nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2020‒01‒13
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. AI and Robotics Innovation: a Sectoral and Geographical Mapping using Patent Data By Van Roy, Vincent; Vertesy, Daniel; Damioli, Giacomo
  2. Are Generation Y students brand loyal to their university? A case of attitude, commitment and trust on student brand loyalty By Costa Synodinos; Kirty-Lee Sharp
  3. The Role of Legal Presumptions in Patent Litigation By Alice Guerra;

  1. By: Van Roy, Vincent; Vertesy, Daniel; Damioli, Giacomo
    Abstract: Economic activities based on the invention, production and distribution of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have recently emerged worldwide. Yet, little is known about the innovative activities, location and growth performance of AI innovators. This chapter aims to map and analyse the global innovative landscape of AI by exploring 155,000 patents identified as AI-related by means of text-mining techniques. It highlights the emergence and evolution of AI technologies and identifies AI hotspots across the world. It explores the scale and pervasiveness of AI activities across sectors, and evaluates the economic performance of AI innovators using firm accounting information. Finally, it assesses recent trends in venture capital investments towards AI as financial support to promising AI startups. Findings of this chapter reveal a tremendous increase in AI patenting activities since 2013 with a significant boom in 2015-2016. While most of AI patenting activities remain concentrated in the sectors of software programming and manufacturing of electronic equipment and machinery, there are clear signs of cross-fertilisation towards (non-tech) sectors. The market of AI patenting firms is very vibrant and characterised by a large increase of new and small players with economic performances above industry average. This trend is also reflected by the recent increase in venture capital towards AI startups.
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence,innovation,patents,robotics
    JEL: O31 O33
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Costa Synodinos (North-West University); Kirty-Lee Sharp (Vaal University of Technology)
    Abstract: Customer loyalty is at the epicentre of any successful business. As such, the ultimate goal for any organisation is to create a loyal customer base. Loyalty occurs when organisations consistently satisfy the needs and wants of their customers. In addition, the more trust a consumer places in a particular organisation, the more loyal they will be to that organisation. Supportive attitudes and relationship commitment are perceived as valuable predeterminants when measuring customer loyalty and predicting future purchasing behaviour of consumers. Similarly, student loyalty is a major goal for a university. Loyal students engage in positive word of mouth marketing and could consider returning to their university to complete their postgraduate studies. This study aimed to determine if Generation Y students display both supportive attitudes towards their current university and if they possess some sort of relationship commitment towards their university. In addition, the study sought to understand the impact with which Generation Y students? trust exhibits towards brand loyalty of their respective universities. A total of 480 self-administered questionnaires were distributed across three higher education institutions in the Gauteng province of South Africa. A variety of statistical techniques were employed to analyse the captured data. These included internal-consistency reliability and validity measures, descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling. The study?s results found Generation Y students? supportive attitudes and their relationship commitment have a direct positive significant influence towards trust in their university. Moreover, the trust that Generation Y students placed into their university has a direct positive influence on student brand loyalty. Based on the commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing, both relationship commitment and trust need to exist for relationships to be successful. The results indicate that relationship commitment and trust are cooperative behaviours that allow both Generation Y students and universities to mutually fulfil their needs. Thus, Generation Y students feel a sense of value, whilst, the university receives customer loyalty in return. The results of this study indicate that universities should take note of a student?s supportive attitudes and relationship commitment. In addition, universities must take students? trust into consideration, as this affects student brand loyalty and ultimately student retention for the institution.
    Keywords: Relationship commitment, attitudes, trust, brand loyalty, Generation Y students, South Africa
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2019–10
  3. By: Alice Guerra (University of Bologna - Department of Economics); (Oslo Business School, Oslo Metropolitan University; School of Business and Economics, UiT the Arctic University of Norway)
    Abstract: We formally analyze the effects of legal presumptions in patent litigation. We set up a novel contest model to study litigation outcomes, judgement errors, and resource dissipation under three alternative presumption criteria: a presumption that the patent is valid; a presumption that the patent is invalid; no presumption regarding validity. Our findings reveal that any legal presumption – either in favor of validity or invalidity – is preferable than a no-presumption criterion when there is high uncertainty about the patent’s objective merit.
    Keywords: Patent, Litigation, Presumptions, Persuasion
    JEL: K41 C72 D74
    Date: 2019–10–29
  4. By: Ilya Musabirov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Denis Bulygin (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Ekaterina Marchenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Esports organisations and athletes, being participants of an attention-driven market, are constantly discussed, compared and evaluated by spectators in a cross-media-based process on such platforms as Twitch, Reddit and others. In this work, we discuss an approach to analyse valuation practices related to esports spectatorship based on the concepts of a brand as an organising device, using computational text analysis tools and reconstruction of personal networks
    Keywords: valuation studies, exemplars, brands, esports, network analysis, text analysis
    JEL: Z13 E21 M31
    Date: 2019

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