nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2018‒10‒08
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Patents For Evidence-Based Decision-Making And Smart Specialization By Bruno Brandao Fischer; Maxim Kotsemir; Dirk Meissner; Ekaterina Streltsova
  2. Domestic Value Added of Chinese Brand Mobile Phones By Yuqing Xing; Yuzhen He
  3. Mobility of Highly Skilled Individuals and Local Innovation Activity By Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karamanis, Dimitris; Sanders, Mark
  4. Shadow price of patent stock as knowledge stock: Time and country heterogeneity By Yagi, Michiyuki; Managi, Shunsuke

  1. By: Bruno Brandao Fischer (University of Campinas); Maxim Kotsemir (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Dirk Meissner (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Ekaterina Streltsova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper compares and contrasts the patent-based indicators, traditionally used to assess a country’s technological capacities and specialization. It seeks to determine how a chosen metric might affect the results of such an analysis, sometimes being misleading. Empirically, the paper is based on the statistical information on patent activity of the top-10 patenting countries. It concludes with a clear demonstration of the need to employ a complex of patent-related indicators to make deliberate solutions on managing technological development of a country. Also the authors offer a taxonomy of technological capacities, which might further help understanding their current status and prospects for future progress. Above the methodological implications, the paper might be of an interest for policy-makers and practitioners as it analyzes the patent profiles and technological specialization of the global leaders
    Keywords: technological development, technological specialization, patent statistics
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O34 O38 O57
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Yuqing Xing (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan); Yuzhen He (University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China)
    Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate the domestic value added of Chinese brand mobile phones using the teardown data of two sample phones: Xiaomi MIX 2 and OPPO R11s. For calculation of the distribution of value added by country, we adopt two benchmarks: production cost and retail price. In terms of the production cost of the sample phones, which consists of bill of materials, manufacturing cost and royalty, Chinese domestic value added embedded in the MIX 2 is 15.4% and 16.7% in the R11s. The teardown analysis reveals that no indigenous Chinese firms are involved in the manufacture of the printed circuit board assembly, which explains the relatively low Chinese domestic value added. Using retail price to measure total value added, we find that the domestic value added of the MIX 2 to be 41.7% while that of the R11s to be 45.3%. The cost of retail services and gross marginal profits contribute most to the increase, which implies that nurturing mobile phone brands has not only enabled the Chinese mobile phone industry to move up ladder of value chains, but also to improve domestic value added.
    Date: 2018–09
  3. By: Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karamanis, Dimitris; Sanders, Mark
    Abstract: This paper studies the drivers of highly skilled migrants across space as well as their impact on local innovation activity. We focus on patent inventors, a specific typology of skilled and innovative individuals who are deeply involved in the production of innovation and are important vehicle of knowledge circulation. Employing patent data to track their moves, we use a gravity model to examine whether geographic, technological and cultural proximities between countries and country level factors and policies shape the flows of these talented individuals. As a comparison, in the same framework, we also analyze the flows of non-inventor migrants. Our evidence shows that proximity matters for migration. Gravity emerges everywhere; in the mobility of inventor and non-inventor migrant workers; the former, however, are less geographically restricted. Similarity in technological production structure between countries is the main driver of inventor moves - especially for inventors from the most innovative countries, whereas cultural proximity matters more for non-inventor migrants. Attractive country features are the quality of institutions and job opportunities at the destination as well as trade linkages between origin and destination country. Finally, the knowledge and skills that move with the inventors have an important positive impact on local innovation production.
    Keywords: inventor mobility, patents, migration, gravity, proximity
    JEL: J61 O31 O33 O52
    Date: 2018–09–07
  4. By: Yagi, Michiyuki; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: This study compares the shadow price (marginal cost) and shadow value (total cost) of patent stock (as knowledge stock) in each of 92 countries between 1992 and 2010. Two specifications are considered in the data envelopment analysis approach. One specification considers population, capital, patent stock, energy use (four inputs), greenhouse gas (undesirable output), and gross domestic product (desirable output). The other uses human capital and natural capital instead of population and energy use. Under these two specifications, respectively, the shadow price of the patent stock (on weighted average) for the whole period is −0.106 and −0.054 million US dollars per patent in the entire sample. Similarly, the shadow value of the patent stock (by the ratio of gross domestic product) in the entire sample is −5.8% and −2.9%, respectively. As the standing position of patent stock, the patent stock is less valuable than human capital and (produced) capital but more valuable than population, energy use, and natural capital. The patent stock also is likely to be valuable in developing countries. In addition, the shadow value of the patent stock is relatively high in certain large countries and nearly flat in most of the countries.
    Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; Patent stock; Shadow price; Inclusive wealth index
    JEL: C14 O34 O44
    Date: 2018

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