nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2023‒03‒20
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Localisation economies, intellectual property rights protection and entrepreneurship in China: a Bayesian analysis of multi-level spatial correlation By Gao, Xing; Meng, Jing; Ling, Yantao; Liao, Maolin; Cao, Mengqiu
  2. "Clause and effect": Invention and state intervention during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars By Billington, Stephen D.; Lane, Joe
  3. When luxury brands use recycled materials: crossed views between consumers and professionals on a transgressive effect. By THERESE FOURNAISE; Aurélie Kessous; Pierre Valette-Florence
  4. The Welfare Effect of Gender-Inclusive Intellectual Property Creation: Evidence from Books By Joel Waldfogel

  1. By: Gao, Xing; Meng, Jing; Ling, Yantao; Liao, Maolin; Cao, Mengqiu
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is an important determinant of innovation and growth with an uneven spatial distribution. In addition, the mechanism of entrepreneurship is affected by administrative hierarchies. However, the driving forces behind the spatial differences are not clear. Therefore, this study aims to examine the key determinants of entrepreneurship by clarifying the roles of localisation economies and intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection from 2008 to 2017 using a Bayesian analysis of multi-level spatial correlation. The empirical results indicate that localisation economies and IPRs protection have a major influence on entrepreneurship. In particular, although it is insignificant, the role of localisation economies at prefecture level is important, because the impact of supplier linkages at provincial level is negative. The effects of IPRs protection at both prefecture and provincial levels are significant in all the models, and its effect increases with the improvement in model performance. Moreover, these determinants vary across different spatial scales.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; IPRs protection; localisation economies; multi-level models; spatial random effects; 51808392; 72173133; EP/R035148/1; chool Funding from the University of Westminster; and National Conditions Research Project of Research Institute for Eco-civilization; Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (Taicang 2022) .
    JEL: J1 C1
    Date: 2022–06–01
  2. By: Billington, Stephen D.; Lane, Joe
    Abstract: Did the outbreak of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars influence technical change during the Industrial Revolution? We address this question by investigating an instance of state intervention into the market for inventions from 1793-1820: the introduction of a new proviso into British patents compelling inventors to supply the military, and also attracting military inventions from outside the patent system. We present new patent data alongside previously unused archival evidence to argue that the state's intervention helped direct technical change in Britain. Our evidence provides additional support for the military-demand-induced hypothesis as a credible explanation for Britain's ongoing industrialisation.
    Keywords: Industrial Revolution, Institutions, Invention, Patents
    JEL: N43 N73 O31
    Date: 2023
  3. By: THERESE FOURNAISE (CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon, AMU IAE - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Aix-en-Provence - AMU - Aix Marseille Université, CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Aurélie Kessous (CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon); Pierre Valette-Florence (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes, UGA INP IAE - Grenoble Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: • Research objectives In response to growing consumer pressure, luxury brands are increasingly turning to product innovations made from recycled materials. However, luxury and sustainable development are two a priori dissonant notions (high quality materials vs. used materials, use of rare resources vs. renewable resources, etc.). These initiatives can then be perceived by consumers as brand transgressions that can affect the consumer-luxury brand relationship. The aim is twofold: (1) to understand the meaning of transgression in the specific case of this type of product; (2) to compare the benefits/risks that consumers associate with the perception of transgression with the differential benefits/risks that luxury professionals derive from transgression-based brand management. • Methodology Qualitative interviews are conducted in France with 25 luxury brand consumers and 21 luxury professionals. • Results The results highlight the transgressive nature of the recycled material luxury product. This is the visual identification (or not) of the recycled attribute that determines the nature of the perceived transgression (negative and provocative or positive and innovative). This transgressive perception generates benefits/risks for consumers, translating into differential benefits/risks for brands, which can lead to the improvement/deterioration of the consumerbrand relationship. • Managerial/societal implications This research makes it possible to formulate recommendations to luxury professionals to better orchestrate their product innovation strategies using recycled materials and thus preserve the consumer-brand relationship. • Originality The originality of this work lies in the study of luxury product innovation in recycled materials from the perspective of transgression. It also enriches the research on the link between luxury and sustainable development.
    Abstract: • Objectifs de recherche Face à la pression croissante des consommateurs, le recours des marques de luxe aux innovations produits conçues en matériaux recyclés se multiplie. Or luxe et développement durable sont deux notions a priori dissonantes (matériaux de qualité supérieure vs. usagés, utilisation de ressources rares vs. renouvelables, etc.). Ces initiatives peuvent alors être perçues par les consommateurs comme des transgressions des marques pouvant affecter la relation consommateur-marque de luxe. L'objectif est double : (1) appréhender la signification de la transgression dans le cas spécifique de ce type de produit ; (2) comparer les bénéfices/risques que les consommateurs associent à la perception de la transgression aux avantages/risques différentiels que les professionnels du luxe retirent d'une gestion de marque basée sur la transgression. • Méthodologie Des entretiens qualitatifs sont conduits en France auprès de 25 consommateurs de marques de luxe et de 21 professionnels du luxe. • Résultats Les résultats mettent en évidence le caractère transgressif du produit de luxe en matériaux recyclés. C'est l'identification visuelle (ou non) de l'attribut recyclé qui détermine la nature de la transgression perçue (négative et provocante ou positive et innovante). Cette perception transgressive engendre des bénéfices/risques pour les consommateurs, se traduisant en bénéfices/risques différentiels pour les marques, qui peuvent conduire à l'amélioration/la détérioration de la relation consommateur-marque. • Implications managériales/sociétales Cette recherche permet de formuler des recommandations aux professionnels du luxe afin de mieux orchestrer leurs stratégies d'innovations produits en matériaux recyclés et ainsi de préserver la relation consommateur-marque. • Originalité L'originalité de ce travail réside dans l'étude de l'innovation produit de luxe en matériaux recyclés sous l'angle de la transgression. Aussi, il enrichit les recherches sur le lien entre luxe et développement durable.
    Keywords: luxury, transgression, product innovation, recycled materials, consumer-brand relationship, Luxe, innovation produit, matériaux recyclés, relation consommateur-marque.
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Joel Waldfogel
    Abstract: Women have traditionally participated in intellectual property creation at depressed rates relative to men. Book authorship is now an exception. In 1970, women published a third as many books as men. By 2020, women produced the majority of books. Adding new products can have significant welfare benefits, particularly when product quality is unpredictable. Using data on sales of 8.9 million individual titles at Amazon, 2018-2021, along with information on 200 million ratings of 1.8 million books by 800, 000 Goodreads users, I develop measures of both the supply of new books by male and female authors, as well as their usage by heterogeneous consumers. I show that growth in female-authored books has delivered a roughly equal proportionate increase in the female-authored shares of consumption, book awards, and other measures of success, indicating both that the additional female-authored books are useful to consumers and that product quality is unpredictable. I calibrate a simple structural model of demand with unpredictable product quality to quantify the welfare benefit from the additional female-authored books. While revenue gains to female authors come partly at the expense of male authors, gains to consumers from inclusive innovation are experienced by a wide range of consumers.
    JEL: J16 L82 O3
    Date: 2023–02

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