nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2019‒09‒16
six papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Prioritized Examination and its Impact on Commercialization of Patents By Taras Hrendash
  2. Why do R&D-intensive firms participate in standards organizations? The role of patents and product-market position By Justus Baron; Cher Li; Shukhrat Nasirov
  3. Visibility of technology and cumulative innovation: Evidence from trade secrets laws By Ganglmair, Bernhard; Reimers, Imke
  5. The Factors Which Lead Brands To Use Social Media In External Corporate Communication By Gulcin Ipek Emeksiz
  6. Exploring In-Game Advertising and Brand Recall By Naglaa Diaa Ramzy; Sireen Abdulhalim; Pansee Mashaly

  1. By: Taras Hrendash
    Abstract: Patents play an important role in facilitating transfers of knowledge, and enable commercialization of innovative ideas by reducing information asymmetry between potential buyers and sellers on the market for technology. The crucial question, however, is how quickly innovative ideas can be patented. Previous research has shown that the probability of commercialization for pending applications peaks immediately after the patent allowance event (Gans, Hsu & Stern, 2008). But does the length of pendency of an application at a patent office also affect the overall saleability of a technology and create some frictions on the market for technology? In this paper, we exploit the introduction of the USPTO’s Prioritized Examination (Track One) Program to capture the impact of shortened pendency on the likelihood that a pending or granted patent will be commercialized via the transfer of property rights. Using the difference-in-differences approach, we compare the average saleability of patents, which we assign into three groups according to their predicted propensity for prioritization before and after the program start date. We find that introduction of the Track One program has significantly increased the probability of commercial reassignment of applications that were more likely to be prioritized. Our results suggest that the policy implemented by the USPTO and shortened pendency of applications, in general, may reduce frictions on the market for technology and facilitate commercialization of innovations.
    Keywords: experimental economics; government transfers;
    JEL: O32 O34 O38
    Date: 2019–04
  2. By: Justus Baron; Cher Li; Shukhrat Nasirov
    Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of participation of R&D-intensive firms in standards development. Using data on R&D spending, patent, and trademark activities of the world's largest corporate R&D investors and their membership of standards organizations, we find a highly robust positive association between a firm's R&D spending and its participation in standards development. However, the causal effect of R&D spending on membership of standards organizations is conditional upon the firm's patent and/or product-market position, and varies across different types of standards organizations. More specifically, a strong patent position amplifies the effect of R&D spending on participation in standards-developing organizations, while a strong product-market position strengthens the impact of R&D spending on participation in the organizations that promote established standards. Finally, we also show that policy changes that increase the value of patents, such as variations in the preferential tax treatment of patent-related revenue, induce R&D-intensive firms to intensify their participation in standards organizations.
    Keywords: standards organizations, R&D expenditure, patents, trademarks
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Ganglmair, Bernhard; Reimers, Imke
    Abstract: We use exogenous variation in the strength of trade secrets protection to show that a relative weakening of patents (compared to trade secrets) has a disproportionately negative effect on the disclosure of processes - inventions that are not otherwise visible to society. We develop a structural model of initial and follow-on innovation to determine the effects of such a shift in disclosure on overall welfare in industries characterized by cumulative innovation. We find that while stronger trade secrets encourage investment in R&D, they may have negative e ects on overall welfare - the result of a significant decline in follow-on innovation.
    Keywords: cumulative innovation,disclosure,self-disclosing inventions,Uniform Trade Secrets Act
    JEL: D80 O31 O34
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Songporn Hansanti (Faculty of Business Administration, Kasetsart University); Thanabadee Wayuwattanasiri (Faculty of Business Administration, Kasetsart University); Daoroong Aiyadech (Faculty of Business Administration, Kasetsart University)
    Abstract: The objectives of this research were to study the marketing factors and brand equity influence on the buying decision of modern trade Dohome in Bangkok and its vicinity. The samples for the research were 385 people who purchased product in the modern trade Dohome in Bangkok. The questionnaires were used for the research tool, whereas the statistics used for analyzing the obtained data were percentage, frequency, mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that overall level of opinions on marketing factors and brand equity of modern trade Dohome is high level. Furthermore, overall level of purchasing decision is high level too. Results of the hypothesis test showed that marketing factors in product and price influences buying decisions and brand equity in perceived quality influences buying decisions of the modern trade Dohome with a statistical significance at a 0.05 level.
    Keywords: Marketing Factors, Brand Equity, Buying Decision
    JEL: M31 M30
    Date: 2019–07
  5. By: Gulcin Ipek Emeksiz (Anadolu University, Communication Sciences Faculty, Department of Communication Design and Management)
    Abstract: Social media is the new form of today?s communication. People spend a lot of time on social media to be informed about and to interact with the happenings in their social environments, and in the meantime they want to reach their favourite brands. Therefore, many brands have started to open brand fan pages in different social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram to get in touch with their consumers. There are many factors which have led brands to use social media in external corporate communication; however, these are not pointed out in detail in the literature. This paper aims to cover the factors which have motivated brands to use social media in external corporate communication. The paper first explores the reasons behind the decline of trust towards traditional advertisements and the advertisements on the Internet. Afterwards, it discusses why websites have recently lost their popularity against social media platforms. Lastly, it looks at why consumers want a presence of brands in social media. The results show that today?s consumers tend to trust electronic word of mouth in social media platforms more than traditional advertisements since they can learn online the experiences of people who have tried the products and services of brands. Furthermore, many consumers feel bothered from the advertisements which drop into their e-mail boxes and the Internet banners which pop up. Interactivity in social media is the main factor which has caused social media to get one step more forward than the websites. Today?s consumers want to engage in dialogues with their favourite brands and have in touch with them on social media. This paper will contribute to the literature of corporate communication from the aspect of social media.
    Keywords: brands, corporate communication, external, factors, social media
    JEL: M30
    Date: 2019–07
  6. By: Naglaa Diaa Ramzy (Helwan University); Sireen Abdulhalim (Future University in Egypt); Pansee Mashaly (Future University in Egypt)
    Abstract: Digital gaming is increasingly recognized as one of the most important entertainment sectors worldwide, turning it into a promising medium for advertisers. Games are extremely engaging, interactive and challenging, as a result, it attracted advertisers who are seeking the attention of the customers through a nontraditional medium to convey their advertising messages. Along with this growth in digital games, there are several important contextual factors to consider in the selection and placement of the advertising messages in digital games. The objective of this research was to explore the effect of in-game advertising on brand recall processing. The quantitative approach was employed and a survey was distributed on 201 respondents applied on FIFA game players in Egypt. The results showed that in-game advertising has an effect on brand recall. Additionally, the position of the advertisement and time of appearance appear to be the most significant factor in affecting brand recall.
    Keywords: In-Game Advertising - Brand Recall - Advergames- Product placement
    JEL: M30 M39 M37
    Date: 2019–07

This nep-ipr issue is ©2019 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.