nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2020‒09‒28
six papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Global Software Piracy, Technology and Property Rights Institutions By Simplice A. Asongu
  2. Exclusive Brand Outlet Expansion Framework for Lifestyle Brands in India (EBOE-LS) By H. R., Ganesha; Aithal, Sreeramana
  3. Collaborative knowledge creation: Evidence from Japanese patent data By Mori, Tomoya; Sakaguchi, Shosei
  4. Patents in the Long Run: Theory, History and Statistics By Claude Diebolt; Karine Pellier
  5. Constructing the Customer Journey Map of Competitive Brands: A Complex Time-series Analysis By MIZUNO Makoto; AOYAMA Hideaki; FUJIWARA Yoshi
  6. Better image for better price: how store image affects consumer’s willingness to pay for national brand in different stores By Yu, Luqing; Gao, Zhifeng

  1. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study extends the literature on fighting software piracy by investigating how Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) regimes interact with technology to mitigate software piracy when existing levels of piracy are considered. Two technology metrics (internet penetration rate and number of PC users) and six IPRs mechanisms (constitution, IPR law, main IP laws, WIPO Treaties, bilateral treaties and multilateral treaties) are used in the empirical analysis. The statistical evidence is based on: (i) a panel of 99 countries for the period 1994-2010 and (ii) interactive contemporary and non-contemporary Quantile regressions.The findings show that the relevance of IPR channels in the fight against software piracy is noticeably contingent on the existing levels of technology embodied in the pirated software. There is a twofold policy interest for involving modern estimation techniques such as interactive Quantile regressions. First, it uncovers that the impact of IPR systems on software piracy may differ depending on the nature of technologies used. Second, the success of initiatives to combat software piracy is contingent on existing levels of the piracy problem. Therefore, policies should be designed differently across nations with high-, intermediate- and low-levels of software piracy.
    Keywords: Piracy; Business Software; Software piracy; Intellectual Property Rights
    JEL: F42 K42 O34 O38 O57
    Date: 2020–01
  2. By: H. R., Ganesha; Aithal, Sreeramana
    Abstract: Though EBOs’ (Exclusive Brand Outlet) risk-mitigation is a collective responsibility of lifestyle brand and the expansion partner (franchisee), a majority of lifestyle brands in India believe that the risk of capital investment/recurring expenses of EBOs and profit generated by EBOs has to be owned by the expansion partner. This belief and unbalanced business strategy of lifestyle brands though attract franchisees in the early stages of EBO expansion due to the brand’s reputation in the market or initial lucrative contract terms, it seriously fails to bring any long-term strategic and competitive advantages to the lifestyle brand as the drop-out rate of expansion partners increase significantly after one year of operation. This belief is also distracting lifestyle brands from understanding the long-term positive impact of EBO expansion frameworks that could balance the risk-mitigation and profits between the brand and the expansion partner. A single theory, model and framework of ‘Firm-Contracts’ and ‘Distribution Systems’ from the existing literature available across perspectives, paradigms, and areas of study (Economics, Business Law, Market Penetration, Business Strategy, Marketing and so on) is not entirely applicable that could be adopted to suit lifestyle brand’s EBO expansion plan in India and designing a framework without empirical pieces of evidence is also not appropriate. In this study, i) we have studied existing theories, models and frameworks relevant to market penetration and expansion; ii) analyzed 24 months’ of actual EBO data of a few select organized lifestyle brands in India across their existing expansion models; iii) borrowed experimental findings and insights from previous studies relevant in this context, to identify key decision and investment-making areas that could result in a balanced business contract between a lifestyle brand and the expansion partner thereby designing an economical/effective framework that would be useful in deployment of appropriate tactics of deciding a right EBO type for every City Type and the Store Location by a lifestyle brand in India. The framework is named as EBOE-LS.
    Keywords: Indian Retail; Lifestyle Consumer; Lifestyle Brand; Exclusive Brand Outlet; EBO; Franchising; Retail Expansion; Distribution Systems; Firm Contracts; Balanced Business Partnership; Market Penetration; Franchising Theory; EBOE-LS
    JEL: M31 M37
    Date: 2020–08–01
  3. By: Mori, Tomoya; Sakaguchi, Shosei
    Abstract: In this paper, we quantitatively characterize the mechanism of collaborative knowledge creation at the individual researcher level a la Berliant and Fujita(2008) by using Japanese patent data. The key driver for developing new ideas is found to be the exchange of differentiated knowledge among collaborators. To stay creative, inventors seek opportunities to shift their technological expertise to unexplored niches by utilizing the differentiated knowledge of new collaborators in addition to their own stock of knowledge. In particular, while collaborators' differentiated knowledge raises all the average cited count, average (technological) novelty and the quantity of patents for which an inventor contributes to the development, it has the largest impact on the average novelty among the three.
    Keywords: Knowledge creation, Collaboration, Differentiated knowledge, Technological novelty, Technological shift, Recombination, Patents, Network, Strategic interactions
    JEL: C33 C36 D83 D85 O31 R11
    Date: 2018–08–29
  4. By: Claude Diebolt (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UL - Université de Lorraine - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Karine Pellier
    Abstract: This paper examines the structural and spatial dynamics of patents in France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. The time series are extracted from international, comparative and historical databases on the long-term evolution of patents in 40 countries from the 17th century to 1945 and in more than 150 countries from 1945 to present (Diebolt and Pellier 2010). We have found strong evidence of infrequent large shocks resulting essentially from the major economic and political events formed by the two World Wars in the 20th century. Our results question the autonomous process, i.e. the internal dynamic of the patent systems. Wars seem to drive innovation and, finally, the very process of economic growth. We further investigated the role of innovation in economic growth through a causality analysis between patents and GDP per capita. Our major findings support the assumption that the accumulation of innovations was a driving force only for France, the United Kingdom and the United States during the post-World War II period.
    Keywords: database,cliometrics,shock analysis,patents,causality,outliers,comparisons in time and space
    Date: 2020
  5. By: MIZUNO Makoto; AOYAMA Hideaki; FUJIWARA Yoshi
    Abstract: In today's rapidly evolving consumer markets, obtaining a quantitative grasp of the customer journey (the sequence of touch points where customers and brands meet, which is important for marketing strategy) requires analysis of extremely high-dimensional data. Existing studies ignore the effects of touch points of multiple brands that are mutually competitive. We propose to apply a novel method called complex Hilbert principal component analysis (CHPCA) to allow unbiased, model-free analysis, and construct a synchronization network using Hodge decomposition. We apply this method to Japanese beer market data and show that it is suitable for the construction of the customer journey map both within-brand and across brands, the latter reflecting competition among firms. Furthermore, we capture customer heterogeneity by calculating the coordinates of each customer in the space derived from the results of CHPCA. Lastly, we discuss the policy and managerial implications, the limitations, and further development of the proposed method.
    Date: 2020–08
  6. By: Yu, Luqing; Gao, Zhifeng
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Research Methods/Statistical Methods, Marketing
    Date: 2020–07

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