nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2023‒04‒17
three papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Relatedness, Cross-relatedness and Regional Innovation Specializations: An Analysis of Technology, Design and Market Activities in Europe and the US By Carolina Castaldi; Kyriakos Drivas;
  2. Academic Freedom and Innovation: A Research Note By David Audretsch; Christian Fisch; Chiara Franzoni; Paul P. Momtaz; Silvio Vismara

  1. By: Carolina Castaldi; Kyriakos Drivas;
    Abstract: This paper examines how regions develop new innovation specializations, covering different activities in the whole process from technological invention to commercialization. We develop a conceptual framework anchored in two building blocks: first, the conceptualization of innovation as a process spanning technology, design and market activities; second, the application and extension of the principle of relatedness to understand developments within and between the different innovation activities. We offer an empirical investigation where we operationalize the different innovation activities using three intellectual property rights (IPRs): patents, industrial designs and trademarks. We provide two separate analyses of how relatedness and cross-relatedness matter for the emergence of new specializations: for 259 NUTS-2 European regions and for 363 MSAs of the US. While relatedness is significantly associated with new regional specializations for all three innovation activities, cross-relatedness between activities also plays a significant role. Our study has important policy implications for developing and monitoring Smart Specialization regional strategies.
    Keywords: innovation, relatedness, regional specialization, patents, trademarks, designs, NUTS-2 regions, Metropolitan Statistical Areas.
    JEL: O34 O38 R11
    Date: 2023–03
  2. By: David Audretsch; Christian Fisch; Chiara Franzoni; Paul P. Momtaz; Silvio Vismara
    Abstract: The first-ever article published in Research Policy was Casimir's (1971) advocacy of academic freedom in light of the industry's increasing influence on research in universities. Half a century later, the literature attests to the dearth of work on the role of academic freedom for innovation. To fill this gap, we employ instrumental variable techniques to identify the impact of academic freedom on the quantity (patent applications) and quality (patent citations) of innovation output. The empirical evidence suggests that improving academic freedom by one standard deviation increases patent applications and forward citations by 41% and 29%, respectively. The results hold in a representative sample of 157 countries over the 1900-2015 period. This research note is also an alarming plea to policymakers: Global academic freedom has declined over the past decade for the first time in the last century. Our estimates suggest that the decline of academic freedom has resulted in a global loss quantifiable with at least 4.0% fewer patents filed and 5.9% fewer patent citations.
    Date: 2023–03
  3. By: KHAIR, ANDI UMMUL; Latief, Fitriani
    Abstract: The development of coffee outlets or what is claimed to be a modern cafe has recently been growing rapidly in all regions in Indonesia where the term cafe originated from the coffee shop business which is widely available on street corners in Indonesia. This business was then made modernly by adopting the sale of Starbucks coffee, which then led to the public's mindset that drinking coffee may look exclusive. This brilliant inspiration for middle-up class coffee shops was then adapted by entrepreneurs in Indonesia who later created cafes that serve coffee using the latest atmosphere. The concept of this coffee shop has become a trend that is selling well among young people and adults so that it becomes a business that has enough prospects to work on. However, many businesses have fallen and even survived in recent years because consumers are critical in choosing products that match their class and expectations. Therefore, the company must be able to make efforts to create brand awareness as did Starbucks as it became a brand leader in coffee sales in the world. Starbucks promotion and brand image formation were analyzed in this study. Regression analysis was applied to find out the effect of promotion and brand image on brand awareness. The result shows that these two variables positively and significantly influence brand awareness. The better the company in building channels of information and persuasion in introducing a product or service, the better the public awareness in recognizing products and services. Meanwhile, the better the brand image received by the public, the awareness of the brand product will be higher.
    Date: 2022–03–23

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