nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2018‒11‒12
seven papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. The Impact of Public R&D Investments on Patenting Activity: Technology Transfer at the U.S> Environmental Protection Agency By Link, Albert; Morris, Cody; van Hasselt, Martijn
  2. Domestic intellectual property rights protection and the margins of bilateral exports By Ndubuisi, Gideon; Foster-McGregor, Neil
  3. Perceived brand reliability of insurance companies as customer loyalty factor By Petra Leonora Cvitanović
  4. Possibilities for socially responsible entrepreneurship at Croatian natural and organic cosmetics market By Petra Leonora Cvitanović
  5. The Competitive Market Value of Copyright in Music: A Digital Gordian Knot (The Working Paper Version – v2) By Marcel Boyer
  6. The Three-Legged Stool of Value of Copyrighted Music: Hertzian Radio, SiriusXM, and Spotify (The Working Paper Version – v2) By Marcel Boyer
  7. The Copyright Crisis: The Social necessity of the Renegotiation of the TPP and the Rise of the CPTPP By Christina Platz

  1. By: Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Morris, Cody (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); van Hasselt, Martijn (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper presents estimates of the impact of public R&D on patenting activity at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Using a time series of public sector agency data, we estimate the per-capita R&D elasticity of new patent applications using a knowledge production function framework model that is an expanded version of what other scholars have used with private sector data. New patent applications are an important step in the technology transfer activities of a federal agency. We estimate this elasticity to be about 2.0. This elasticity value represents an initial estimate of the impact of EPA’s R&D investments on its technology transfer activity.
    Keywords: R&D; Patents; Technology transfer; Knowledge production function; Environmental Protection Agency;
    JEL: C51 O33 O38 O44
    Date: 2018–10–23
  2. By: Ndubuisi, Gideon (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University); Foster-McGregor, Neil (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: How trade related is Intellectual property right (IPRs) protection? Extant studies examining the relationship between domestic Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) protection and trade focus predominately on imports whilst neglecting exports. This paper focuses on the latter, further examining the effect of domestic IPRs on the margins of exports. Results from the study reveal that IPRs are trade-related and that it can be a tool for stimulating exports in both developed and developing countries. We also find that the level of IPRs in the exporting country matters more to the exporter than the level of IPRs in the importing country. Examining the different export margins, we obtain robust evidence suggesting that stronger IPRs in the exporter country works largely along the extensive margin, with coefficients on the intensive margin tending to be insignificant. We discuss the welfare and growth implications of these findings in the conclusion.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Exports, Intensive margin, Extensive margin
    JEL: O34 F13 F14
    Date: 2018–09–26
  3. By: Petra Leonora Cvitanović
    Abstract: A regular obstacle in insurance business is the problem of attracting new users of insurance products/services while it is getting more difficult to keep the existing clients. Beside financial risk and barriers to exit which restrain clients contractually and legally from leaving an insurance provider and switching to another, there aren't many reasons why they should not do it, and the possibilities are vast. That is why it is important to continually strengthen the emotional bond with the clients and to affect their perception of insurance provider’s brand strength, brand reliability and quality. Another limitation in attracting new clients is a significant similarity in the offer of all insurance providers, which is why they have to make effort to create a recognizable differential advantage which will be noticed by the clients and not easily imitated by the competitors. Not enough attention is given to strengthening the brand of insurance providers and brand equity is exactly what can affect the opinion of clients when choosing or changing an insurance provider. The feeling of belonging to a particular insurance provider is the most important factor because it is a generator strong bond with the brand. In order for insurance users to gain trust in the insurance provider, it has to make sure that users have solid understanding of types of insurance coverage and exclusions in their insurance policies. In practice it is often the opposite, which creates lower level of satisfaction on clients' side due to high expectations. By analysing market research results, the author examines aspects of perceived stability, trust and reliability of insurance providers’ brands on Croatian market. After collecting insurance users' attitudes and opinions based on their previous experiences and perception, the author makes conclusions regarding their current and future loyalty by methods of synthesis and induction.
    Keywords: perceived brand reliability, brand strength, brands of insurance companies, customer retention, customer loyalty factors, reliability assessment, service company marketing mix
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2018–11–06
  4. By: Petra Leonora Cvitanović
    Abstract: This paper focuses on somewhat underused window of opportunity and unrecognized entrepreneurial possibilities at Croatian natural and organic cosmetics market. There is a unique opportunity for starting a company in Croatia which will produce and sell cosmetic products of natural and organic origin. The aim of this research is to analyse the existing market situation and entrepreneurial climate for starting such a business, and to define general business goals and correct positioning of the new brand. The global natural and organic cosmetics market will grow up to 22 billion USD in 2024. The attractiveness of this industry in Croatia is influenced by barriers to entry such as consumers’ price sensitivity and strong competitive brands. By choosing the optimal sales and communication channels, the company will be able to reach the consumers, achieve greater brand awareness and larger market share. Marketing and financial goals should be related to social goals, such as opening of job vacancies, rising of awareness with Croatian citizens on the importance of conscientious treatment of nature, and educating them on toxic substances in regular cosmetic products. The main risks which the entrepreneur can expect include unwillingness of consumers in Croatia to accept the new brand and a general incomprehension of ecological business focus. If the company implements new technologies and integrates in its business environmentally friendly actions along with ethics in branding, advertising and marketing activities, it will be able to develop competitive advantage through recognizable reputation which will affect consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions. Developing a socially responsible business strategy should include a list of social projects that will be supported by the company and most appreciated by the community. In this research, online sources covering natural and organic cosmetics were used, together with books and scientific articles on social responsibility, marketing ethics, entrepreneurship and branding.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship possibilities, socially responsible business strategy, environmentally friendly business, relationship marketing, marketing ethics, brand awareness, ethical brand positioning
    JEL: M39
    Date: 2018–11–07
  5. By: Marcel Boyer
    Abstract: Pricing copyrighted works or assets so that creators are competitively compensated has always been a difficult task given the information good character of such works. Doing it in the digital era is even more challenging. I consider Hertzian radio, satellite radio, and interactive music streaming services and I argue that annual competitive royalties in Hertzian radio should be increased from $100 million to $450 million. I further argue that this gap should not be filled by primary users alone but by a broader set of beneficiaries, including the general public and their government. La tarification des œuvres protégées par le droit d'auteur assurant aux créateurs une rémunération concurrentielle a toujours été une tâche difficile étant donné le caractère biens d’information de ces œuvres. Le faire à l'ère du numérique est encore plus difficile. Je considère la radio hertzienne, la radio par satellite, et les services de musique interactive et je prétends que les royautés dans la radio hertzienne devraient être augmentées de $100 à $450 million. Je prétends en outre que cet écart devrait être comblé non pas uniquement par les utilisateurs primaires, mais par un ensemble plus large de bénéficiaires, y compris le grand public et leur gouvernement.
    Keywords: Copyrights,Hertzian radio,SiriusXM,Music streaming services,Pandora,Spotify, Droits d'auteur,radio hertzienne,SiriusXM,services de musique en ligne,Pandora,Spotify
    JEL: D23 L38 O34 Z11
    Date: 2018–10–12
  6. By: Marcel Boyer
    Abstract: Pricing copyrighted works or assets has always been a difficult task given the information good character of such works. Doing it in the digital era is even more challenging. This paper proposes an approach to infer the competitive market value of copyrights in music from choices made by users namely the operators of Hertzian radio (HR), satellite radio (SiriusXM), and interactive music streaming services (Spotify). The inferred competitive values, which are obtained independently, fall in the same ballpark, although they need not be equal or even close as business models and cost structures differ significantly between those music delivery technologies. Nevertheless the estimated competitive market values of music copyrights clearly indicate that rightsholders are significantly shortchanged and poorly served by the current copyright pricing framework. Appendix A presents the data from which one can infer the value of music in HR. Appendix B presents an overview of the debate before the Copyright Board of Canada following the presentation of the model from which the value of music in HR can be inferred. La tarification des œuvres ou actifs protégées par le droit d'auteur a toujours été une tâche difficile étant donné le caractère ‘biens d’information’ de ces œuvres. Le faire à l'ère du numérique est encore plus difficile. Ce cahier propose d’inférer la valeur de marché à partir du comportement et des choix des utilisateurs, principalement les opérateurs de radio Hertzienne, de radio par satellite (SiriusXM) et de services de musique en ligne (Spotify). Les valeurs ainsi inférées séparément sont de niveaux comparables bien qu’il ne soit pas nécessaire qu’il en soit ainsi étant donné les différences importantes entre leurs modèles d’affaire et leurs structures de coûts. Les valeurs estimées montrent clairement que les ayants-droits sont significativement sous-compensés et donc mal servis par le système actuel de tarification des droits d’auteur. Deux appendices sur les données et le modèle utilisés pour inférer la valeur de la musique dans la radio commerciale au Canada complètent le cahier.
    Keywords: Copyright,Royalty rates,Hertzian radio,Satellite radio,SiriusXM,Online Music Services,Spotify, Droits d'auteur,Royautés,Radio Hertzienne,SiriusXM,Services de musique en ligne,Spotify
    JEL: H41 L38 L51 O34
    Date: 2018–10–12
  7. By: Christina Platz (Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology/ RMIT University)
    Abstract: Copyright law is continuously in a crisis, however, on 8 March 2018, a new initiative, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTTP) emerged at the international level in order to aid trade related challenges such as copyright law. The CPTPP agreement was the result of an extensive renegotiation of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) that since the US departure in January 2017 had been considered dead in the water. This article considers the reasoning for the renegotiation of the TPP from the perspective of Australian society with focus on copyright law. It utilises the theoretical underpinning of cooperation theory as well as case studies of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) and the TPP to examine why it was necessary to renegotiate the TPP and significantly cut back on the IP chapter. This article concludes that it was necessary to renegotiate the TPP because it represented the US copyright agenda and failed to satisfy the Australian interests in copyright law and promote the copyright balance.
    Keywords: Copyright law, trade agreement, technology, intellectual property
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2018–07

This nep-ipr issue is ©2018 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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