nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2019‒12‒09
two papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Who patents, how much is real invention and how relevant? A snapshot of firms and their inventions based on the 2016 SIPO China Patent Survey By Margit Molnar; Hui Xu

  1. By: Margit Molnar; Hui Xu
    Abstract: China has surpassed the United States in patent applications and has become world leader. Strong patenting activity, however, did not lead to strong productivity growth. The delinking of patenting activity from productivity growth could be explained by quality and relevance issues. Although the number of patents has been soaring, few are genuine inventions. Relatively low utilisation rates of patents point to a low degree of relevance. This paper uses a representative survey of Chinese patenting firms to provide a detailed picture of the patenting landscape along the dimensions of geographical areas, detailed industrial sectors, traditional and modern industries as defined by the Chinese government, firm age, size and ownership. It also overviews government subsidies across firms. Transport equipment makers hold most patents per firm, followed by electronics manufacturers. State-owned firms spend more on R&D per patent, but hold fewer patents per researcher than private or foreign-invested firms. High patenting performance and government support are not necessarily linked to high utilisation of patents. Smaller, younger and private firms expect a higher return on their patents and so do exterior design patent holders. Furthermore, the paper examines what drives patenting activity. Higher R&D spending by the firm and higher share of researchers in its workforce tend to be associated with higher patents per employee. Smaller and older firms tend to patent more, and government support also appears to matter. Exterior design patents are associated with different firm characteristics: R&D intensity is lower and government support matters less. Most firms consider IPR protection insufficient and the share of firms having experienced patent infringement is the greatest among the largest firms. Many of them do not do anything once their rights are infringed as they do not expect effective remedy. Instead of patenting, which may not provide sufficient protection from imitators, they adopt other strategies like reaping the first mover advantage to market their goods or sign confidentiality agreements with their staff or contracts on commercial secrets. This Working Paper relates to the 2019 Economic Survey of China ( mic-snapshot/).
    Keywords: Chinese patenting, firm-level analysis, government subsidies, invention patents, IPR
    JEL: O31 O34 O38
    Date: 2019–12–10
  2. By: Kebkole, Vera Isabela
    Abstract: TUJUAN PENELITIAN adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh Brand Image, Kemenarikan Produk, dan Foreign Branding Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Berulang BreadTalk. Studi kasus pada BreadTalk Lippo Plaza Bogor 2 (1) untuk mengetahui pengaruh Brand Image terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Berulang (2) untuk mengetahui pengaruh Kemenarikan Produk terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Berulang (3) untuk mengetahui Foreign Branding terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Berulang (4). Jumlah responden dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 100 responden yang diambil dari masyarakat yang mengkonsumsi BreadTalk di Lippo Plaza bogor 2. Data penelitian ini di olah dengan menggunakan SPSS. METODE PENELITIAN yang digunakan adalah dengan menggunakan penelitian kuantitatif yang menempatkan brand image, kemenarikan produk dan foreign branding sebagai variabel bebas (independent) dan keputusan pembelian berulang sebagai variabel terikat (dependent). Dengan data primer yang digunakan adalah kuesioner yang disebarkan kepada responden yang dipilih dan diolah hasilnya dengan perhitungan statistik. HASIL YANG DICAPAIY=-7,291+0,358X1+0,215X2+0,419X3+ dimana hal ini berarti jika brand image adalah 1 (satu) maka nilai minat menonton akan menjadi 0,358. Jika kemenarikan produk adalah 1 (satu) maka nilai keputusan pembelian berulang akan menjadi 0,215. Jika foreign branding adalah 1 (satu) maka nilai keputusan pembelian berulang akan menjadi 0,419. Kata kunci : Brand Image, Kemenarikan Produk, Foreign Branding, Keputusan Pembelian Berulang
    Date: 2018–07–12

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