nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2023‒10‒02
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello, Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. EU-wide comparison of the characteristics and presentation of branded food products (2021) By Kjersti Nes; Federico Antonioli; Federica Di Marcantonio; Pavel Ciaian
  2. Preventing Others from Commercializing Your Innovation: Evidence from Creative Commons Licenses By Erdem Dogukan Yilmaz; Tim Meyer; Milan Miric
  3. Partial Observability Estimates of Supply and Demand for Trademarks of Start-Ups By Bernadette Power; Gavin C. Reid
  4. Political Sentiment and Innovation: Evidence from Patenters By Joseph Engelberg; Runjing Lu; William Mullins; Richard R. Townsend

  1. By: Kjersti Nes; Federico Antonioli (European Commission - JRC); Federica Di Marcantonio; Pavel Ciaian (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Differences in composition of seemingly identical branded food products (DC-SIP) occur when a good is marketed in one Member State as being identical (same brand labelling and same or similar front-of-pack appearance) to a good marketed in another Member State while that good has a significantly different composition or significantly different characteristics. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) developed a common testing methodology to examine the occurrence of this practice in the European single market. This methodology was applied in the first EU-wide testing campaign in 2018/2019. The objective of this study is to replicate the 2018/2019 testing campaign to provide figures for 2021 on the occurrence of DC-SIP in the European single market and to compare them with the results of the 2018/2019 testing campaign. In addition to the result of this comparison, this report presents the results of a survey of brand owners about their (potential) actions regarding DC-SIP in response to recent regulatory changes, namely the amended Directive 2005/29/EC – the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (UCPD) – where a specific provision on DC-SIP (Article 6(2)(c)) was introduced by Directive (EU) 2019/2161.
    Keywords: Differences in composition, branded food products, UCPD, Food Chain
    JEL: L15 L66 Q18
    Date: 2023–07
  2. By: Erdem Dogukan Yilmaz; Tim Meyer; Milan Miric
    Abstract: Online innovation communities are an important source of innovation for many organizations. While contributions to such communities are typically made without financial compensation, these contributions are often governed by licenses such as Creative Commons that may prevent others from building upon and commercializing them. While this can diminish the usefulness of contributions, there is limited work analyzing what leads individuals to impose restrictions on the use of their work. In this paper, we examine innovators imposing restrictive licenses within the 3D-printable design community Thingiverse. Our analyses suggest that innovators are more likely to restrict commercialization of their contributions as their reputation increases and when reusing contributions created by others. These findings contribute to innovation communities and the growing literature on property rights in digital markets.
    Date: 2023–09
  3. By: Bernadette Power; Gavin C. Reid
    Abstract: This paper estimates simultaneously the supply and the demand determinants of the trademark adoption decision made by start-ups. We use a partial observability econometric model, as non-adoption is unobserved. Estimation is by maximum likelihood using the partial observability bivariate probit (POBP) model. This is run on a large (N > 13k) representative unbalanced longitudinal panel of surviving startups, derived from the Kauffman Foundation startup dataset (2004-2011) for the USA. Our model is shown to provide a good explanation of supply and demand determinants of trademark adoption, in terms of signs of key variables, and statistical significance. For example, size, incorporation, and expenditure on R&D are important on the supply-side; and copyrights, licensing out, and being in a high knowledge information sector, are important on the demand-side. Policy implications are considered, focusing on marginal and elasticity effects.
    Keywords: Trademark adoption, business start-ups, intellectual property, supply, and demand
    JEL: D01 D22 K11 L21 L26
    Date: 2023–06
  4. By: Joseph Engelberg; Runjing Lu; William Mullins; Richard R. Townsend
    Abstract: We document political sentiment effects on US inventors. Democratic inventors are more likely to patent (relative to Republicans) after the 2008 election of Obama but less likely after the 2016 election of Trump. These effects are 2-3 times as strong among politically active partisans and are present even within firms over time. Patenting by immigrant inventors (relative to non-immigrants) also falls following Trump’s election. Finally, we show partisan concentration by technology class and firm. This concentration aggregates up to more patenting in Democrat-dominated technologies (e.g., Biotechnology) compared to Republican-dominated technologies (e.g., Weapons) following the 2008 election of Obama.
    JEL: D72 J24 M5 O31
    Date: 2023–08

This nep-ipr issue is ©2023 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.