nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2022‒04‒25
seven papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Patent applications - Structures, trends and recent developments 2021 By Neuhäusler, Peter; Rothengatter, Oliver
  2. Innovation and Appropriability: Revisiting the Role of Intellectual Property By Filippo Mezzanotti; Timothy Simcoe
  3. Most-Favored Entry Clauses in Drug Patent Litigation Settlements as a Potential Reverse Payment By Keith M. Drake; Thomas McGuire
  4. Investigating The Effect of Brand’s Social Media Pages On Developing Economy Consumers Purchase Intention By Ali, Syed Raza; Ali, Syed Hassan; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammed Hamza
  5. Trademarks and Territorial Marketing: Retrospective and Prospective Analyses of the trademark Prodotti di Qualità By Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Manno, Roberto; Tappi, Marco; Lamonaca, Emilia
  6. Implementation of Interior Branding in Retail Interior Design By Sriti Mayang Sari
  7. The Impact of Perceived Social Media Activities On Consumer-Based Brand Equity: A Perspective from Emerging Economy By Zia, Syeda Hamna; Muneer, Naima; Siddiqui, Amna; Huda, Rozmeen

  1. By: Neuhäusler, Peter; Rothengatter, Oliver
    Abstract: In this study, we contribute to the evaluation of the performance of the German science and research system by analyzing the dynamics of transnational patent filings of German inventors in an international comparison over the past 20 years. Besides country-specific analyses, we further differentiate our findings by 38 high-technology fields including aggregate categories (high-level, leading-edge and less R&D intensive technologies). In addition to country comparisons, which are analyzed in each years' report of this series, we also provide international co-patenting trends, dig deeper into regionalized patent statistics by analyzing patent activities of the German federal states. In a final step, we take a closer look at patent dynamics in the public research sector.
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Filippo Mezzanotti; Timothy Simcoe
    Abstract: It is more than 25 years since the authors of the Yale and Carnegie surveys studied how firms seek to protect the rents from innovation. In this paper, we revisit that question using a nationally representative sample of firms over the period 2008-2015, with the goal of updating and extending a set of stylized facts that has been influential for our understanding of the economics of innovation. There are five main findings. First, while patenting firms are relatively uncommon in the economy, they account for an overwhelming share of R&D spending. Second, utility patents are considered less important than other forms of IP protection, like trade secrets, trademarks, and copyrights. Third, industry differences explain a great deal of the level of firms’ engagement with IP, with high-tech firms on average being more active on all forms of IP. Fourth, we do not find any significant difference in the use of IP strategies across firms at different points of their life cycle. Lastly, unlike age, firms of different size appear to manage IP significantly differently. On average, larger firms tend to engage much more extensively in the protection of IP, and this pattern cannot be easily explained by differences in the type of R&D or innovation produced by a firm. We also discuss the implications of these findings for innovation research and policy.
    Date: 2022–03
  3. By: Keith M. Drake; Thomas McGuire
    Abstract: Settlements of drug patent disputes that involve a potential payment from the brand to the generic signal a possible collusive profit split with a threat to competition, and have undergone intensive scrutiny in the literature on law and economics. A common feature of these brand-generic settlements, so-called “most-favored entry” (MFE) clauses, have not been investigated to the same extent. The expectation that brand drug companies make settlement decisions rationally implies that an otherwise unexplained brand payment above savings from expected future litigation costs derives from a delay in competition achieved by the settlement. This paper applies the condition of brand rationality to settlements with MFE clauses, with the added consideration that an MFE clause may affect two dates: the date of entry for the settling generic and the date of entry of third-party generic challengers. A brand payment from an MFE clause above future expected litigation costs implies delays in at least one and possibly two of these expected dates for competition. We find that MFE clauses can constitute a reverse payment. When a payment takes the form of an MFE clause, the pay-above-saved-litigation-cost criterion is, however, vulnerable to suggesting that a settlement is not anticompetitive, when in fact it is.
    JEL: D22 D43 K21 L41
    Date: 2022–02
  4. By: Ali, Syed Raza; Ali, Syed Hassan; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammed Hamza
    Abstract: With the passage of time people come to know that, investigating the brand social media, the brand familiarity and information quality on the future purchase intention is very impactful. In spite of appreciation of brand familiarity and information, quality prominence in brand communities, dynamics and consequences remains limited. To explore this subject of consumer purchase intention we found that information quality and brand familiarity effect the future purchase. To explore our hypotheses, we directed a survey with about 200 university students with the target population of Karachi Pakistan using Facebook with considerable experience with a particular brand. In this research, the statistical technique we use is the structural equation Modeling SEM. This technique helps to determine the structural relation found between latent constructs and measured variables. Furthermore, the findings show that there is a big impact of Brand familiarity and Information quality on Attitude towards brand social media pages and Future purchase intention.
    Keywords: Brand familiarity, Information quality, Attitude towards brand social media pages, purchase intention, developing economy
    JEL: M10 M31 M37 M38
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Manno, Roberto; Tappi, Marco; Lamonaca, Emilia
    Abstract: Trademarks are useful territorial marketing policies contributing to the economic growth of a certain region. However, the complexity of these strategies from a marketing and legal perspective requires a deeper understanding of the functioning of trademarks. We investigate these dynamics for the trademark “Prodotti di Qualità” (PQ), a territorial marketing initiative of Apulia Region (Italy) aiming at enhancing agri-food products with regulated high-quality standards, raising awareness among consumers and promoting marketing and sales of such products. We adopt a multidisciplinary approach to conduct a prospective analysis of marketing issues and a perspective analysis on legal issues. We conclude that, in face of some benefits for users in terms of reduced asymmetric information between consumers and producers, a stronger communication and promotion campaign would increase consumers’ awareness and producers’ confidence, also contributing to avoid the overlap of the PQ trademarks with other legal forms of labelling, such as geographical indications and certification trademarks. Policy interventions in this direction would be beneficial for the future development of the Apulian territorial marketing.
    Keywords: Brand, Geographical Indication, Intellectual Property, Public Policy, Quality Scheme, Region
    JEL: K11 M38 Q13 R58
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Sriti Mayang Sari (Interior Design Department of Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Poppy Firtatwentyna Nilasari Author-2-Workplace-Name: Interior Design Department of Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Purnama Esa Dora Tedjokoesoemo Author-3-Workplace-Name: Interior Design Department of Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: "Objective - The purpose of this research is to discover the ways to implement aspects of interior branding in the interior of commercial and retail spaces. It seeks to articulate how space as an interior branding medium can convey the message of retail owners to visitors through retail interior design. Methodology/Technique - This study uses the descriptive qualitative method with the Tiara Handycraft Store as a case study. Data collection was achieved by conducting interviews with retail managers and visitors, and field observations. The data were analyzed descriptively to elaborate on how to apply every aspect of interior branding in the interior design of the Tiara Handicraft Store. Data analysis in this study was performed based on Kim Kuthteubl's aspects of interior branding, namely: clear vision, unique story, and energy. Findings - The results of this study indicate that the interior design of the Tiara Handicraft Store has implemented the interior branding aspects of clear vision, unique story, and energy. The combination of these three aspects in the interior design of this store has supported the construction of the identity or brand of the store through the media of its interior space. This application can be seen in the selection of shapes, colors, materials for interior elements, organization of space, and arrangement of furniture and displays. An ambiance of cheerfulness, fun, and comfort has been formed with the play of bright color compositions, patterns, and materials of the interior spatial elements. In this design, space as an interior branding medium conveyed stories, messages from shop owners to visitors through the ambiance, logos, signage, and other interior elements such as the decorative Tiara Handicraft's wall of fame. Through this wall, visitors were entertained with the idea that every item created has its own story, that there is a creative process behind every artwork, and that there are job opportunities for people with disabilities, encouraging a call for social awareness. It is this story or message that uniquely distinguishes Tiara Handicraft Store from other stores in general. Novelty - This study provides insight and is expected to bring awareness to interior designers about the importance of implementing holistic interior branding in retail interior design to increase the value of their designs. Type of Paper - Review"
    Keywords: Commercial interiors; Interior Branding; Retail space; Commercial Space, Clear Vision, Unique Story, Energy
    JEL: D02 M31 M39
    Date: 2022–03–31
  7. By: Zia, Syeda Hamna; Muneer, Naima; Siddiqui, Amna; Huda, Rozmeen
    Abstract: Every day every traditional business is shifting online, following the Digital marketing trend to grow their business. The primary aim of the research is to investigate those factors that will help the business grow in the online market in a developing nations. For this purpose, SOR Model is used. In this research, two dependent variables are brand experience and customer-based brand equity and independent variables are Informativeness, Trendiness, Personalization, and Word of mouth. In this research, quantitative method is used to investigate concepts to find relationships. Between variables and forecast results. The correlation research approach is used in this research. A survey was conducted with internet users via questionnaire (n=205). For data analysis, SPSS and smart PLS-SEM is used in this research. According to the findings of the study, Informativeness, Personalization, Consumer Based- equity and Word of mouth impacts significantly on Brand Experience, while Trendiness impacts insignificantly on Brand Experience. We recommend taking quizzes during or at the end of the session would be very helpful.
    Keywords: Word of mouth, trendiness, brand experience, online shopping, social media activities; developing country.
    JEL: I2 M1 M3
    Date: 2022

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