nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2019‒09‒30
five papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. New evidence on determinants of IP litigation: A market-based approach By Dirk Czarnitzki; Kristof Van Criekingen
  2. Product-service extensions and semiotic analysis of Brand Extension Potential (BEP): The case of luxury hospitality By Nathalie Veg-Sala
  3. Patent-Based News Shocks By Cascaldi-Garcia, Danilo; Vukotic, Marija
  4. World Innovation:Evidence from 100 years of Patent Data By Enrico Berkes; Kristina Manysheva; Marti Mestieri
  5. Intellectual Property Rights, Professional Business Services and Earnings Inequality By Gorkem Bostanci

  1. By: Dirk Czarnitzki; Kristof Van Criekingen
    Abstract: We contribute to the economic literature on patent litigation by taking a new perspective. In the past, scholars mostly focused on specific litigation cases at the patent level and related technological characteristics to the event of litigation. However, observing IP disputes suggests that not only technological characteristics may trigger litigation suits, but also the market positions of firms, and that firms dispute not only about single patents but often about portfolios. Consequently, this paper examines the occurrence of IP litigation cases in Belgian firms using the 2013 Community Innovation Survey with supplemental information on IP litigation and patent portfolios. The rich survey information regarding firms’ general innovation strategies enables us to introduce market-related variables such as sales with new products as well as sales based mainly on imitation and incremental innovation. Our results indicate that when controlling for firms’ IP portfolio, the composition of turnover in terms of innovations and imitations has additional explanatory power regarding litigation propensities. Firms with a high turnover from innovations are more likely to become plaintiffs in court. Contrastingly, firms with a high turnover from incremental innovation and imitation are more likely to become defendants in court, and, moreover, are more likely to negotiate settlements outside of court.
    Keywords: IP litigation, patenting, innovation, imitation
    Date: 2018–04
  2. By: Nathalie Veg-Sala (CEROS - Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Organisations et la Stratégie - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre)
    Abstract: Although more and more luxury goods brands are expanding in the services sector, very little research has yet focused on these strategies of development. Given the risks associated, the aims of this article are (1) to define the specificities of product-service extensions and (2) to analyze the internal legitimacy of luxury brands to be launched in the services through the analysis of the BEP (Brand Extension Potential). The BEP defines where and how far a brand can be extended according to their emitted discourses and more specifically according to the openness of their brand contracts (delimitation, determination, mastery). A semiotic analysis has been conducted on four luxury goods brands (Armani, Baccarat, Bulgari, Cheval Blanc) that have expanded in hospitality. It is revealed that the BEP to services depends on the openness of the delimitation and mastery contracts. The results are confronted with the current situations of the brands studied as well as the opinions of luxury consumers. Managerial implications are deduced.
    Abstract: Alors que de plus en plus de marques de produits de luxe s'étendent dans le secteur des services, très peu de recherches se sont intéressées à ces stratégies de développement. Face aux risques qui y sont associés, les objectifs de cet article sont (1) de définir les spécificités des extensions produit-service et (2) d'analyser la légitimité interne des marques de luxe à se lancer dans les services à travers l'analyse du PEM (Potentiel d'Extension des Marques). Le PEM définit vers où et jusqu'où les marques peuvent s'étendre en fonction de leur discours émis et plus précisément en fonction de l'ouverture de leurs contrats de marques (délimitation, détermination, maîtrise). Une analyse sémiotique a été menée sur quatre marques de produits de luxe (Armani, Baccarat, Bulgari, Cheval Blanc) qui se sont étendues dans l'hôtellerie. Les résultats montrent que le PEM vers les services dépend de l'ouverture des contrats de maîtrise et de délimitation des marques. Les résultats sont confrontés aux situations à dates des marques étudiées ainsi qu'aux avis de consommateurs de luxe. Des implications managériales en sont déduites.
    Keywords: luxury,semiotics,extension from product to service,Brand Extension Potential,Potentiel d'Extension des Marques,luxe,extension produit-service,sémiotique
    Date: 2019–07–08
  3. By: Cascaldi-Garcia, Danilo (Federal Reserve Board); Vukotic, Marija (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: In this paper we exploit firm-level data on patent grants and subsequent reactions of their stocks to identify technological news shocks. Changes in stock market valuations due to announcements of individual patent grants represent expected future increases in the technology level, which we refer to as patent-based news shocks. Our patent-based news shocks resemble diffusion news in that they do not affect total factor productivity in the short-run but account for about 20 percent of its variations after five years. These shocks induce positive comovement between consumption, output, investment and hours. Unlike the existing empirical evidence, patent-based news shocks generate a positive response in inflation and the federal funds rate, in line with a standard New Keynesian model. Patenting activity in electronic and electrical equipment industries within the manufacturing sector and computer programming and data processing services within the services sector play a crucial role in driving our results.
    Keywords: News Shocks ; Patents ; Patent-based news shocks
    JEL: E3 E32 L60
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Enrico Berkes (The Ohio State University); Kristina Manysheva (Northwestern University); Marti Mestieri (Northwestern University)
    Abstract: We document the evolution of innovation patterns over the last 100 years for over 75 countries as measured by patent filings in these countries. We document how innova- tion has shifted across fields, from mechanical engineering in the beginning of the XXth century, to chemistry and physics in the mid-century, medicine and the digital economy. We also document how different countries have contributed to these shifts at different points in time and how innovation correlates across countries and across fields. Finally, we use the cross-country, cross-sectoral citation patterns to document knowledge link- ages in the innovation process. We leverage on these country-sector linkages to construct an instrument for innovation and assess the impact of innovation on sectoral productiv- ity, absolute and comparative advantage.
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Gorkem Bostanci (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: High skill labor demand is infrequent but firms cannot adjust perfectly due to several adjustment costs. Professional Business Services (PBS) sector help alleviate this problem by allowing high skill labor to move across firms, reducing idiosyncratic part of labor demand risk. This allows high skill talent to be utilized better and increases their productivity. This paper aims to show that improvements in intellectual property rights protection in the late 1970s alleviated concerns regarding sharing sensitive data with 3rd party firms, thus helped PBS to thrive in the following decades. Better utilization of high skill increased productivity in the economy. In addition, it decreased entrepreneurship by making working as a professional a viable alternative to opening a new firm as well as decreasing job-to-job transition rates since employees no longer needed to change employers in order to change workplaces. By increasing compensation for professional, it also contributed to the increased earnings inequality since 1980. Panel data analysis using time variation in U.S. states' adoption of the Uniform Trade Secrets Act shows a positive association between trade secret protection and PBS employment, where adoption is associated with 10% higher employment on average. We build a model that is able to match the qualitative characteristics of the evolution of earnings inequality in the U.S. since 1980, using this mechanism.
    Date: 2019

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