation rate are both endogenous and positively related to selection. At steady state, output per capita and welfare both raise with selection. However, the selection process generates transitional welfare losses that may reduce in around 60% long term (consumption equivalent) welfare gains. The same property is shown to be true in a standard general equilibrium model with entry and fixed production costs.
    Keywords: Firm dynamics and selection; Neoclassical model; Capital irreversibility, Investment distortions; Transitional dynamics, Welfare gains
    JEL: E13 E23 D6 O4
    Date: 2021–09–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tse:wpaper:125924&r=
  227. By: Diego Rodríguez Rodríguez
    Abstract: El objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer un análisis detallado de la estructura y previsible evolución de los costes y precios de la electricidad, así como una discusión de los aspectos más relevantes a estos efectos del funcionamiento de los mercados asociados. También se discuten y analizan algunas propuestas avanzadas por el Gobierno y otros actores para responder a la intensa preocupación social por el aumento de los precios mayoristas y su repercusión sobre la factura de los consumidores. En relación con los costes regulados, el trabajo analiza entre otras cuestiones la evolución previsible de los costes de las redes, el régimen de retribución específica renovable y la evolución de la deuda eléctrica, que en su conjunto deberían presentar una evolución favorable a medio plazo. Se abordan también algunas cuestiones relativas al diseño marginalista del mercado eléctrico, la posibilidad de extraer parte de los windfall profits ligados al aumento del precio de los derechos de emisión de CO2 y la gestión del uso hidroeléctrico del agua, entre otras. Entre las propuestas que se formulan se incluyen la de una actualización más rápida de la retribución específica de las renovables para adaptarla a la evolución de los precios reales, así como una reducción drástica del impuesto especial sobre la electricidad. En un plazo un poco más dilatado debería abordarse la traslación completa de los sobrecostes extrapeninsulares a los Presupuestos Generales del Estado y, por supuesto, abordar de forma definitiva la reforma de la fiscalidad de los consumos energéticos con el fin de evitar las distorsiones causadas por la acumulación de instrumentos fiscales y parafiscales
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fda:fdaeee:eee2021-28&r=
  228. By: Dorosh, Paul A.; Minot, Nicholas; Kabir, Razin; Hossain, Shahadat
    Abstract: Bangladesh has a complex rice value chain consisting of farmers, upstream paddy wholesalers and intermediaries, millers, and downstream rice traders, wholesalers and retailers. Each of these actors serve distinct functions and have lines of trade that affect their stock turnover in different ways. There is a lack of complete information on the volume of rice traded and stored by the private sec-tor. This leads to difficulties in the timeliness of requisite policy actions on the part of the govern-ment. When rice prices spike, the typical response has been to lay the blame at the feet of millers and traders. For the government, it is important to have a general picture of the level of private stocks in a given year to ensure appropriate adjustments in procurement, distribution and import de-cisions can be made to meet their food security and price stabilization objectives.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, trade, rice, paddy, valur chains, surveys, households, grain, private sector, stocks, trader, rice stocks, miller
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprpp:6&r=
  229. By: PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the communication competence of village midwives and TBAs in supporting the decrease of maternal and infant mortality rate and to analyze the efforts of village midwives and TBAs in maintaining partnership in Singkohor sub-district of Aceh Singkil district. The method used is qualitative method with constructivist paradigm. Data were collected based on in-depth interviews on 6 informants consisting of 3 village midwives and 3 dukun bayi. The results showed that the midwives 'midwives' partnership and midwife communications process worked well. The communication competence of village midwives and midwives is seen from the motivation, knowledge and skills indicate that the motivation of the village midwife to partner with the dukun baby is due to the belief and closeness of the community to the midwife whose knowledge is gained from the experience passed down from generation to generation while the shaman has motivation partnering with the village midwife because the TBA believes in the credibility of midwives in handling childbirth where knowledge is gained from the learning process.
    Date: 2020–11–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:wspf6&r=
  230. By: Hannah, Leslie; Bennett, Robert J.
    Abstract: We present the first available - and near-complete - list of large UK manufacturers in 1881, by complementing the employer data from that year’s population census (recovered by the British Business Census of Entrepreneurs project) with employment and capital estimates from other sources. The 438 largest firms with 1,000 or more employees accounted for around one-sixth of manufacturing output. Examples can be found in most industries. Exploiting powered machinery, intangible assets, new technologies and venture capital, and generally operating in competitive markets, their exports about equalled domestic sales. The more capital-intensive accessed stock markets, more - and in larger firms - than in follower economies. Some alleged later causes of UK decline relative to the US or Germany cannot be observed in 1881. Indeed, contemporary overseas observers - capitalist and socialist - correctly recognized the distinctive features of UK manufacturing as its exceptional development of quoted corporations, professional managers and “modern,” scalable, factory production.
    Keywords: large manufacturers; capital intensity; industrial concentration; stock exchanges
    JEL: L60 N63 N83
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:111895&r=
  231. By: Christopher Esposito; ;
    Abstract: Over the 20th century, the geography of breakthrough innovation in the United States – defined as the spatial distribution of the production of patents that are both novel and impactful – underwent three broad changes. At the start of the 20th century, breakthrough innovation was concentrated in populous and knowledge-diverse metropolitan areas. By the 1930s, breakthroughs were created less frequently across the entire country and so their invention had a less distinct geography. The substantial creation of breakthroughs resumed in the 1960s and was once their invention was concentrated in large and knowledge metropolitan areas. However, during the latter part of the century the invention of breakthroughs also frequently involved long-distance collaborations between inventors. In this paper, I document these historical changes to the geography of breakthrough innovation and propose a model to explain why they occurred. The model suggests that the geography of breakthroughs is established by four factors: (1) the prevailing knowledge intensity of breakthrough inventions, (2) the distance- based frictions incurred by technologies used for collaboration, (3) the distance-based frictions incurred by the technologies used for knowledge-sourcing, and (4) the disruptiveness of the regime of technological change. I generate support for the model, and conclude the paper by discussing lessons that the 20th century’s geography of breakthrough innovation provide for anticipating possible futures for the geography of innovation in the 21st century, including in the years beyond COVID-19.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:egu:wpaper:2126&r=
  232. By: Elie Ndemba Tshilambu (Université protestante au Congo - Université protestante au Congo)
    Abstract: L'objectif du présent article est d'analyser le rôle de la fiscalité et mesurer l'effet de celle-ci à travers son impact sur le capital public, dans la croissance économique en République Démocratique du Congo en s'appuyant sur le modèle de croissance endogène de Barro (1990) et à déterminer le taux optimal de pression fiscale à travers l'estimation du modèle de SCULLY. L'interaction entre la fiscalité et la croissance pourrait avoir une allure non linéaire, sous la forme d'une courbe de LAFFER, le test Hansen va servir à montrer l'effet de seuil dans la relation non linéaire entre la pression fiscale et la croissance économique. Un modèle ARDL a été estimé sur la période 1990-2020 pour analyser la dynamique de ces deux variables. Les résultats obtenus vont dans le sens d'une relation croissante entre la fiscalité et la croissance économique en RDC. Ainsi, à travers l'impôt, les ménages contribuent au financement du capital public qui conduit in fine à améliorer la croissance économique. Il en est ressorti de cette étude que les niveaux des composantes fiscales observés n'ont pas été efficients et optimaux par rapport aux taux de croissance économique observés en RDC durant la période 1990-2020. L'estimation du modèle de SCULLY révèle qu'avec un niveau de 23% de pression fiscale, on peut avoir une croissance économique soutenue.
    Keywords: Politique Budgétaire,Croissance économique,Pression fiscale Classification JEL : E62,E22,O40,C11
    Date: 2021–04–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03210477&r=
  233. By: Abramov Alexander (RANEPA); Chernova Maria (RANEPA); Radygin Alexandr (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2020, after the sudden financial shock in March caused by sales of risky assets by investors against the backdrop of the rising coronavirus pandemic, stock markets in many countries recovered faster than did the economic indicators. The traditional hypothesis that the value of financial assets depends more strongly on future investor expectations than on past events has been confirmed.
    Keywords: Russian economy, stock market, bond market, corporate bond market, derivatives market, private investors
    JEL: G01 G12 G18 G21 G24 G28 G32 G33
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gai:ppaper:ppaper-2021-1119&r=
  234. By: Robert Stehrer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: In this paper we provide a method to characterise global value chains and a related decomposition of bilateral gross exports by distinguishing three different stages of the value-added flows (i) the source of value added, (ii) the final assembly stage of a product, and (iii) the final absorption (sink) of this product. Methodologically this is embedded in a simple framework using matrix algebra allowing for intuitive interpretations of the individual decomposition terms and results. The approach leads to a novel decomposition of bilateral gross export flows and related value-added trade indicators. It is shown how these correspond to existing measures using the property of inverse matrices. Specifically, the paper sheds light on the nature of the double-counting terms discussed in the literature. Finally, the approach outlined is extended by incorporating insights from the hypothetical extraction method. We argue that this is a complementary approach which however can be used to flexibly define the value chains of interest and characterise the respective flows that are considered part of this defined value chain, again carefully differentiating the source, assembly, and sink dimensions.
    Keywords: global value chains, decomposition, gross exports, double-counting, hypothetical extraction
    JEL: F11 F14 F15
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wii:wpaper:209&r=
  235. By: Karen Dayanna Ramírez Quiroga (UDI - Universidad de Investigación y Desarrollo); Gisela Leidy Galván (UDI - Universidad de Investigación y Desarrollo)
    Abstract: This document delves into the high levels of cooperation that increase the levels of innovation for the agro-industrial sector of Bucaramanga and its metropolitan area. A methodology was used with a quantitative approach, non-experimental type, cross-sectional with correlational scope, in which two variables were related: business cooperation and innovation, through the assessment and study of associativity indicators, the dynamics were also established and impact on the functioning of these variables in the marketers, by collecting information with the help of surveys taken from a sample of 40 organizations, which allowed the correlation between the variables with the help of the SPPS software. The results made it possible to establish improvement actions in the trading companies, obtaining a positive impact on the sector, proposing strategic programs, influencing continuous improvement and increasing competitiveness.
    Abstract: El presente documento ahonda en los altos niveles de cooperación que aumentan los niveles de innovación para el sector agroindustrial de Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana. Se utilizó una metodología con enfoque cuantitativo, de tipo no experimental, de corte transversal con alcance correlacional, en el cual se relacionaron dos variables: cooperación empresarial e innovación, a través de la valoración y estudio de indicadores de asociatividad, también se estableció la dinámica e impacto en el funcionamiento de dichas variables en las comercializadoras, mediante la recolección de información con la ayuda de encuestas tomadas a una muestra de 40 organizaciones, lo que permitió la correlación entre las variables con la ayuda del software SPPS. Los resultados permitieron establecer acciones de mejoras en las comercializadoras obteniendo un impacto positivo en el sector, proponiendo programas estratégicos, influyendo en la mejora continua y el aumento de la competitividad.
    Keywords: Cooperation,innovation,correlation,Cooperación,innovación,correlación Cooperation
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03323348&r=
  236. By: Headey, Derek D.; Ecker, Olivier; Comstock, Andrew R.; Ruel, Marie T.
    Abstract: Suboptimal diets are a major risk factor for avoidable death and disease in low- and middle-income countries. Evidence shows that some foods or food components (e.g., processed red meat, saturated fat, salt, sugar) significantly elevate the risk of noncommunicable diseases and mortality, while others protect health (e.g., vegetables, fruits, pulses, nuts/seeds, fish, whole grains—referred to in this document as “protective foods†). We used household surveys to compare dietary patterns in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda to the EAT-Lancet healthy reference diet and to quantify and explain consumption gaps for nutritious foods. Compared to the EAT-Lancet healthy reference diet, consumption gaps for pulses and nuts/seeds, vegetables, and fruits are large for both poor and rich consumers in rural and urban areas in the four countries studied, while consumption gaps for meat, fish, and eggs and dairy foods are much larger for lower income groups. Food expenditures of most households in these four countries are far too low to allow consumption of the healthy reference diet; animal-source foods and vegetables are the largest cost components of food expenditures, although quantities consumed of both food groups are much lower than the EAT-Lancet healthy reference diet. Income elasticities of demand for pulses and nuts/seeds and vegetables are often low or moderate, suggesting weak consumer preference for these foods, while income elasticities for fruits and animal-source foods are relatively high. Income growth alone will not solve dietary problems in East Africa; in addition to supply-side interventions to improve affordability, special interventions are required to increase consumer demand for underappreciated protective (nutritious) foods such as pulses and nuts/seeds and vegetables.
    Keywords: EAST AFRICA; AFRICA; policies; foods; food production; nutrition; nutritional status; demand; health; food consumption; food prices
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:prnote:1265314326&r=
  237. By: Marta Fana; Francesco Sabato Massimo; Angelo Moro
    Abstract: The global pandemic induced by the spread of the Covid-19 acted as an exogenous shock which forced organisations to adopt telework as a daily and common form of work along a relevant fraction of the occupational structure. Indeed, most of the growing contributions on telework focused on the estimation of employment which can work remotely, while less or any attention has been paid to the impact of the ünewý work arrangement on the labour process. Our paper aims at filling this gap. Drawing from a real-time cross-professional, cross-organisational and cross- national qualitative survey, our research investigates two main and interrelated aspects. First, we show how organisations reacted to this shock in terms of autonomy and forms of control including standardisation and teamwork dimensions across different occupations and economic sectors. Second, we describe how and to which extent workers respond: adapting, resisting or appropriating the new organisation of work. More specifically, we study the effect on the above-mentioned dimensions across different occupations to highlight heterogeneity along the vertical division of labour.
    Keywords: Telework; Covid-19; Work organisation; Labour Process; Autonomy; Control.
    Date: 2021–09–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ssa:lemwps:2021/28&r=
  238. By: Appel, Franziska; Loewe, Axel
    Abstract: Research software has become a major asset in academic research. It often is the backbone of existing research methods, enables new research methods, implements and embeds research knowledge, and constitutes an essential research product in itself. Research software must be sustainable in order to understand, replicate, reproduce, and build upon existing research or conduct new research effectively. A change is needed in the way research software development and maintenance are incentivized, funded, structurally and infrastructurally supported, and legally treated. Failing to do so will threaten the quality and validity of research. In this context, more than 50 scientists from various institutions gathered at the Robert Koch Institute in November 2019 for a DFG roundtable discussion on sustainability aspects of research software and to draw attention to the need for funding instruments for the sustainable development and provision of research software. The subsequently published position paper (Anzt et al., 2021) seeks to increase the awareness of political and academic decision-makers on the importance and needs of sustainable research software practices. In particular, it recommends strategies and measures to create an environment for sustainable research software.
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:iamopb:42e&r=
  239. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Alex Adegboye (Covenant University, Ogun State, Ota, Nigeria); Jeremiah Ejemeyovwi (Covenant University, Ogun State, Ota, Nigeria); Olaoluwa Umukoro (Covenant University, Ogun State, Ota, Nigeria)
    Abstract: This study assesses the relevance of mobile phone technology in complementing gender inclusive education (i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary) to promote public accountability (i.e. involving horizontal, vertical and diagonal accountability dynamics). The study utilizes the generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to establish the empirical evidence based on 48 Sub-Saharan African countries for the period 2005-2018. The following findings are documented from the linkages between mobile phone technology, inclusive education and public accountability. First, the interactions between mobile phone technology and inclusive education promote public accountability. Second, with regard to net effects, while unexpected negative signs are established, the corresponding positive interactive effects indicate that enhancing the penetration of mobile phone technology beyond some critical thresholds ensures positive net effects. Hence, policy makers should ensure that mobile phone technology penetration exceeds the established thresholds in order for gender inclusive education to positively affect public accountability.
    Keywords: Mobile phone technology, educational quality, public accountability, Africa
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aak:wpaper:21/002&r=
  240. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the corporate social responsibility initiatives of multinational oil companies in Nigeria. Its main focus is to investigate the impact of the global memorandum of understanding (GMoU) on equipping the rural young people with essential farming skills and knowledge for adoption and application of modern agricultural inputs in the Niger Delta region. Design/methodology/approach – This paper adopts a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 800 rural young people were sampled across the oil producing region. Findings – The results from the use of combined propensity score matching and logit model indicate that the GMoU model has a significant impact on development of informal farm entrepreneurship generally, but somewhat undermined rural young people in the targeted agricultural clusters. Practical implications – This suggests that youth-specific CSR farm projects can be effective in providing young people with the extra push needed to tackle the knowledge gap and poor agronomic that erect the below-per yield and lack of competitiveness of small-holder farmers in the region. Social implications – It implies that a coherent and integrated CSR response from business would be necessary to unlock investment opportunities on young people in farms for agricultural competitiveness and food security in Africa. Originality/value – This research adds to the literature on informal farm entrepreneurship and rural communities’ debate in sub-Saharan Africa. It concludes that business has obligation to help in solving problems of youth unemployment in developing countries.
    Keywords: Global memorandum of understanding (GMoU), Rural young people, Informal farm entrepreneurship, sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:abh:wpaper:21/033&r=
  241. By: Maxime Delabarre (Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the economic and institutional determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in the world post-2000. To this end, I analyze the inwards stocks of FDIs using unilateral and bilateral data. Based on the UNCTAD database, I also study the impact of Bilateral Investment Treaties on the inflow of FDIs. Main results provide evidence supporting the idea that treaties increase the inflows of FDIs in the years following their signature. However, regulations aimed at increasing the protection of property rights have a larger effect on the attractiveness for investors. This paper does not find robust evidence demonstrating that political stability and corruption level have significant effects. More, I demonstrate that an increase of tariffs in the host country results in an increase of FDIs, supposedly due to relocation processes.
    Keywords: FDI,economics,law,investments,institutions,political,development
    Date: 2021–09–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03334549&r=
  242. By: Arnade, Carlos; Hoffman, Linwood; Effland, Anne
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) projections of annual corn output on the price of corn futures. We tested if output projections significantly drive responses to the futures market. We also tested if the accuracy of past projections influences market response to the current projections. For each month—from May (planting month) to October (harvesting month)—we estimated a system of equations representing the daily opening, closing, high-, and low-futures prices. These equations test the forecast’s impacts on both price levels and daily variances. We found USDA’s projection of annual corn production influenced future prices and daily variances. The projection moved the future price closer to the October harvest price, and its impact lingered for several days. We found errors in past output projections have only a small effect on the projection impacts on future prices.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Demand and Price Analysis, Financial Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Marketing, Production Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2021–08–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usdami:313488&r=
  243. By: Ayunisa, Diana Febri; Hendra, Muhammad
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the application of m-banking in improving banking service and service at PT. Bank Pembangunan Daerah Sumatera Barat Cabang Siteba. This study uses qualitative data analysis as a research method that describes descriptively about the application of m-banking in improving banking service and services at PT. Bank Pembangunan Daerah Sumatera Barat Cabang Siteba. The results of this study indicate that the application of m-banking makes it easier for customers to carry out financial and non-financial transactions, so that customers are interest in using nagari m-banking features such as nagari info, nagari transfer, nagari QR and nagari admin can provide convenience to customers, without have to come to the bank, and without having to queue at the bank
    Date: 2021–08–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:tmpvj&r=
  244. By: Diego Castañeda Garza (ITESM-CSF); Alice Krozer (El Colegio de México)
    Abstract: This paper’s contribution is a reconstruction of the distribution of wealth employing a sample of wills from El Colegio de Sonora database for the years 1871-1910. We show that the rapid industrialisation/modernisation process that ensued in northern Mexico during the late 19th and early 20th century lead to a continuous increment in wealth concentration at the top of the distribution, going from a Gini index measure of 0.48 in 1871 to 0.79 in 1910. Rather than a fundamental (kuznetsian) necessity, however, our data suggests a critical role played by the political economy at the time in a gerschenkronian fashion and highlight the importance of the control of natural resources on inequality dynamics. The paper hereby engages with and contributes to the ongoing discussion about the role of economic and political elites in inequality dynamics and their reproduction over time.
    Keywords: inequality, wealth inequality, elites, Mexico, wills, Sonora, social structure
    JEL: D63 E01 I3 N36 P16
    Date: 2020–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:emx:ceedoc:2020-04&r=
  245. By: Ibrahim A. Adekunle (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria); Toluwani G. Kalejaiye (Ijagun, Ogun State, Nigeria); Ayomide O. Ogunade (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria); Sina J. Ogede (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria); Caleb O. Soyemi (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria)
    Abstract: The social movement is inspiring meaningful conversation about the discriminatory practices that Africa women have long faced in every aspect of their lives. However, despite considerable improvement in the gender balance discourse, the worst cases of gender imbalances are still recorded in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). Macroeconomic volatility, both as a source and a reflection of underdevelopment, is a fundamental concern for women in SSA. This paper leans empirical credence to the role of macroeconomic policies (fiscal and monetary policies indices) for gender equality in SSA from 1993 through 2017. We gathered panel data on the indices of macroeconomic policies and gender inequality in all 48 SSA countries. We employed the dynamic panel system generalised method of moments estimation procedure (dynamic system GMM) to establish a baseline level relationship between the variables of interest. We adjusted for heterogeneity assumptions inherent in ordinary panel estimation and found a basis for the strict orthogonal relationship among the variables. Our results suggest fluctuations in macroeconomic policies as a lead factor for gender equality in SSA countries. Efforts should be tailored towards balanced macroeconomic policies that can guarantee sustainable gender equality approaches to collective prosperity.
    Keywords: Macroeconomic Policy, Gender Equality, Dynamic GMM, Sub-Sahara Africa
    JEL: C33 E61 I18 J16
    Date: 2020–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aak:wpaper:20/009&r=
  246. By: Susan Athey (Graduate School of Business, Stanford University); Katy Ann Bergstrom (Development Research Group, The World Bank); Vitor Hadad (Graduate School of Business, Stanford University); Julian C. Jamison (Department of Economics, University of Exeter); Berk Özler (Development Research Group, The World Bank); Luca Parisotto (The World Bank); Julius Dohbit Samaa (University of Yaoundé)
    Abstract: Long-acting reversible contraceptives are highly effective in preventing unintended pregnancies, but take-up remains low. This paper analyzes a randomized controlled trial of interventions addressing two barriers to long-acting reversible contraceptive adoption, credit, and informational constraints. The study offered discounts to the clients of a women's hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon, and cross-randomized a counseling strategy that encourages shared decision-making using a tablet-based app that ranks modern methods. Discounts increased uptake by 50 percent, with larger effects for adolescents. Shared decision-making tripled the share of clients adopting a long-acting reversible contraceptive at full price, from 11 to 35 percent, and discounts had no incremental impact in this group.
    Keywords: family planning, fertility, long-acting reversible contraceptives, heterogenous treatment effects
    JEL: C13 C93 D91 I15 J13 O12
    Date: 2021–09–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:exe:wpaper:2105&r=
  247. By: Diemer, Andreas; Iammarino, Simona; Perkins, Richard; Gros, Axel
    Abstract: The mining of several critical raw materials – including the so-called ‘conflict minerals’ associated with armed conflict and human rights abuses – and their combination, refining and use in many new advanced electronic products, are providing an important material infrastructure to current technological progress. Relying on text analysis of USPTO patent data between 1976 and 2017, our explorative study provides a methodological and empirical starting point for exploring the technological and geographical linkages between technological paradigms and selected critical and conflict materials (CCMs). Our descriptive analysis finds evidence of a clear association between ICT technologies and CCM intensity over time, and of a striking resource-technology divide in global ICT value chains between value creating and value extracting activities across Global North and Global South and their regions. The paperintends to emphasize the need for a more critical, spatially sensitive approach to studying resource-based technological change to expose the uneven development consequences created, sustained, or mitigated by technological progress.
    Keywords: critical and conflict materials; paradigm shift; technological demand; geography of technology; geography of resource supply
    JEL: O30 Q34 Q55 R11
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:111894&r=
  248. By: Längle, Katharina; Xu, Ankai; Tian, Ruijie
    Abstract: This paper uses Chinese firm level data to detect the international propagation of adverse shocks triggered by the US hurricane season in 2005. We provide evidence that Chinese processing manufacturers with tight trade linkages to the United States reduced their intermediate imports from the United States between July and October 2005. We further show that the direct exposure to US supply shocks led to a temporary decline of firm exports between September and November 2005, although we do not find consistent evidence of international propagation of supply shocks along global value chains. Moreover, the paper finds that firms with more diversified suppliers tend to be less affected by the US hurricane disaster, pointing to firm sourcing diversification as a way to increase resilience to adverse shocks.
    Keywords: production networks,resilience,diversification,shock transmission,supply chains,natural disasters
    JEL: F12 F14 F15 F61 L14 E23
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:wtowps:ersd202113&r=
  249. By: PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
    Abstract: The focus of the study was to identify and analyzed the policy implementation HIV testing and counseling program in Teladan health center in order to achieve the SDG’s target by using interactive issues of GeorgeCEdward III such as communication, resources, disposition, bereaucratic structure, that has a role in policy implemetation.These fourth issues was meaningful due to policy implemetation and designed by qualitative method through descriptive analysis and object was Medan Health Department, Teladan Health Center and Community Health Center In working area.The result showed that the implementation HIV testing and counseling program in Teladan Health Center for achieving the SDG’s target was qualify through not perfect yet.
    Date: 2021–02–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:h54t9&r=
  250. By: Arrighetti, Alessandro; Lasagni, Andrea; Gnarini, Daniela; Semenza, Renata
    Abstract: Multicultural enterprises can be considered as a subset of the complex phenomenon of migrant entrepreneurship Starting from a theoretical overview of the phenomenon, the study analyzes multicultural enterprise experiences. Various topics, ranging from perceived advantages to obstacles encountered in everyday business, are discussed. In its conclusion, the study presents recommendations on how to adjust support actions to the specific needs of multicultural enterprises.
    Keywords: Multicultural Firm,Migrant Firm
    JEL: L20
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:esprep:240904&r=
  251. By: Elisavet Syriopoulou (Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden); Sarwar I Mozumder (Biostatistics Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK); Mark J Rutherford (Biostatistics Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK); Paul C Lambert (Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Biostatistics Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK)
    Abstract: When interested in a time-to-event outcome, competing events that prevent the occurrence of the event of interest may be present. In the presence of competing events, various statistical estimands have been suggested for defining the causal effect of treatment on the event of interest. Depending on the estimand, the competing events are either accommodated (total effects) or eliminated (direct effects), resulting in causal effects with different interpretation. Separable effects can also be defined for settings where the treatment effect can be partitioned into its effect on the event of interest and its effect on the competing event through different causal pathways. We outline various causal effects of interest in the presence of competing events, including total, direct and separable effects, and describe how to obtain estimates using regression standardisation with the Stata command standsurv. Regression standardisation is applied by obtaining the average of individual estimates across all individuals in a study population after fitting a survival model. standsurv supports several models including flexible parametric models. With standsurv several contrasts can be calculated: differences, ratios and other user-defined functions. Confidence intervals are obtained using the delta method. Throughout we use an example analysing a publicly available dataset on prostate cancer.
    Date: 2021–09–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:boc:usug21:5&r=
  252. By: Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio; Flores, Luis; Paz, Flor; Piñeiro, Valeria; Zandstra, Tamsin
    Abstract: Amid concerns about the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, Guatemala, in January 2020 decreed travel bans from China, which were later expanded to other countries. The country had the first confirmed COVID-19 case on March 13 and the first death on March 15. Some days before that, on March 5, the government had declared a “state of calamity†(Declaración del Estado de Calamidad Pública - Decreto Gubernativo Número 5-2020), which allowed the government to limit some activities,1 and to take different actions2 to protect the health and safety of all persons in Guatemala. This document updates a previous report (Díaz Bonilla, Laborde and Piñeiro, 2021) on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food systems in Guatemala. First, it brings up to date the evolution of the pandemic, using different indicators. Second, it summarizes the main policy responses, costs, and financing. Third, it updates the evolution of key economic and nutritional variables up to the time of this writing (June, 2021). Fourth, there is a more detailed analysis of the evolution of some food value chains that are central for food consumption in Guatemala. Fifth, main results for 2021 and 2022 of previous modeling work are briefly presented. A final section discusses policy considerations in light of the updated analysis.
    Keywords: LATIN AMERICA, GUATEMALA, CENTRAL AMERICA, NORTH AMERICA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, COVID-19, policies, health, social protection, employment, nutrition, value chains, governance, pandemics, food security, social safety nets, food value chains
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:lacwps:21&r=
  253. By: Wioleta Kucharska (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: Purpose: This study aims to present the overview of intellectual capital creation micro-mechanisms concerning formal and informal knowledge processes. The organizational culture, transformational leadership, and innovativeness are also included in the investigation as ascendants and consequences of the focal relation of intellectual capital and knowledge processes. Method: The empirical model was developed using the structural equation modeling (SEM) method based on a sample of 1,418 Polish knowledge workers employed in the construction, healthcare, higher education (HE), and information technology (IT) industries. Findings: The study exposes that the essence of transformational leadership innovativeness oriented is developing all intellectual capital components. To do so, leaders must support both formal and informal knowledge processes through the organizational culture of knowledge and learning. Furthermore, for best results of the knowledge transformation into intellectual capital, the learning culture must be shaped by both components: learning climate and acceptance of mistakes. Originality: This study presents the "big picture" of all intellectual capital creation micro- mechanisms linking transformational leadership with organizational innovativeness and explains the "knowledge paradox" identified by Mabey and Zhao (2017). This explanation assumes that intellectual capital components are created informally (i.e., human, and relational ones) and formally (i.e., structural ones). Therefore, for best effects, both formal and informal knowledge processes must be supported. Furthermore, this study exposes that the intensity of all explored micro-mechanisms is industry-specific. Implications: Presented findings can be directly applied to organizations to enhance innovativeness. Namely, leaders who observe that the more knowledge is formally managed in their organizations, the less effective the knowledge exchange is - should put more effort into supporting informal knowledge processes to develop human and relational intellectual capital components smoothly. Shortly, leaders need to implement an authentic learning culture, including the mistakes acceptance component, to use the full organizational potential to achieve intellectual capital growth. Intellectual capital growth is essential for innovativeness.
    Keywords: learning culture, knowledge culture, transformational leadership, innovations, intellectual capital, tacit knowledge, knowledge processes, healthcare industry, higher education, IT industry, construction industry, gender studies
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gdk:wpaper:65&r=
  254. By: Rodrigo Barra Novoa (Universidad de Tarapaca)
    Abstract: Like other Latin American countries, Chile depends heavily on the activity of small and medium-sized companies to sustain some macro and microeconomic indicators. In particular, one of the productive development agencies that has taken a leading role in this objective is the Technical Cooperation Service (SERCOTEC). This institution has defined a set of support programs in different areas in order to meet the needs of this business segment. In this context, the article provides an overview of institutional learning, lessons learned, and economic impacts obtained by the Business Development Centers program, describing the central role of this innovative public policy that has responded actively and efficiently to the growth of the ventures and companies assisted between the years 2015-2019.
    Abstract: Comme d'autres pays d'Amérique latine, le Chili dépend fortement de l'activité des petites et moyennes entreprises pour maintenir certains indicateurs macro et microéconomiques. En particulier, l'une des agences de développement productif qui a joué un rôle de premier plan dans cet objectif est le Service de coopération technique (SERCOTEC). Cette institution a défini un ensemble de programmes de soutien dans différents domaines afin de répondre aux besoins de ce segment d'entreprises. Dans ce contexte, l'article donne un aperçu de l'apprentissage institutionnel, des leçons apprises et des impacts économiques obtenus par le programme des Centres de développement des entreprises, en décrivant le rôle central de cette politique publique innovante qui a répondu activement et efficacement à la croissance des entreprises et des sociétés aidées entre les années 2015-2019.
    Date: 2021–05–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03332971&r=
  255. By: Mockshell, Jonathan; Asante-Addo, Collins; Andam, Kwaw S.; Asante, Felix A.
    Abstract: The triple burden of malnutrition is growing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Increasing access to affordable ultra-processed foods in the food environment is contributing to this problem. While existing explanations for this triple burden of malnutrition have examined demand-side factors of food choices, the supply-side policies relating to the food environment drivers, ideas and actors’ interests have been neglected. Using a case study of Ghana, this analysis combines the Advocacy Coalition Framework with the narrative policy analysis to unpack the supply-side food environment policies and actors driving the triple burden of malnutrition. Applying a mixed methods analysis of the transcripts, the narratives reveal public, private and civil society organization (CSO) coalitions with different ideas and interests in the food environment. In the private sector coalition, food companies engage in aggressive advertising and are driven by profit motives – leading to the supply of more ultra-processed foods. The public sector is failing to regulate the market because of inadequate policies, limited institutional capacities and coordination, enforcement challenges, inadequate resources, and self-interest. Social activism by CSOs, for example, pressuring food companies to deliver healthy foods and holding the government accountable, is also lacking. The result is a triple sector (public, private and CSO) failure in the urban food environment with consequences on the availability of ultra-processed foods. This has long-lasting implications for the reduction of the triple burden of malnutrition and the achievement of zero hunger. To accelerate nutrition-sensitive food environments that deliver healthier food options, we argue that it is critical to entertain the ideas and interests of stakeholders and implement food environment policies that cover private and public sector initiatives, as well as increase consumer awareness.
    Keywords: GHANA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; nutrition; malnutrition; ultraprocessed foods; food environment; civil society organizations; urban areas; governance; policies; nutrition-sensitive; political economy
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:2038&r=
  256. By: María T. González-Pérez (Banco de España)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the volatility index term structure for the Spanish bank industry (SBVX) using the implied volatility of individual banks and assuming market correlation risk premium. This methodology enables calculating a volatility index for arbitrary (non-traded) portfolios. Using data from 2015 to 2021, we find that SBVX informs about the dynamics of bank returns beyond the standard market volatility index VIBEX, especially when bank returns are negative; and that one-year SBVX beats shorter maturities in explaining bank returns. On the other hand, positive bank returns relate to the dynamics of VIBEX just as much as SBVX, which aligns with the belief that a drop in global volatility (uncertainty) positively affects firm performance and, therefore, bank value projections. We find one-month SBVX better than VIBEX to forecast monthly bank returns volatility, regardless of the tenor we use to compute VIBEX. This paper provides empirical evidence that idiosyncratic implied volatility is just as significant, or even more than global volatility, to monitor current and future banks’ share price performance. We advise using SBVX term structure, short-term VIBEX, and market correlation risk premium to monitor uncertainty and returns in the banking sector and foresee periods of stress in this industry. Our results may be of great interest to those seeking to estimate the banking sector’s sensitivity to uncertainty, volatility, and risk.
    Keywords: volatility term-structure, implied volatility, risk
    JEL: G53 G1
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bde:wpaper:2128&r=
  257. By: Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio; Flores, Luis; Paz, Flor; Piñeiro, Valeria; Zandstra, Tamsin
    Abstract: Due to the global pandemic generated by COVID-19 the government of Honduras declared a “state of emergency†in February (“Estado de Emergencia en el Territorio Nacional a través del Decreto Ejecu-tivo Número PCM- 005-2020, 10 de febrero 2020). The country suffered the first confirmed COVID-19 case on March 12th, 2020. The first death was registered on March 26, 2020. This document updates a previous report (Díaz Bonilla, Laborde, and Piñeiro, 2021) on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food systems in Honduras. First, it brings up to date the evolution of the pandemic, using different indicators. Second, it summarizes the main policy responses, costs, and fi-nancing. Third, it updates the evolution of key variables up to the time of this writing (June 2021). Fourth, there is a more detailed analysis of the evolution of some food value chains that are central for food consumption in Honduras. Fifth, main results for 2021 and 2022 of previous modeling work are briefly presented. A final section discusses policy considerations in light of the updated analysis.
    Keywords: LATIN AMERICA, HONDURAS, CENTRAL AMERICA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, COVID-19, policies, health, social protection, employment, nutrition, value chains, governance, pandemics, food security, social safety nets, food value chains
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:lacwps:22&r=
  258. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Yann Nounamo (University of Douala, Cameroon); Henri Njangang (University of Dschang , Cameroon); Sosson Tadadjeu (University of Dschang , Cameroon)
    Abstract: The study examines how financial stability modulates the effect of inclusive intermediary education on female employment in the industry for the period 2008-2018 in Sub-Saharan Africa. The empirical evidence is based on Tobit, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Quantile regressions. There are positive interactive or conditional effects between inclusive intermediary education and financial stability in the Tobit, OLS and bottom quantiles estimations. A net positive (negative) effect is apparent in the 10 th quantitle (median) of female employment in the industry distribution. Implications are discussed.
    Keywords: inclusive education; financial sustainability, gender economic inclusion
    JEL: E23 F21 F30 L96 O55
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aak:wpaper:21/003&r=
  259. By: Oliver, Adam
    Abstract: In a previously published article, I reported some tests of prospect theory’s reflection effect over outcomes defined by money and life years gained from treatment. Those results suggested qualified support for the reflection effect over money outcomes and strong support over longevity outcomes. This article reruns those tests while accounting for the intensity of individual risk attitudes, and, overall, show consistency with the reflection effect. However, I argue that these results do not necessarily offer support for the explanatory power of prospect theory. Rather, the results may be driven by evolved responses to circumstances that provoke perceptions of scarcity and abundance. Therefore, from an ecological perspective, behavioural patterns such as those that are consistent with the reflection effect, which, by extension, tend to be considered as erroneous or biased by most behavioural economists because they conflict with the postulates of rational choice theory, may not be unreasonable. Recognising as such is important when considering how behavioural insights ought to inform public policy design and implementation.
    Keywords: expected utility theory; prospect theory; reflection effect; risk intensity; risk sensitivity theory
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2021–09–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:111906&r=
  260. By: Lennart Ziegler
    Abstract: This study provides new evidence on skill requirements in the labor market and shows to what extent these skills are associated with higher wage offers. Using more than 380,000 job postings published on Austria’s major employment website, I identify the most common skill requirements mentioned in job descriptions. Because employers in Austria are legally required to state the minimum remuneration for advertised positions, I can relate the skill content of jobs to offered wages using ad-level variation. Accounting for education, work experience, and firm and occupation fixed-effects, there exists a robust association between the number of skill requirements and wage offers. In particular, job ads with many skill requirements offer substantially higher wages. While I estimate large effects for managerial and analytical skills, associations with most soft skills are small. Overall, the analysis shows that skill requirements listed in online job ads can offer important insights on skill demand and skill wages differentials.
    JEL: J23 J24 J31
    Date: 2020–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:vie:viennp:vie2002&r=
  261. By: Cristian Grozea; Ronny Hans; Matthias Koch; Christina Riehn; Armin Wolf
    Abstract: We developed and compared Constraint Programming (CP) and Quantum Annealing (QA) approaches for rolling stock optimisation considering necessary maintenance tasks. To deal with such problems in CP we investigated specialised pruning rules and implemented them in a global constraint. For the QA approach, we developed quadratic unconstrained binary optimisation (QUBO) models. For testing, we use data sets based on real data from Deutsche Bahn and run the QA approach on real quantum computers from D-Wave. Classical computers are used to run the CP approach as well as tabu search for the QUBO models. We find that both approaches tend at the current development stage of the physical quantum annealers to produce comparable results, with the caveat that QUBO does not always guarantee that the maintenance constraints hold, which we fix by adjusting the QUBO model in preprocessing, based on how close the trains are to a maintenance threshold distance.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.07212&r=
  262. By: María Alejandra Chávez Báez
    Abstract: This paper examines how trust on institutions and organizations are shaped according to age and exposure to violence during La Violencia. It also evaluates how people's actual trust on different groups (out-group trust) changes in municipalities that were exposed to violence in comparison to municipalities that were not exposed. From 1950's to the mid 1960's, Colombia experienced a period of intense civil wars and conflicts between social classes known as La Violencia. Using evidence on the index of violence built by Guzman et al. (2006) during this period and the Political Culture Survey of 2019, the main objective of this paper is to find whether people trust on State's institutions and people from different groups in municipalities that were mostly affected by violence. To complement the analysis, I analyzed press articles and news by the newspaper El Tiempo from 1950 to 1990 to find how is the perception of the State's legitimacy. After gathering information on 13,413 interviewees, I found that people who live during La Violencia trust less on government institutions and more on certain groups of people (neighbours). Moreover, people over 84 years-old living in municipalities that were exposed to La Violencia trust less on strangers and immigrants than younger people living in the same municipalities. These findings are supported in two mechanisms: deficient government-citizens relationship over time and risk aversion. That is, people who live in municipalities affected by violence during the bipartisan conflict are more risk averse and therefore show less trust on different groups of people. The revision of press articles suggest that there is a tendency of mistrust on State's actions, at least among high educated individuals.
    Keywords: mistrust, violence, institutions, political participation, out-group trust
    JEL: N30 N36 N46
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000089:019558&r=
  263. By: Beau Soederhuizen (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Bert Kramer (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Harro van Heuvelen (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Rob Luginbuhl (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: Capital buffers help banks to absorb financial shocks. This reduces the risk of a banking crisis. However, on the other hand capital requirements for banks can also lead to social costs, as rising financing costs can lead to higher interest rates for customers. In this research we make an exploratory analysis of the costs and benefits of capital buffers for groups of European countries. In this study, we estimate the optimal level of capital for banks in the euro area. As far as we know, we are the first to investigate this for the euro area. The optimal level results from a trade-off between the social costs and benefits of capital requirements. Depending on technical assumptions, we find an optimal capital buffer between 15 and 30 percent. Despite this considerable spread, the estimated optimum is in all cases higher than the current minimum requirements of Basel III. We also find significant heterogeneity in the optimum between euro area Member States. For Member States with a more stable economy and a banking sector that can easily attract funding we find lower optimal capital ratios.
    JEL: C33 C54 E44 G15 G21
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpb:discus:429&r=
  264. By: Beddock, Arthur (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tiu:tiutis:eeaf2925-4cc0-4fe1-8008-6a8830442ff2&r=
  265. By: PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
    Abstract: This research was conducted in Giri Purno Village, Rimbo Ilir District, Tebo Regency. The location of the research will be carried out in Giri Purno Village, Rimbo Ilir District, Tebo Regency. This location was chosen "purposively" that is intentionally. Considering the condition of the area which shows the low level of women's participation in the development of Giri Purno Village in terms of village consultations, formulation, planning and implementation of development. The method used in this study is a descriptive method with a qualitative approach, which intends to find out and get an overview of the problems that occur at a certain place and time. Forms of Women's Participation in the Development Process of Giri Purno Village, Rimbo Ilir District, include: 1. Non-Physical Participation (Ideas / Thoughts) and 2. Participation in the Form of Energy. Factors Encouraging Women's Participation in the Giri Purno Village Development Process: Awareness / Willing Factors, Educational Factors, Income factor / Income. The inhibiting factors for women's participation in the development of Giri Purno Village include the busyness of women, lack of communication and external factors, namely the government leadership factor.
    Date: 2021–05–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:xqep5&r=
  266. By: PEMBANGUNAN, GOVERNANCE: JURNAL POLITIK LOKAL DAN
    Abstract: This study aims to determine and analyze the picture of the implementation of the role and oversight of the implementation of regional government affairs conducted by the Inspectorate of Deli Serdang and constraints faced by local governments in Deli Serdang Region. This research use descriptive method with qualitative approach technically, to illustrate the operational activities and the play is carried out by the inspectorate of Deli Serdang. Thus the data source is the people or individuals who fully understand the problems studied and formally involved in the regulatory process. The results concludes that the supervisory role through internal audits of the implementation of regional government affairs in Deli Serdang by District Inspectorate has been implemented properly. However there are also some disadvantages which become information for planning improvements in the supervision of the future. Within the framework of optimizing the role and function as an internal auditor, Deli Serdang District Inspectorate is still experiencing constraints such as human resource constraints, Operational Standards and the constraints that have not been going well.
    Date: 2021–02–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:d7pjb&r=
  267. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: This price bulletin was developed by researchers at IFPRI Malawi with the goal of providing clear and accurate information on the variation of weekly retail prices of selected agricultural commodities that are important for food security and nutrition in Malawi. The reports are intended as a resource for those interested in agricultural markets in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, food prices, legumes, roots, tubers, cereals, prices, agricultural products, markets, food security, nutrition
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:masspb:9a&r=
  268. By: Hermes, Henning (NHH Bergen,Norway); Lergetporer, Philipp (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Peter, Frauke (DIW Berlin); Wiederhold, Simon (Ifo Institute for Economic Research)
    Abstract: Children with lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to benefit more from early child care, but are substantially less likely to be enrolled. We study whether reducing behavioral barriers in the application process increases enrollment in child care for lower-SES children. In our RCT in Germany with highly subsidized child care (n > 600), treated families receive application information and personal assistance for applications. For lower-SES families, the treatment increases child care application rates by 21 pp and enrollment rates by 16 pp. Higher-SES families are not affected by the treatment. Thus, alleviating behavioral barriers closes half of the SES gap in early child care enrollment.
    Keywords: child care, early childhood, behavioral barriers, information, educational inequality, randomized controlled trial
    JEL: I21 J13 J18 J24 C93
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14698&r=
  269. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: This price bulletin was developed by researchers at IFPRI Malawi with the goal of providing clear and accurate information on the variation of weekly retail prices of selected agricultural commodities that are important for food security and nutrition in Malawi. The reports are intended as a resource for those interested in agricultural markets in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, food prices, legumes, roots, tubers, cereals, prices, agricultural products, markets, food security, nutrition
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:masspb:8a&r=
  270. By: Isabella M Weber (Department of Economics and Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Amherst); Gregor Semieniuk (Political Economy Research Institute and Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst); Tom Westland (Department of History, University of Cambridge); Junshang Liang (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst)
    Abstract: Does what you exported matter? We build a new global commodity-level export database for the previous era of globalization and find persistence in productive capabilities proxied by economic complexity, export diversification, and sophistication across a century. We also show that productive capabilities at the turn of the 20th century are a powerful predictor of today’s income levels. We demonstrate that our results are not driven by persistence in geography or institutions. The persistence mechanism is the complementarity between past and future productive capabilities with one important qualification, the persistent negative effect of European overseas colonization. We also study shocks that undermined persistence, confirm the resource curse hypothesis for the long run and find a positive but slow effect of democratization.
    JEL: F14 F63 N10 O10 O50
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ums:papers:2021-02&r=
  271. By: Yang, Seungmi; Kwon, Youngsun
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine how two recent external shocks-the Covid-19 pandemic and 5G services-are transforming online shopping submarkets in Korea by estimating the effects of these two shocks on mobile shopping sales and conversion, which refers to substitution for shopping over fixed internet (termed internet shopping). Key findings are: Covid-19 boosted sales in 14 mobile shopping submarkets and decreased sales in two submarkets; 5G services also helped sales increases in 13 submarkets, while mobile technologies altogether contributed to sales increases in 14 submarkets; and mobile shopping conversions in online shopping submarkets have been driven mostly by mobile technologies, including 5G, and not by Covid-19.
    Keywords: Covid-19,5G,Mobile,Online,Shopping,Conversion
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:itsb21:238061&r=
  272. By: Thomas Paris (GREGH - Groupement de Recherche et d'Etudes en Gestion à HEC - HEC Paris - Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); David Massé (i3-CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion i3 - X - École polytechnique - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Management et création… Le bel oxymore ! L'association de ces termes heurte nos conceptions, car elle renvoie spontanément aux idées d'un côté de standardisation, de stabilité, de contrôle, et de l'autre de singularité, de transgression ou d'incertitude. Cette opposition sémantique ne peut cependant pas masquer que ces univers cohabitent et se sont rapprochés, notamment depuis l'introduction du terme de creative industries 1 par Richard Caves (2000) et des recherchesnombreuses, mais fragmentéesqui se sont attachées à mieux comprendre l'organisation et le management de ces industries dans une grande variété d'approches théoriques et méthodologiques. Cet article introductif entend affirmer ou réaffirmer la pertinence de la catégorie d'« industries créatives » vis-à-vis des recherches en management. Il développe l'idée que les entreprises qui évoluent dans ces industries font face à un paradigme managérial idiosyncratique qui repose sur trois spécificités structurantes : différenciation par l'originalité, abondance, subjectivité du créateur. La catégorie est pertinente, et des secteurs qui peuvent paraître aux antipodes les uns des autresjeu vidéo et parfum, grande cuisine et musique, édition et mode, spectacle vivant et architecture…-ont un ADN commun. Que la catégorie soit pertinente ne doit pas occulter pour autant sa variété. Elle apparaît, dans l'énumération qui vient d'être faite, dans les modes de diffusion et dans les matériaux de création, qui structurent cette agrégation d'industries. Elle se manifeste autour de deux autres lignes de faille. D'une part, si ces entreprises s'inscrivent dans un paradigme managérial spécifique, elles le font de manière plus ou moins volontariste, plus ou moins consciente, donnant lieu au sein de ces industries à des « mondes opposés » qui peuvent avoir tendance à se polariser. D'autre part, même si l'on retrouve un
    Date: 2021–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03327529&r=
  273. By: Miyako Ikeda; Alfonso Echazarra
    Abstract: Most students have the beliefs and dispositions to help them cope and learn in challenging situations. The current pandemic has been ongoing since early 2020. This has affected ways in which teaching and learning are organised. Schools have had to provide education in different ways from the past. A special survey conducted as a collaborative effort between the OECD, UNESCO, UNICEF and the World Bank showed that upper-secondary schools were fully closed for over 65 days in 2020 on average across OECD countries with available data. The special survey also showed that where school closures were needed many countries made major efforts to mitigate their impact on students, focusing especially on vulnerable students by providing remedial measures to reduce students’ learning gaps. Despite these efforts, recently released studies have shown that learning loss during the pandemic was most pronounced among socio-economically disadvantaged students and schools.
    Date: 2021–09–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:eduddd:114-en&r=
  274. By: Hwang, ShinYoung
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:itsb21:238030&r=
  275. By: Nguyen, Minh-Hoang
    Abstract: Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established system, which then enables one to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcomes. Data collection is a research component in all study fields, including physical and social sciences, humanities,[2] and business. While methods vary by discipline, the emphasis on ensuring accurate and honest collection remains the same. The goal for all data collection is to capture quality evidence that allows analysis to lead to the formulation of convincing and credible answers to the questions that have been posed. ***** For archiving purpose only *****
    Date: 2021–09–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:3gpy4&r=
  276. By: Luis V. M. Freitas; Wilfredo L. Maldonado
    Abstract: A recently proposed mechanism for the provision of continuous public goods is the so-called quadratic funding mechanism, which has been shown to provide socially optimal outcomes under complete information. In this work we show that the conditions to obtain the same desirable property under incomplete information are strongly restrictive. We also propose two measures for the size of the inefficiency and show how that deadweight loss responds to changes in the size of the population, the valuation of the public good by individuals and the variance of the expected value of contributions to the fund.
    Keywords: Public goods provision; incomplete information; quadratic funding mechanism
    JEL: C72 D82 H41
    Date: 2021–09–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:spa:wpaper:2021wpecon24&r=
  277. By: Abdel Sater, Rita; Perona, Mathieu (CEPREMAP); huillery, elise; Chevallier, Coralie
    Abstract: While indoor air pollution is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, its sources and impacts are largely misunderstood by the public. In a randomized controlled trial including 281 households in France, we test two interventions aimed at raising households' awareness of indoor pollutants and ultimately improving indoor air quality. While both generic and personalised information increase awareness, only personalised information is successful in shifting behaviour and decreasing indoor air pollution - by 20% compared to the control group. Heterogeneous treatment effects show that this effect is concentrated on the most polluted households at baseline.
    Date: 2021–09–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:kw3tn&r=
  278. By: Camilo A. Cepeda-Francese (El Colegio de México); Aurora A. Ramírez-Álvarez (El Colegio de México)
    Abstract: This paper assesses how the adoption of a common-law style model affects crime rates, pre-trial detention, and judicial efficiency measures. We do this in the context of Mexico, where a judicial reform was fully implemented by 2016, both on the state and federal levels. Using a generalized synthetic control group approach (Xu, 2017) and municipality-level administrative data for the years 1997-2012, we find that the reform increased the homicide rate and was accompanied by a reduction in the use of pretrial detention for property crimes and rape, and a more rapid process for some types of crimes. The increase in the homicide rate was, nonetheless, specific to municipalities with established organized crime presence, where we observed a reduction in the capacity to effectively prosecute homicides linked to the reform. Our results describe the difficulties in implementing this kind of reform in developing countries experiencing security crises, and they contribute to the literature linking procedural justice and criminal behavior.
    Keywords: Crime, Criminal Justice Reform, Generalized Synthetic Control Group, Latin America
    JEL: K14 K40 K41 K42
    Date: 2021–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:emx:ceedoc:2021-06&r=
  279. By: Falch, Morten
    Abstract: This paper look at surveillance capitalism as described in the book by Shoshana Zubof, and discuss whether surveillance capitalism represents a new stage of capitalist development. This is done by using the theory of techno-economic paradigms as a theoretical framework.
    Keywords: Surveillance Capitalism,Techno-economic paradigm,artificial intelligence,big data
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:itsb21:238019&r=
  280. By: Marc S. Paolella (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance; Swiss Finance Institute)
    Abstract: In light of the growing use, acceptance of, and demand for, machine learning in many fields, notably data science, but also other fields such as finance- and this in both industry and academics, some university departments might wish, or find themselves forced to, accord to the winds of change and address this pressing issue. The goal of this document is to assist in designing relevant courses using material at the appropriate mathematical level. It protocols, sorts, evaluates, and contrasts, numerous viable books for a variety of possible courses. The subjects span several levels of, and different avenues in, linear algebra and real analysis, with briefer discussions of material in probability theory and mathematical finance.
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:chf:rpseri:rp2165&r=
  281. By: Mahdi Ghodsi (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: In this modern digital world, goods from the information and communications technology (ICT) sector are the engine of the global economy. While tariffs levied on ICT goods have been eliminated or significantly reduced since the conclusion in December 1995 of the Information Technology Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO), non-tariff measure (NTMs) have come to be used more frequently with regard to imports of these goods. Technical barriers to trade (TBTs), as the most important trade policy measure imposed on imports of ICT goods, form the focus of this study. This paper analyses how different types of TBTs imposed on imports of ICT goods globally affected the values and volumes of imported goods at the six-digit level of the Harmonised System (HS) during the period 1996-2018. Keywords cited in the TBTs notified to the WTO give an indication of the aims behind the imposition of TBTs. Therefore, this study digs deeper into the impact of 30 types of TBT, using the keywords cited. The methodology used in this paper controls for zero trade flows using the Pseudo Poisson Maximum Likelihood (PPML) technique; and it controls for endogeneity bias using the exogenous instrumental variable approach. Furthermore, the paper provides more detailed analysis of the impact of TBTs across five ICT product categories that are defined by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The results indicate that TBTs have a generally strong positive impact on the value of imports of ICT goods. While many keywords cited in TBTs notified to the WTO affect the values and volumes of imports in a positive way, certain other TBTs function as trade barriers that reduce their values and volumes.
    Keywords: Information and communications technology, non-tariff measures, technical barrier to trade, World Trade Organization, Pseudo Poisson Maximum Likelihood
    JEL: F13 F14 L15
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wii:wpaper:208&r=
  282. By: David Augusto Montoya Ruiz
    Abstract: Este documento analiza el impacto que tiene la política fiscal, a través de la fijación de impuestos, en la distribución del ingreso y cómo esta última afecta la transmisión de la política monetaria. Para entender este mecanismo, se propone un modelo neokeynesiano analítico de dos agentes en una economía con dos activos, restricciones de acceso a los mercados financieros e incertidumbre idiosincrática en donde el gobierno fija impuestos a los dividendos y al ingreso laboral. Se encuentra que el tipo de impuesto elegido por el gobierno afecta de forma diferenciada el comportamiento cíclico de la desigualdad en el ingreso. Cuando la desigualdad es procíclica con relación al ingreso agregado de la economía, se generan efectos de atenuación en la demanda agregada. Si es contracíclica, ello provoca efectos de amplificación. Esto obliga al banco central a ajustar su objetivo operativo de tasa de interés en una magnitud menor o mayor, respectivamente, con relación al Principio de Taylor para lograr la determinación del equilibrio. Se concluye que la política fiscal condiciona la política monetaria a través del tipo de esquema redistributivo adoptado.
    Keywords: desigualdad, política fiscal, política monetaria, redistribución, regla de Taylor.
    JEL: E21 E31 E43 E52 E58
    Date: 2021–09–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000089:019560&r=
  283. By: Gerardo Ubilla-Bravo (Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Departamento de Gestión e Innovación Rural); Eduardo Chia (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: En la problemática de esta investigación consideramos tres contextos: la centralización de la planificación territorial en Chile, la tradición de la regulación de las áreas urbanas y el proceso de periurbanización en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago. De este modo, el estudio se desarrolla en torno a la pregunta ¿Cómo se ha construido el espacio local periurbano mediante los instrumentos de regulación urbana de escala nacional, regional y local? Para responder a esta pregunta se analizan los instrumentos de regulación urbana en Chile considerando tres escalas geográficas (nacional, regional y comunal) desde 1972 hasta 2014. Entre los resultados se destaca el ‘efecto cascada' de la influencia de los instrumentos en las diferentes escalas geográficas, la propuesta de la noción ‘periurbano administrativo subcomunal' y la imposición de la visión centralista de los instrumentos urbanos durante cuarenta años, donde se constata que el nivel local no tiene incidencia en la construcción del periurbano.
    Keywords: centralization,urban regulation instruments,Metropolitan Region of Santiago,periurban,Chile,Centralización,periurbano,instrumentos de regulación urbana,Región Metropolitana de Santiago
    Date: 2021–07–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03330464&r=
  284. By: Elena Georgarakis; Thomas Bauwens; Anne-Marie Pronk; Tarek AlSkaif
    Abstract: While the potential for peer-to-peer electricity trading, where households trade surplus electricity with peers in a local energy market, is rapidly growing, the drivers of participation in this trading scheme have been understudied so far. In particular, there is a dearth of research on the role of non-monetary incentives for trading surplus electricity, despite their potentially important role. This paper presents the first discrete choice experiment conducted with prosumers (i.e. proactive households actively managing their electricity production and consumption) in the Netherlands. Electricity trading preferences are analyzed regarding economic, environmental, social and technological parameters, based on survey data (N = 74). The dimensions most valued by prosumers are the environmental and, to a lesser extent, economic dimensions, highlighting the key motivating roles of environmental factors. Furthermore, a majority of prosumers stated they would provide surplus electricity for free or for non-monetary compensations, especially to energy-poor households. These observed trends were more pronounced among members of energy cooperatives. This suggests that peer-to-peer energy trading can advance a socially just energy transition. Regarding policy recommendations, these findings point to the need for communicating environmental and economic benefits when marketing P2P electricity trading platforms and for technical designs enabling effortless and customizable transactions
    Date: 2021–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2109.02452&r=