nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2020‒06‒29
three papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Tourism branding and promotion: A critical approach By Johnson, Catherine; McLaughlin, James
  2. Applying the Nash Bargaining Solution for a Reasonable Royalty By David M. Kryskowski; David Kryskowski
  3. Technological Competitiveness of China's Internet Platforms: Comparison of Google and Baidu Using Patent Text Information By MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki; ZHU Chen

  1. By: Johnson, Catherine; McLaughlin, James
    Abstract: Brand confusion takes place when a person views an advertisement for a particular brand as a communication about a different brand. This empirical study was conducted in a sample of 134 men and women and based on 24 mass tourism destination advertisements of 8 different Mediterranean countries. Advertisements that were perceived as likeable and distinctive, and that were not information-overloaded suffered less from brand confusion. Destination brands with weak advertising support were found to be more vulnerable to brand confusion. Consumers with higher levels of product category involvement and higher levels of brand awareness and brand loyalty appear to confuse mass tourism destination brands less frequently.
    Keywords: mass tourism, destination promotion, advertising campaigns, brand confusion
    JEL: L83 M3
    Date: 2020–05–07
  2. By: David M. Kryskowski; David Kryskowski
    Abstract: There has been limited success applying the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) in assigning intellectual property damages due to the difficulty of applying it to the specific facts of the case. Because of this, parties are not taking advantage of Georgia-Pacific factor fifteen. The intent of this paper is to bring clarity to the NBS so it can be applied to the facts of a case. This paper normalizes the NBS and provides a methodology for determining the bargaining weight in Nash's solution. Several examples are shown demonstrating the use of this normalized form, and a nomograph is added for computational ease.
    Date: 2020–05
  3. By: MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki; ZHU Chen
    Abstract: Internet platforms in China (BAT: Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent) are receiving growing attention in terms of their technological competitiveness compared to US players (GAFA: Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple). Using text information of patent information in China and the US, this study analyzes Baidu's technological catching up process with Google. Based on document-level embedding results, we conduct cluster analysis and generate new indicators of technology cumulativeness and impact based on neighbor patents in the content space. The results reveal that Baidu follows a trend of US rather than Chinese technology which suggests Baidu is aggressively seeking to catch up with US players in the process of its technological development. At the same time, the impact index of Baidu patents increases over time, reflecting its upgrading of technological competitiveness.
    Date: 2020–05

This nep-ipr issue is ©2020 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.