nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2022‒02‒07
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Identifying technological trajectories in the mining sector using patent citation networks By Alessandri, Enrico
  2. AI Patenting and Employment: Evidence from the Worlds' Top R&D Investors By Alessandro Sterlacchini
  3. Regulations Specific to Trademark Rights in the European Union and the Internal Market By Mihai Dorel Vlad
  4. Venture Capital Financing and Green Patenting By Andrea Bellucci; Serena Fatica; Aliki Georgakaki; Gianluca Gucciardi; Simon Letout; Francesco Pasimeni

  1. By: Alessandri, Enrico (Bocconi University, Milan, and University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Urbino)
    Abstract: This paper uses patent citation networks to study technological change in the mining industry between 1970 and 2015. The analysis is undertaken at both the aggregate level by jointly considering all mining-related technological fields, and at the micro-level of patents in nine sub-fields, representing specific technological "sub-trajectories". Consistent with previous literature focused on other technological domains, we find that innovation patterns in the mining sector are "technology bounded", i.e. largely shaped by patenting activities carried out in a very limited range of mining technological fields, even though we detect a shift from exploration to environmental mining technologies (emergence of a new technological paradigm). In addition, we examine two aspects of technical change that have been largely disregarded in extant research: the geographical patterns of inventive activities and the role of key applicants in such patterns. We show that core mining patents and leading inventors involved originate almost exclusively from the US, so that trajectories appear to be heavily "geographically bounded", revealing that developing resource-abundant countries lag behind the technological frontier in mining. Moreover, only a few applicant firms are responsible for most inventive activities reflecting a highly concentrated oligopolistic structure, hence characterising trajectories as "applicant bounded". Similar results are observed at the level of sub-trajectories, although with some relevant exceptions, hence suggesting that a substantial heterogeneity exists within the industry and across mining-related technologies.
    Keywords: Technological trajectories, Technological sub-trajectories, Mining technologies, Geography of innovation, Patents, International technological frontier
    JEL: O31 L72 F23 R11
    Date: 2021–12–08
  2. By: Alessandro Sterlacchini (Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche)
    Abstract: This paper considers 35 corporations which are among the biggest world's R&D investors and account for more than two thirds of AI patents worldwide. Their post-patenting performance is examined by focusing on employment changes and by comparing them with the outcomes of similar companies, operating in the same sectors and recording high levels of R&D expenditures as well, but not involved in AI patenting to a significant extent. The main finding is that substantial employment benefits for investing in AI inventions arise for the companies belonging to IT services, while in Computers & electronics and Automobiles the same investment is associated with employment reduction.
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Patents, Employment changes, Large corporations.
    JEL: O31 O33 J23
    Date: 2022–02
  3. By: Mihai Dorel Vlad (Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University of Bucharest, Romania)
    Abstract: The creations that are protected under “industrial property†are, like other creations protected under the comprehensive name of “intellectual property,†products of human creative activity, the fruit of thought, rational activity, and the result of man's ability to create and to perceive concepts. With regard to trademarks and geographical indications, it is initially noted that they do not constitute creations of the spirit in the true sense of the word and that their connection with "intellectual property" is rather vague, according to some authors, non-existent.
    Keywords: industrial property, trademarks, commercially, licensing, franchising
    Date: 2021–10
  4. By: Andrea Bellucci (University of Insubria); Serena Fatica; Aliki Georgakaki; Gianluca Gucciardi (UniCredit Bank); Simon Letout; Francesco Pasimeni (IRENA – International Renewable Energy Agency)
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of green innovation in attracting venture capital (VC) financing. We use a unique dataset that matches information on VC transactions, companies' balance sheet variables and data on patented innovation at the firm level over the period 2008-2017. Taking advance of a novel granular definition of green innovative activities that tracks patents at the firm level, we show that green innovators are more likely to receive VC funding than firms without green patents. Likewise, a larger share of green vs. non-green patents in a firm's portfolio increases the probability of receiving VC finance. Robustness checks and extensions tackling several dimensions of heterogeneity corroborate the view that green patenting is an important driver of VC funding.
    Keywords: Venture capital, Green ventures, Patents, Green technology
    JEL: G24 M13 M21 O35 Q55
    Date: 2022–01

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