nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2019‒08‒19
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. The impact of public R&D support on firms' patenting By Marit Klemetsen; Brita Bye; Arvid Raknerud
  2. Technological Learning and Innovation Gestation Lags at the Frontier of Science: from CERN Procurement to Patents By Andrea, Bastianin; Paolo, Castelnuovo; Massimo, Florio; Anna, Giunta
  3. Biofuels Policy and Innovation Impacts: Evidence from Biofuels and Agricultural Patent Indicators By Nelson, Kelly; Brown, Zachary S.; Parton, Lee
  4. Antecedents of brand loyalty in the fashion industry of Pakistan: Moderating effect of Individual-level collectivist values. By Soomro, Yasir Ali

  1. By: Marit Klemetsen; Brita Bye (Statistics Norway); Arvid Raknerud (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of both R&D tax credits and direct R&D subsidies on Norwegian firms' patenting. Whereas direct subsidies are aimed at projects with low private and high social return, tax credits do not discriminate between projects or technologies. We find that both direct subsidies and tax credits have significant positive effects on patenting. However, the magnitude of the effects depend critically on the firms' pre-treatment characteristics. In particular, the statistically significant estimates are all related to firms with no patent applications prior to obtaining support. Moreover, we estimate that direct subsidies have triggered at least three times as many granted patents per NOK million of support compared to tax credits. Our results suggest that R&D support should be directed to promote innovations at the extensive margin, i.e. to firms with a high potential of becoming innovative rather than to firms with a record of being innovative. Moreover, as targeted subsidies generate more innovations, society would benefit from distributing more of the subsidies to priority areas.
    Keywords: Patenting; R&D policy; Treatment effects; Stratification; Matching; Poisson regression
    JEL: C33 C52 D24 O38
    Date: 2019–07
  2. By: Andrea, Bastianin; Paolo, Castelnuovo; Massimo, Florio; Anna, Giunta
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature on the impact of Big Science Centres on technological innovation. We exploit a unique dataset with information on CERN’s procurement orders to study the collaborative innovation process between CERN and its industrial partners, mostly European firms. Since 19 out of the 23 Member Countries of CERN belong to the EU, public procurement for innovation through CERN can be seen as factor contributing to European innovation policies. After a qualitative discussion of case studies, survival and count data models are estimated; the impact of CERN procurement on suppliers’ innovation is captured by the number of patent applications. The fact that firms in our sample received their first order over a long time span (1995-2008) delivers a natural partition of industrial partners into “suppliers” and “not yet suppliers”. This allows estimating the impact of CERN on the hazard to file a patent for the first time and on the number of patent applications, as well as the time needed for these effects to show up. We find that a “CERN effect” does exist: being an industrial partner of CERN is associated with an increase in the hazard to file a patent for the first time and in the number of patent applications. These effects require a significant “gestation lag” in the range of five to eight years, pointing to a relatively slow process of absorption of new ideas.
    Keywords: Big Science; CERN; innovation; public procurement; patents; gestation lags.
    JEL: C21 C23 H57 L39 O31
    Date: 2019–04
  3. By: Nelson, Kelly; Brown, Zachary S.; Parton, Lee
    Keywords: Resource/ Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–06–25
  4. By: Soomro, Yasir Ali
    Abstract: The main purpose of this research was to find the moderation effect of individual-level collectivist values on the antecedents of Brand loyalty (BL). What effect does consumer difference on low or high collectivist values have on the brand loyalty in the fashion apparels? It has been found that both groups of consumers have different choices while buying. To investigate this, Individual Level and three antecedent’s promotion (PRO), perceived brand quality (PBQ), and brand trust (BT) were selected to check the effect on Brand Loyalty. The questionnaire was self-developed and distributed online on social networking sites through a non-restricted non-probability sampling technique among 201 Pakistani respondents. Path Analysis and SEM analysis was performed to check the moderation in AMOS. This study has developed and tested the theory by finding that individual-level collectivist values (ILCV) have a significant moderating effect on the relationship between PBQ and BL. The findings reveal that consumers low in ILCV become significantly more loyal to a brand, particularly when PBQ is relatively at high levels. The main contribution of the study is that it presents the validated brand loyalty model with the interaction of ILCV.
    Keywords: Brand Loyalty, Promotion, Brand trust, Collectivist values, Perceived brand Quality, SEM.
    JEL: M3 M31
    Date: 2019–06–01

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