nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2023‒12‒04
eight papers chosen by
Giovanni Battista Ramello, Università di Turino

  1. A new dataset to study a century of innovation in Europe and the US By Antonin Bergeaud; Cyril Verluise
  2. The rise of China's technological power: the perspective from frontier technologies By Antonin Bergeaud; Cyril Verluise
  3. Patents that match your standards: firm-level evidence on competition and innovation By Antonin Bergeaud; Julia Schmidt; Riccardo Zago
  4. Transfer Pricing of Intangible Assets: Evidence from Patent Data By Jesse LaBelle; Ana Maria Santacreu
  5. Nonmonetary Awards and Innovation: Evidence from Winning China's Top Brand Contest By Luo, Lianfa; Cheng, Zhiming; Ye, Qingqing; Cheng, Yanjun; Smyth, Russell; Yang, Zhiqing; Zhang, Le
  6. Trade, innovation and optimal patent protection By David Hemous; Simon Lepot; Thomas Sampson; Julian Scharer
  7. Do Preferential Trade Agreements Stimulate Non-Resident Patenting? Evidence from BRICS By Qayoom Khachoo; Ridwan Ah Sheikh
  8. The Medical Right to Repair: Intellectual Property, the Maker Movement, and COVID-19 By Rimmer, Matthew

  1. By: Antonin Bergeaud; Cyril Verluise
    Abstract: Innovation is an important driver of potential growth but quantitative evidence on the dynamics of innovative activities in the long-run are hardly documented due to the lack of data, especially in Europe. In this paper, we introduce PatentCity, a novel dataset on the location and nature of patentees from the 19th century using information derived from an automated extraction of relevant information from patent documents published by the German, French, British and US Intellectual Property offices. This dataset has been constructed with the view of facilitating the exploration of the geography of innovation and includes additional information on citizenship and occupation of inventors
    Keywords: history of innovation, patent, text as data
    Date: 2022–04–28
  2. By: Antonin Bergeaud; Cyril Verluise
    Abstract: We use patent data to study the contribution of the US, Europe, China and Japan to frontier technology using automated patent landscaping. We find that China's contribution to frontier technology has become quantitatively similar to the US in the late 2010s while overcoming the European and Japanese contributions respectively. Although China still exhibits the stigmas of a catching up economy, these stigmas are on the downside. The quality of frontier technology patents published at the Chinese Patent Office has leveled up to the quality of patents published at the European and Japanese patent offices. At the same time, frontier technology patenting at the Chinese Patent Office seems to have been increasingly supported by domestic patentees, suggesting the build up of domestic capabilities.
    Keywords: frontier technologies, China, patent landscaping, machine learning, patents
    Date: 2022–10–14
  3. By: Antonin Bergeaud; Julia Schmidt; Riccardo Zago
    Abstract: When a technology becomes the new standard, the firms that are leaders in producing this technology have a competitive advantage. Matching the semantic content of patents to standards and exploiting the exogenous timing of standardization, we show that firms closer to the new technological frontier increase their market share and sales. In addition, if they operate in a very competitive market, these firms also increase their R&D expenses and investment. Yet, these effects are temporary since standardization creates a common technological basis for everyone, which allows followers to catch up and the economy to grow.
    Keywords: standardization, patents, competition, innovation, text mining
    Date: 2022–10–24
  4. By: Jesse LaBelle; Ana Maria Santacreu
    Abstract: To reduce their tax exposure, multinationals may seek to shift profits to countries with lower tax rates. Do patents play a role in this strategy?
    Keywords: patents; corporate taxes; multinational corporations
    Date: 2022–08–09
  5. By: Luo, Lianfa; Cheng, Zhiming; Ye, Qingqing; Cheng, Yanjun; Smyth, Russell; Yang, Zhiqing; Zhang, Le
    Abstract: We use the short-lived, but high-profile, China Top Brand Award to examine the causal effects of nonmonetary awards on firm innovation. To do so, we create a panel dataset by matching official China Top Brand Award recipients to the innovation outputs of listed companies. Results from difference-in-differences estimates show that firms that received the China Top Brand Award have a higher number, and better quality, of filed patents. We find that the positive effects of winning the China Top Brand Award on innovation outputs operate through higher government subsidies to winning firms. We also find that the positive effects of award-winning are stronger among state-owned enterprises, larger enterprises, and better-performing enterprises, as well as in provinces with stronger intellectual property rights protection. Our results are robust to a series of sensitivity checks.
    Keywords: China Top Brand Award, intellectual property rights, innovation outputs
    JEL: M2 O3
    Date: 2023
  6. By: David Hemous; Simon Lepot; Thomas Sampson; Julian Scharer
    Abstract: This paper provides a first comprehensive quantitative analysis of optimal patent policy in the global economy. We introduce a new framework, which combines trade and growth theory into a tractable tool for quantitative research. Our application delivers three main results. First, the potential gains from international cooperation over patent policies are large. Second, only a small share of these gains has been realized so far. And third, the WTO's TRIPS agreement has been counterproductive, slightly reducing welfare in the Global South and for the world. Overall, there is substantial scope for policy reform.
    Keywords: trade policy, innovation, growth, patents, TRIPS
    Date: 2023–11–13
  7. By: Qayoom Khachoo (CDE–IEG Visiting Postdoc fellow); Ridwan Ah Sheikh (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics)
    Abstract: Utilizing a novel cross-country dataset on patent filings, this study employs an augmented version of gravity model to explore the impact of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on non-resident patent filings in emerging market economies of BRICS. PTAs, however, vary in terms of content and design, we therefore analyse their differential impact on patent filings while focussing on deep and shallow PTAs. The PPML estimates suggest that PTAs have a positive and statistically significant impact on non-resident patent filings in BRICS. In particular, country-pairs with PTAs increase their patent flows by 43% relative to control group (dyads with no PTAs). Further, compared to shallow PTA, deep PTAs appear to induce foreign patenting upsurge in BRICS. Shallow PTAs exhibit positive effects in the medium-term but negative effects in the long- term on patent flows, whereas deep PTAs unveil positive anticipatory effects. Key Words: Gravity model, Multilateral resistance, Preferential trade agreements, Patent filings, PPML JEL Codes: F00, O3
    Date: 2023–11
  8. By: Rimmer, Matthew (Queensland University of Technology)
    Abstract: Refereed Article - Matthew Rimmer, 'The Medical Right to Repair: Intellectual Property, the Maker Movement, and COVID-19" (2023) 15 (20) Sustainability Article No. 14839. Abstract This article considers the strengths and limitations of the use of 3D printing and additive manufacturing for the production of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 public health crisis. It explores the role of the Maker Movement in addressing the shortfall in medical equipment during the public health pandemic. Taking a comparative approach, this article evaluates the responses of both the commercial and amateur sides of the 3D printing community to the COVID-19 public health crisis. In the EU, the Fab Lab Network sought to overcome a breakdown in supply chains. In the US, Dale Dougherty of Make Magazine promoted Plan C, in which volunteers have worked together to produce PPE. In Australia, 3D printing has been used to augment supplies of PPE. In this context, a key issue across jurisdictions has been the tension between intellectual property rights and the right to repair—particularly when 3D printing has been applied to deal with shortages in PPE. Senator Ron Wyden put forward the Critical Medical Infrastructure Right-to-Repair Act of 2020 (US) to try to resolve these tensions. Open licensing has proven to be a helpful mechanism to enable open collaboration and sharing of 3D printing designs for the purposes of health care. Nonetheless, it is argued that there should be stronger recognition of the right to repair—particularly in the context of health-care and medical devices. The COVID-19 crisis has highlighted that there needs to be a broader array of intellectual property flexibilities to deal with public health emergencies—including in respect of the right to repair. As such, this article supports a broad vision of a TRIPS Waiver which includes the right to repair. The recognition of a right to repair will help promote the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals and a COVID-19 recovery. The topic of the medical right to repair has larger implications for sustainability and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly in respect of responsible production and consumption (SDG 12), as well as good health and well-being (SDG 3), innovation (SDG 9), and partnerships for the goals (SDG 17). Keywords: intellectual property; 3D printing; the Maker Movement; the right to repair; COVID-19; sustainability; sustainable development goals; pandemics
    Date: 2023–10–12

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