nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2021‒03‒22
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Licensing Life-Saving Drugs for Developing Countries: Evidence from the Medicines Patent Pool By Alberto Galasso; Mark Schankerman
  2. A method to reduce false positives in a patent query By Johannes van der Pol; Jean-Paul Rameshkoumar
  3. Patent applications - Structures, trends and recent developments 2020 By Neuhäusler, Peter; Rothengatter, Oliver; Feidenheimer, Alexander
  4. Venture Capital and Startup Innovation --Big Data Analysis of Patent Data-- By WASHIMI Kazuaki

  1. By: Alberto Galasso; Mark Schankerman
    Abstract: We study the effects of an institution that pools patents across geographical markets on the licensing and adoption of life-saving drugs in low- and middle-income countries. Using data on licensing and sales for HIV, hepatitis C and tuberculosis drugs, we show that there is an immediate and large increase in licensing by generic firms when a patent is included in the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP). The effect is heterogeneous across countries. The findings are robust to identification strategies to deal with endogeneity of MPP patents and countries. The impact on actual entry and sales, however, is much smaller than on licensing, which is due to geographic bundling of licenses by the MPP. More broadly, the paper highlights the potential of pools in promoting technology diffusion in developing countries.
    JEL: I18 O31 O34
    Date: 2021–03
  2. By: Johannes van der Pol; Jean-Paul Rameshkoumar
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a method that allows researchers and analysts to reduce the number of false positives in a patent query. Patents are not only used for prior art searches but increasingly for competitive analyses and the analysis of the evolution of technology. When these case focus on specific technological domains, non-experts will aim to identify patents related to their focus-technology. In certain cases this can require complex queries to contain thousands of patents. It then becomes difficult to identify false positives. We present a method that allows researchers and analysts to refine their query on large datasets.
    Keywords: Patent Query ; Patents ; Competitive Intelligence ; Technology Mapping
    JEL: C80
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Neuhäusler, Peter; Rothengatter, Oliver; Feidenheimer, Alexander
    Abstract: In this study, we contribute to the evaluation of the performance of the German science and research system by analyzing the dynamics of transnational patent filings of German inventors in an international comparison over the past 20 years. Besides country-specific analyses, we further differentiate our findings by 38 high-technology fields including aggregate categories (high-level, leading-edge and less R&D intensive). In addition to country comparisons, which are analyzed in each years' report of this series trends, we also provide international co-patenting trends, dig deeper into patent activities of the German federal states and look at patent dynamics in public research. This year's largest focus is set on trends in EUIPO trademark filings, where we apply a newly developed classification to get a more detailed look a field-specific trends in trademarks.
    Date: 2021
  4. By: WASHIMI Kazuaki (Bank of Japan)
    Abstract: With the declining birthrate and ageing population and a decline in the working age population in Japan, Japanese firms face the need to strengthen innovation including the digital domain. Expectations are particularly high for startups as they play a vital role in creating innovative technology. In recent years, there have been a number of initiatives such as expediting patent examinations and introducing an open innovation tax incentive in Japan. It is expected that venture capital (VC) funds will play a pivotal role in providing financing for growth so that startups can continue research and development. On the other hand, due in part to data constraints, there has been limited research on startup innovation on a comprehensive scale and virtually no earlier literature on the impact of VC investments on innovation by portfolio companies in Japan. This paper summarizes those two issues with a focus on the number of patent applications as a proxy for innovation, and it also discusses challenges that lie ahead. First, taking a look at patent applications by startups, around 40 percent of startups have applied for a patent—albeit with significant variation across firms—which appears a much higher proportion than existing firms. An estimate of the impact of VC investments on innovation suggests that in about 60 percent of cases, the number of patent applications by portfolio companies significantly increased compared to a control group. While care should be taken in interpreting those studies as the results vary from firm to firm, these successful cases reflect the possibility that financing and management support including intellectual property management from VC funds could have contributed to an increase in patent applications. Challenges ahead include: (1) expanding investments in VC funds by institutional investors; (2) increasing opportunities for startups to go public in a way that encourages sustainable growth; and (3) establishing intellectual property strategies while maintaining and developing professional human resources in relevant areas.
    Keywords: Venture Capital; Innovation; Synthetic Control; Bayesian Structural Time Series
    JEL: G24 M13 O3
    Date: 2021–03–12

This nep-ipr issue is ©2021 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.