nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2021‒10‒04
two papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Information leakage, imitation, and the patent system By Czarnitzki, Dirk; van Criekingen, Kristof
  2. International Trade, Intellectual Property Rights and the (Un)employment of Migrants By Guichard, Lucas; Stepanok, Ignat

  1. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; van Criekingen, Kristof
    Abstract: From a firm's perspective two competing forces are driving the decision to invest in innovation. On the one hand, innovative performance is an important driver of profitability and growth. On the other hand, investments in innovation suffer from negative externalities, i.e. spillovers to other firms, and hence imitation could be induced. To preempt imitation firms may protect their inventions by means of intellectual property rights, such as patents. By taking out a patent, however, a firm also conveys information about the functioning of the invention to competitors. In this empirical paper, we highlight the trade-off of patenting by setting up a recursive system of equations on knowledge leakage and imitation that, among other factors, may be partly determined by firms' patenting activity. Thereby we contribute to the debate on the functioning of the contemporary patent system. We find that patenting firms are being less confronted with imitation. The effect of patents on the dissemination of R&D findings is, however, insignificant. Therefore, we conclude that patent disclosures do not significantly harm the appropriability conditions for inventions, but help to protect, at least partly, against imitation, as it has been originally envisaged by policy.
    Keywords: Innovation,R&D,Imitation,Dissemination,Patents
    JEL: O31 O33 O34 O38
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Guichard, Lucas; Stepanok, Ignat (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany)
    Abstract: "We study the effect of trade liberalization and intellectual property rights (IPR) protection on the unemployment rate of migrants relative to non-migrants. We build a North-South trade and growth model with a positive steady state rate of migration. We find that bilateral trade liberalization decreases the relative unemployment rate of migrants when migration is low and increases the relative unemployment rate when the migration rate is high. The results do not rely on assumptions about network effects, the probability to find a job for a migrant is independent of the relative size of the migrant diaspora. IPR protection leads to a higher relative unemployment rate of migrants regardless of the size of migration. We empirically test and confirm the theoretical predictions on trade liberalization and IPR protection using data for 20 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries over the period 2000-2014." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Außenhandel ; Auswirkungen ; Beschäftigungseffekte ; Einwanderungsland ; Inländer ; internationale Migration ; internationaler Vergleich ; Liberalisierung ; Migranten ; OECD ; Arbeitslosenquote ; Urheberrecht ; 2000-2014
    JEL: F12 F16 F22 F43 J63 O34
    Date: 2021–07–30

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