nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2019‒12‒23
seven papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Greentech homophily and path dependence in a large patent citation network By Nomaler, Onder; Verspagen, Bart
  2. Public R&D and green knowledge diffusion:\r\nEvidence from patent citation data By Gianluca ORSATTI
  3. Patent notice (failure) in the era of Patent Monetization By Arina Gorbatyuk; Adrián Kovács
  5. Intellectual property rights and the commodification of nature: the case of seeds By Gentilucci, Eleonora
  6. The Impacts of Patent and R&D Expenditures on the High-Tech Exports of Newly Industrialised Countries: A Panel Cointegration Analysis By Robert Ackrill; Rahmi Cetin
  7. The Intellectual Spoils of War? Defense R&D, Productivity and International Spillovers By Enrico Moretti; Claudia Steinwender; John Van Reenen

  1. By: Nomaler, Onder (UNU-MERIT); Verspagen, Bart (UNU-MERIT, and SBE, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We propose a method to identify the main technological trends in a very large (i.e., universal) patent citation network comprising all patented technologies. Our method builds on existing literature that implements a similar procedure, but for much smaller networks, each covering a truncated sub-network comprising only the patents of a selected technology field. The increase of the scale of the network that we analyse allows us to analyse so-called macro fields of technology (distinct technology fields related by a coherent overall goal), such as environmentally friendly technologies (Greentech). Our method extracts a so-called network of main paths (NMP). We analyse the NMP in terms of the distribution of Greentech in this network. For this purpose, we construct a number of theoretical benchmark models of trajectory formation. In these models, the ideas of homophily (Green patents citing Green patents) and path dependency (the impact of upstream Green patents in the network) play a large role. We show that a model taking into account both homophily and path dependence predicts well the number of Green patents on technological trajectories, and the number of clusters of Green patents on technological trajectories.
    Keywords: patent citations, citation networks, main path, technological change, green technology, climate change mitigation
    JEL: Q55 Q54 O31 O33 O34
    Date: 2019–12–17
  2. By: Gianluca ORSATTI
    Abstract: The present paper investigates the relationship between public R&D and the diffusion of green knowledge. To do so, we exploit information contained in green patents filed at the European Patent Office from 1980 to 1984. The diffusion of green knowledge is measured by meaning of patent citations. The level of public R&D is instrumented through the policy reaction to the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident – that affected the level of public R&D in the energy generation domain – in a difference in differences setting. Results show that a 10% increase in public R&D increases by around 0.7% the number of citations to green patents. Moreover, increasing public R&D fosters the diffusion of green knowledge across traditional (non-green) domains and increases the average technological distance of inventions citing green patents. This evidence suggests that public R&D is a driver of green knowledge diffusion, accelerates the hybridization of traditional innovation processes and fosters technological diversification.
    Keywords: Public R&D, Green innovation, Knowledge diffusion, Patent citations, Environmental policy, Green R&D
    JEL: O30 O32 O33 O38 Q55
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Arina Gorbatyuk; Adrián Kovács
    Abstract: The most commonly provided economic rationale for the patent system is that it incentivizes inventive effort that may not be carried out in its absence. In addition to this utilitarian rationale, economic and legal scholars often refer to a second rationale that underlies the patent system – the dissemination of technological information to the public. This notice function is thought of as an important mechanism to enable a more efficient investment in innovation by stimulating further (cumulative) innovation, reducing wasteful duplicate innovative effort and limiting unnecessary litigation. Consequently, courts have placed a great deal of emphasis on the notice function and have described it as the ’quid pro quo’ of granting patent owners the right to exclude. Whereas the notice function is traditionally confined to the adequate disclosure of inventions, we propose that in light of the recent trend towards rapidly growing markets for patent monetization it should also encompass the adequate disclosure of the holders of rights to a patent. Specifically, in this paper we argue that in addition to knowing in detail the boundaries that define a claimed invention, knowing the identity of the parties that hold rights to this invention is a fundamental prerequisite for any patent transaction to occur. Based on a comparative analysis of the provisions of six of the most proficient patent offices worldwide, we illustrate that although current provisions warrant an adequate disclosure of the identity of the initial patent applicant(s), they provide the public with only limited opportunities to identify and track subsequent changes of ownership. Although most patent authorities require parties to file notice when the rights to a patent are assigned, provisions for strictly enforcing this requirement are absent. This allows for a lack of transparency concerning patent ownership, which may hamper rather than facilitate technology transactions.
    Keywords: Patent Disclosure, Patent Assignments, Markets for Technology, Patent Monetization
    Date: 2019–06–17
  4. By: Christel de Lassus (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12); Maria Mercanti-Guérin (IAE Paris - Sorbonne Business School)
    Abstract: Instagram has become the preferred network for the luxury sector. Emerging brands have showcased the voice of their art director (AD) to increase their community's commitment to their content. However, some of them develop own strategies that blur the expression of their positioning of the luxury brand. Using an innovative analysis based on artificial intelligence and content analysis, we establish a typology of the collaboration between art directors and brands. The results highlight the difficulty for brands to fully benefit from the potential influ-ence of their ADs, who are sometimes attached to developing their own brand capital. The article provides a typology of the influence strategies of brands and their "Brand Champions" and allow us to make useful recommendations for other sectors as well.
    Abstract: Instagram est devenu le réseau privilégié du luxe. Pour émerger, les marques ont favorisé la prise de parole de leurs directeurs artistiques (DA) afin d'accroître l'engagement de leur com-munauté à l'égard de leurs contenus. Or, certains développent des stratégies propres qui ren-dent floue l'expression des positionnements des marques de luxe. Une analyse innovante, par mobilisation de l'intelligence artificielle et analyse de contenu a permis de dresser une typolo-gie de la collaboration entre directeurs artistiques et marques. Les résultats soulignent la diffi-culté pour les marques de bénéficier pleinement du potentiel d'influence de leurs DA attachés, parfois, à développer leur propre capital marque. L'article propose une typologie des stratégies d'influence des marques et de leurs « champions de marque » ainsi que des recommandations utiles aussi à d'autres secteurs.
    Keywords: Brand Champion,Instagram,Luxury,Champion de marque,Luxe
    Date: 2019–10–10
  5. By: Gentilucci, Eleonora
    Abstract: The paper uses the Ostromian analytical framework of CPRs and commons definitions, in order to analyze the effect of the introduction of IPRs on the seeds. The main contribution of this research is twofold. On the one hand it allows to validate the initial hypothesis (H1) namely that, throughout the history, until the introduction of IPRs on the living (S0), seeds were CPRs and commons and, after the introduction of IPRs (S1), seeds became private goods. The analysis carried out shows that seeds are commons of knowledge and natural resource and that the introduction of IPRs has allowed the appropriation of a resource that was previously common. This is the “commodification” process. On the other hand study deeps a specific tool to overcome the enclosure imposed by IPRs, to seeds: namely the application of free software principles to seeds. This enables a return to the reverse process of “commonification”.
    Keywords: Seeds, Knowledge commons, Common-pool resources, Intellectual property rights, Free software.
    JEL: B52 O13 O34 P14 P16
    Date: 2018–12–13
  6. By: Robert Ackrill; Rahmi Cetin
    Abstract: In this paper, we have sought to complement the extensive literature analysing firm level data on the links between innovation and exports, with an exploration of whether these variables are related at the country-level, for a group of eight NICs. We have been particularly interested with innovation in and export of high-tech products. At the outset, we identified seven hypotheses for testing. Our findings are that, for our panel of eight NICs over the period 1996-2014, patents and R&D expenditures both exert a significant positive effect on these countries’ exports of high-tech goods.
    Date: 2019–12
  7. By: Enrico Moretti; Claudia Steinwender; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: In the US and many other OECD countries, expenditures for defense-related R&D represent a key policy channel through which governments shape innovation, and dwarf all other public subsidies for innovation. We examine the impact of government funding for R&D - and defense-related R&D in particular - on privately conducted R&D, and its ultimate effect on productivity growth. We estimate models that relate privately funded R&D to lagged government-funded R&D using industry-country level data from OECD countries and firm level data from France. To deal with the potentially endogenous allocation of government R&D funds we use changes in predicted defense R&D as an instrumental variable. In both datasets, we uncover evidence of “crowding in” rather than “crowding out,” as increases in government-funded R&D for an industry or a firm result in significant increases in private sector R&D in that industry or firm. A 10% increase in government-financed R&D generates 4.3% additional privately funded R&D. An analysis of wages and employment suggests that the increase in private R&D expenditure reflects actual increases in R&D employment, not just higher labor costs. Our estimates imply that some of the existing cross-country differences in private R&D investment are due to cross-country differences in defense R&D expenditures. We also find evidence of international spillovers, as increases in government-funded R&D in a particular industry and country raise private R&D in the same industry in other countries. Finally, we find that increases in private R&D induced by increases in defense R&D result in significant productivity gains.
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2019

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