nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2019‒05‒27
five papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Confidence and loyalty for agrotourism brands: The Lesvos paradigm By Chatzigeorgiou, Chryssoula; Christou, Evangelos; Simeli, Ioanna
  2. The Disciplinary Effect of Post-Grant Review By Nagler, Markus; Sorg, Stefan
  3. Sponsored Libre Research Agreements to Create Free and Open Source Software and Hardware By Joshua Pearce
  4. Technological Learning and Innovation Gestation Lags at the Frontier of Science: from CERN Procurement to Patent By Andrea Bastianin; Paolo Castelnovo; Massimo Florio; Anna Giunta
  5. Trade Induced Technological Change: Did Chinese Competition Increase Innovation in Europe? By Douglas L. Campbell; Karsten Mau

  1. By: Chatzigeorgiou, Chryssoula; Christou, Evangelos; Simeli, Ioanna
    Abstract: It has been established that strong brands are important in the agrotourism industry. Agrotourism brands provide the link between visitors and the agrotourism firms and tourists may or may not develop a degree of loyalty to relevant brands. The present study suggests that confidence in an agrotourism brand has high influence in development of brand loyalty. Based on hypotheses developed, confidence in an agrotourism brand is influenced by brand characteristics, agrotourism company characteristics and visitor characteristics. The present survey took place in Greece and examined the attitudes of visitors in agrotourism firms at the island of Lesvos. Survey results demonstrate that agrotourism firm brand characteristics appear more important in their impact on a visitor’s confidence in a brand. It was also established that confidence in a brand is positively influencing loyalty. Recommendations are developed for agrotourism marketers in relation to building and maintaining visitor confidence in a brand.
    Keywords: agrotourism; branding; brand loyalty; brand confidence; Lesvos
    JEL: L83 M31 Q13
    Date: 2019–04–15
  2. By: Nagler, Markus (LMU Munich); Sorg, Stefan (MPI for Innovation and Competition)
    Abstract: We study the causal impact of invalidating marginally valid patents during post-grant opposition at the European Patent Office on affected inventors\' subsequent patenting. We exploit exogenous variation in invalidation by leveraging the participation of a patent\'s original examiner in the opposition division as an instrument. We find a disciplinary effect of invalidation: Affected inventors file 20% fewer patent applications in the decade after the decision. This effect is entirely driven by a reduction in low-quality filings, i.e., filings that examiners associate with prior art that threatens the application\'s novelty or inventive step. We do not observe shifts into national patenting.
    Keywords: inventors; marginal patents; patent invalidation; patent opposition; postgrant review; epo; innovation;
    JEL: O31 O34
    Date: 2019–05–24
  3. By: Joshua Pearce (Michigan Tech Open Sustainability Laboratory - Michigan Technological University)
    Abstract: As a growing number of companies reject intellectual property (IP) monopoly-based business models to embrace libre product development of free and open source hardware and software, there is an urgent need to refurbish the instruments of university-corporate research partnerships. These partnerships generally use a proprietary standard research agreement (PSRA), which for historical reasons contains significant IP monopoly language and restrictions for both the company and the university. Such standard research agreements thus create an artificial barrier to innovation as both companies using a libre model and universities they wish to collaborate with must invest significantly to restructure the contracts. To solve this problem, this article provides a new Sponsored Libre Research Agreement (SLRA). The differences between the agreements are detailed. The advantages of using an SLRA are provided for any type of company and include: (1) minimizing research investments on reporting requirements; (2) reducing delays related to confidentiality and publication embargos; and (3) reducing both transaction and legal costs as well as research time losses associated with IP. Moving to libre agreements both speeds up and reduces costs for setting up collaborative research. Under the SLRA, university researchers can spend more time innovating for the same investment.
    Keywords: sponsored research,P2P manufacturing,free and open source hardware,FOSH,free and open source software,open design,open hardware,open science,open scientific hardware,OScH,P2P,sponsored research agreement
    Date: 2018–09
  4. By: Andrea Bastianin; Paolo Castelnovo; Massimo Florio; Anna Giunta
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature on the impact of Big Science Centres on technological innovation. We exploit a unique dataset with information on CERN's procurement orders to study the collaborative innovation process between CERN and its industrial partners. After a qualitative discussion of case studies, survival and count data models are estimated; the impact of CERN procurement on suppliers' innovation is captured by the number of patent applications. The fact that firms in our sample received their first order over a long time span (1995-2008) delivers a natural partition of industrial partners into "suppliers" and "not yet suppliers". This allows estimating the impact of CERN on the hazard to file a patent for the first time and on the number of patent applications, as well as the time needed for these effects to show up. We find that a "CERN effect" does exist: being an industrial partner of CERN is associated with an increase in the hazard to file a patent for the first time and in the number of patent applications. These effects require a significant "gestation lag" in the range of five to eight years, pointing to a relatively slow process of absorption of new ideas.
    Date: 2019–05
  5. By: Douglas L. Campbell (New Economic School (NES)); Karsten Mau (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Bloom, Draca, and Van Reenen (2016) find that Chinese competition induced a rise in patenting, IT adoption, and TFP by 30% of the total increase in Europe in the early 2000s. We find that the average patents per firm fell by 94% for the most Chinacompeting firms in their sample, but also by 94% for non-competing firms (starting from an initially higher level), and that various intuitive controls, such as controls for sectoral trends, renders the impact on patents-per-firm insignificant. We also find that while TFP appears to be positively correlated with the rise in Chinese competition, IV estimates are inconclusive, and other measures of productivity, such as value-added per worker and profits, are not correlated. Various instrumental and proxy variable approaches also do not support a positive impact of the rise of China on European patents.
    Keywords: Patents, China, Europe, Textiles, Trade Shocks, Manufacturing
    JEL: F14 F13 L25 L60
    Date: 2019–05

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