nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2022‒10‒10
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. How Patent Rights Affect UniversityScience By Laurent BERGÉ; Thorsten DOHERR; Katrin HUSSINGER
  2. Attracting Profit Shifting or Fostering Innovation? On Patent Boxes and RD Subsidies By Haufler, Andreas; Schindler, Dirk
  3. Collective Brand Reputation By Nocke, Volker; Strausz, Roland
  4. Stay close but not too close: The role of similarity in the cross-gender extension of patronymic brands By Isabelle Ulrich; Salim Azar; Isabelle Aimé

  1. By: Laurent BERGÉ; Thorsten DOHERR; Katrin HUSSINGER
    Abstract: How do intellectual property rights influence academic science? We investigate the consequences of the introduction of software patents in the U.S. on the publications of university researchers in the field of computer science. Difference-in-difference estimations reveal that software scientists at U.S. universities produced fewer publications (both in terms of quantity and quality) than their European counterparts after patent rights for software inventions were introduced. We then introduce a theoretical model that accounts for substitution and complementarity between patenting and publishing as well as for the direction of research. In line with the model’s prediction, further results show that the decrease in publications is largest for scientists at the bottom of the ability distribution. Further, we evidence a change in the direction of research following the reform towards more applied research.
    Keywords: patent rights, publications, economics of science, difference-in-difference estimation, model of science production
    JEL: I23 O31 O34 O38 L38
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Haufler, Andreas (LMU Munich and CESifo); Schindler, Dirk (Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: Many countries have introduced patent box regimes in recent years, offering a reduced tax rate to businesses for their IP-related income. In this paper, we analyze the effects of patent box regimes when countries can simultaneously use patent boxes and R&D subsidies to promote innovation. We show that when countries set their tax policies non-cooperatively, innovation is fostered, at the margin, only by the R&D subsidy, whereas the patent box tax rate is targeted at attracting international profit shifting. In equilibrium, patent box regimes emerge endogenously under policy competition, but never under policy coordination. We also compare the competition for mobile patents with the competition for mobile R&D units and show that enforcing a nexus principle is likely to reduce the aggressiveness of patent box regimes.
    Keywords: corporate taxation; profit shifting; patent boxes; R&D tax credits; tax competition;
    JEL: H25 H87 F23
    Date: 2022–09–09
  3. By: Nocke, Volker (Mannheim University); Strausz, Roland (HU Berlin)
    Abstract: We develop a theory of collective brand reputation for markets in which product quality is jointly determined by local and global players. In a repeated game of imperfect public monitoring, we model collective branding as an aggregation of quality signals generated in different markets. Such aggregation yields a beneficial informativeness effect for incentivizing the global player. It however also induces harmful free-riding by local, market-specific players. The resulting tradeoff yields a theory of optimal brand size and revenue sharing that applies to platform markets, franchising, licensing, umbrella branding, and firms with team production.
    Keywords: collective branding; reputation; free-riding; repeated games; imperfect monitoring;
    Date: 2022–04–19
  4. By: Isabelle Ulrich (NEOMA - Neoma Business School); Salim Azar (CY - CY Cergy Paris Université, USJ - Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth); Isabelle Aimé (Kedge BS - Kedge Business School)
    Abstract: This research builds on similarity theory in order to understand the key success factors of brand naming strategies for the cross-gender extension of female patronymic brands targeting men. Study 1 demonstrates that the most common naming strategy – adding a "Men" descriptor to the brand name – does not significantly increase brand attitude as the perceived brand masculinity cannot be enhanced for men. Study 2 extends Study 1 bytesting two more distant brand naming strategies: (1) dropping the first name and (2) using brand initials. The results show an inverted-U relationship pattern that reveals the key role of similarity: Dropping the first name has the most positive impact on brand extension attitude, purchase intention, and spillover effect. By contrast, the strategy using brand initials is too dissimilar from the initial brand name to be attractive to men. These findings provide managerial implications for practitioners considering a cross-gender brand extension strategy.
    Keywords: Brand gender,Patronymic brand,Brand strategy,Brand names,Brand personality
    Date: 2020–11

This nep-ipr issue is ©2022 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.