nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2020‒04‒13
nine papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Global Software Piracy, Technology and Property Rights Institutions By Simplice A. Asongu
  2. Tourism destination branding through advertising strategies By Longman, John; Williams, Timothy
  3. Do Patents Lead to Market Concentration and Excess Profits? By Padmashree Gehl Sampath; Walter Park
  4. Do Patents Enable Disclosure? Evidence from the Invention Secrecy Act By Gaetan de Rassenfosse; Gabriele Pellegrino; Emilio Raiteri
  5. Trends in water-related technological innovation: Insights from patent data By Xavier Leflaive; Ben Krieble; Harry Smythe
  6. Wanted: A Standard for Virtual Patent Marking By Gaetan de Rassenfosse; Kyle Higham
  7. International Patent Protection and Trade: Transaction-Level Evidence By Gaetan de Rassenfosse; Marco Grazzi; Daniele Moschella; Gabriele Pellegrino
  8. Crisis-Critical Intellectual Property: Findings from the COVID-19 Pandemic By Frank Tietze; Pratheeba Vimalnath; Leonidas Aristodemou; Jenny Molloy

  1. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study extends the literature on fighting software piracy by investigating how Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) regimes interact with technology to mitigate software piracy when existing levels of piracy are considered. Two technology metrics (internet penetration rate and number of PC users) and six IPRs mechanisms (constitution, IPR law, main IP laws, WIPO Treaties, bilateral treaties and multilateral treaties) are used in the empirical analysis. The statistical evidence is based on: (i) a panel of 99 countries for the period 1994-2010 and (ii) interactive contemporary and non-contemporary Quantile regressions.The findings show that the relevance of IPR channels in the fight against software piracy is noticeably contingent on the existing levels of technology embodied in the pirated software. There is a twofold policy interest for involving modern estimation techniques such as interactive Quantile regressions. First, it uncovers that the impact of IPR systems on software piracy may differ depending on the nature of technologies used. Second, the success of initiatives to combat software piracy is contingent on existing levels of the piracy problem. Therefore, policies should be designed differently across nations with high-, intermediate- and low-levels of software piracy.
    Keywords: Piracy; Business Software; Software piracy; Intellectual Property Rights
    JEL: F42 K42 O34 O38 O57
    Date: 2020–01
  2. By: Longman, John; Williams, Timothy
    Abstract: Brand confusion takes place when a person views an advertisement for a particular brand as a communication about a different brand. This empirical study was conducted in a sample of 134 men and women and based on 24 mass tourism destination advertisements of 8 different Mediterranean countries. Advertisements that were perceived as likeable and distinctive, and that were not information-overloaded suffered less from brand confusion. Destination brands with weak advertising support were found to be more vulnerable to brand confusion. Consumers with higher levels of product category involvement and higher levels of brand awareness and brand loyalty appear to confuse mass tourism destination brands less frequently.
    Keywords: mass tourism, destination promotion, advertising campaigns, brand confusion
    JEL: L83 M37
    Date: 2020–02–10
  3. By: Padmashree Gehl Sampath; Walter Park
    Abstract: Market concentration in technology intensive industries has been a subject of interest to both scholars and policy analysts. This paper provides a first empirical assessment on how the patenting system contributes to market concentration and the generation of economic rents in three key sectors – pharmaceuticals, chemicals and ICTs. Using data for US multinationals and their foreign affiliates on the one hand, and locally registered private and public companies in Brazil, India and China, we conclude that the concentration of patent ownership is found significantly to relate to market concentration in the USA. In developing countries such as Brazil, India, and China, a strengthening of patent rights has contributed to greater returns for affiliates of U.S. companies but has not stimulated their R&D intensity. The affiliates of U.S. multinationals have enjoyed greater profitability relative to their local competitors in Brazil, India, and China. The paper draws implications for the setting of intellectual property policy and offers suggestions on the role of competition policy in curbing market concentration and related effects on inequality and access.
    Date: 2019–04
  4. By: Gaetan de Rassenfosse (Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne); Gabriele Pellegrino (Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne); Emilio Raiteri (Eindhoven University of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper provides novel empirical evidence that patents enable knowledge disclosure. The analysis exploits the Invention Secrecy Act, which grants the U.S. Commissioner for Patents the right to prevent disclosure of new inventions that represent a threat to national security. Using a two-level matching approach, we document a negative and large relationship between the enforcement of a secrecy order and follow-on inventions, as captured with patent citations and text-based measures of invention similarity. The effect of secrecy orders is particularly salient for geographically-distant parties and for inventions in the same technological field as the secreted patent.
    Keywords: disclosure, follow-on invention, knowledge diffusion, patent
    JEL: O31 O33 O34
    Date: 2020–03
  5. By: Xavier Leflaive (OECD); Ben Krieble (OECD); Harry Smythe (OECD)
    Abstract: Innovation has a role to play to mitigate water-related risks and to support the provision of water services on which our well-being and sustainable development depend. Water-related innovation originate in a wide range of countries, with different levels of ambition. They disseminate at different scales globally.This paper uses patent data to document trends in the invention of technologies to promote water security since 1990, focusing on the countries in which inventions are developed, where they might be commercialised, and in which subsectors they originate. The water-related technologies identified in the paper can be clustered into three categories: i) water pollution abatement; ii) demand-side; and iii) supply-side. The paper describes a number of important trends that can inform a broader discussion on the factors that might hinder, or enhance, inventive activity to promote water security.
    Keywords: droughts, floods, green tech, innovation, patent, water pollution
    JEL: O13 O31 O38 Q25 Q55
    Date: 2020–04–07
  6. By: Gaetan de Rassenfosse (Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne); Kyle Higham (Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne)
    Abstract: Patent marking is used by patentees to provide a form of notice to the public about the existence of a patent and can increase damages awarded in cases of infringement. Historically, marking is done by listing the associated patents on the product they cover. Virtual patent marking (VPM), or webmarking, offers patentees a convenient alternative to this practice by allowing patentees to place a web address, linking to a list of the associated patents, on the product instead of the static patent list. However, due to uncertainty in the legal community about proper implementation, adoption has been slow, despite broad agreement on their many advantages over traditional marking. In this article, we lay out guidelines for the proper implementation of VPMs and call for a formal standard to encourage their adoption.
    Keywords: patent notice, product, standard, virtual patent marking, webmarking
    JEL: K20 K40 O34
    Date: 2020–03
  7. By: Gaetan de Rassenfosse (Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne); Marco Grazzi (Department of Economic Policy, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Daniele Moschella (Institute of Economics & EMbeDS, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna); Gabriele Pellegrino (Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the extent to which international trade hinges on patents. We analyze the export and patenting activities of the universe of French exporting firms over the period 2002–2011. The noticeable feature of our study is that we observe export and patenting activities worldwide and at the product level. We exploit how heterogeneity of patent coverage across (and within) product-country relates to exports. We find a patent premium of at least 10 percent, which is mainly associated with a quantity effect. A modest price effect emerges in specific sectors, notably pharmaceuticals.
    Keywords: export, international trade, patent, product
    JEL: F14 O34
    Date: 2020–03
  8. By: Frank Tietze; Pratheeba Vimalnath; Leonidas Aristodemou; Jenny Molloy
    Abstract: Within national and international innovation systems a pandemic calls for large-scale action by many actors across sectors, to mobilise resources, developing and manufacturing Crisis-Critical Products (CC-Products) efficiently and in the huge quantities needed. Nowadays, this also includes digital innovations from complex epidemiological models, AI, to open data platforms for prevention, diagnostic and treatment. Amongst the many challenges during a pandemic, innovation and manufacturing stakeholders find themselves engaged in new relationships, and are likely to face intellectual property (IP) related challenges. This paper adopts an IP perspective on the COVID-19 pandemic to identify pandemic related IP considerations and IP challenges. The focus is on challenges related to research, development and urgent upscaling of capacity to manufacture CC-Products in the huge volumes suddenly in demand. Its purpose is to provide a structure for steering clear of IP challenges to avoid delays in fighting a pandemic. We identify 4 stakeholder groups concerned with IP challenges: (i) governments, (ii) organisations owning existing Crisis-Critical IP, described as incumbents in Crisis-Critical Sectors (CC-Sectors), (iii) manufacturing firms from other sectors normally not producing CC-Products suddenly rushing into CC-Sectors to support the manufacturing of CC-Products (new entrants), and (iv) voluntary grassroot initiatives that are formed during a pandemic. This paper discusses IP challenges related to the development and manufacturing of technologies and products for (i) prevention (of spread), (ii) diagnosis of infected patients and (iii) the development of treatments. We offer an initial discussion of potential response measures to reduce IP associated risks among industrial stakeholders during a pandemic.
    Date: 2020–04
  9. By: Anatoliy Kostruba (Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University)
    Abstract: Верховною Радою України, 18 жовтня 2018 року, прийнято Кодекс України з процедур банкрутства, яким встановлюються умови та порядок відновлення платоспроможності боржника-юридичної особи або визнання його банкрутом з метою задоволення вимог кредиторів, а також відновлення платоспроможності фізичної особи. Одночасно в юридичному науковому середовище виникла дискусія щодо цього правового акту, яка проходить за двома основними напрямками. Переважна частина вчених висловлюються проти прийняття Кодексу України з процедур банкрутства, оскільки відносини з відновлення платоспроможності, на їх думку, не є великою самостійною групою однорідних відносин, тому не потребують кодифікації з точки зору юридичної техніки. Інші дослідників зауважують, що прийняттям Кодексу України з процедур банкротства не досягнуто мети його створення. Слід зазначити, що прийнятий кодифікований акт має також величезну кількість прибічників не тільки серед вчених, але й практикуючих юристів. Отже, основний дискурс цього питання формується навколо загальнотеоретичних питань, позбавлених матеріально-правового контексту та прикладної складової. Обраний, на нашу думку хибний, напрямок дослідження місця та ролі кодифікованого акту в системі національного законодавства не може бути залишений поза увагою боку вчених цивілістів. Отже виникле питання висловити власні міркування з окресленої проблематиці. Запропоновані Кодексом України з питань банкрутства, положення щодо ліквідації зайвих бар'єрів та спрощення доступу до процедур, зокрема, самого боржника, збільшення можливостей для санації та створення ефективних механізмів позасудового врегулювання, покращення умов участі у процедурах банкрутства забезпечених кредиторів та підвищення рівню захищеності прав усіх кредиторів, скорочення строків розгляду справ, зокрема, за рахунок зменшення кількості оскаржень мають виключно декларативний характер. Головна ідея прийняття кодифікованого акту полягає в запроваджені, в цивільно-правову матерію, інституту неплатоспроможності фізичної особи. Через законодавче визначені складні процесуальні механізми реструктуризації боргів фізичної особи, введення процедури їх погашення досягається наслідок, при вірній постановці юридичного процесу, звільнення фізичної особи від них.
    Keywords: Insolvency Law,Insolvency reforms,Insolvency procedures,Insolvency proceeding
    Date: 2019–05–24

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