nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2018‒08‒13
six papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Intellectual Property Rights for Software and Accessibility to Venture Capitalists By ONISHI Koichiro; YAMAUCHI Isamu
  2. The Choice of Examiner Patent Citations for Refusals: Evidence from the trilateral offices By WADA Tetsuo
  3. Classifying Patents Based on their Semantic Content By Antonin Bergeaud; Yoann Potiron; Juste Raimbault
  4. Some Facts of High-Tech Patenting By Michael Webb; Nick Short; Nicholas Bloom; Josh Lerner
  5. Return Migrants’ Self-selection: Evidence for Indian Inventor By Stefano Breschi; Francesco Lissoni; Ernest Miguelez
  6. The evolution of destination branding: A review of branding literature in tourism By Almeyda-Ibáñez, Marta; George, Babu P.

  1. By: ONISHI Koichiro; YAMAUCHI Isamu
    Abstract: Although computer software has been protected by both patent rights and copyrights, the mixed effects of these two intellectual property rights have not been relatively explored. In this study, we examine the signaling value of patenting and copyright protection in software technology on receiving venture capital (VC) financing using notable Japanese software SMEs data. We find that both obtaining software patents and copyright registrations accelerate the VC financing for smaller firms. We also find that possessing both intellectual property rights have a significantly negative impact on the finance of VC. The results show that software patents and copyright registrations are largely substitutes in terms of signaling.
    Date: 2018–06
  2. By: WADA Tetsuo
    Abstract: This paper compares X/Y patent citations (i.e., those cited as grounds for rejections) between major patent offices. It reveals discrepancies between the offices, despite the common patentability criteria of novelty and inventive steps to generate citations. This paper also examines how the discrepancies of X/Y patent citations at the European Patent Office (EPO) and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) relate to the characteristics of applications and longitudinal aspects of office actions. X/Y patent citations of both the EPO and USPTO commonly show that the range of patent application classes is positively correlated with divergent reasons for refusal. One novel methodological feature of this paper is that examiner citations across jurisdictions are comparable if we employ family-to-family citations and common criteria for the X/Y citation category. Furthermore, unlike the normal citation-generating process where a citing document adds citations to prior art only once, this paper represents the first attempt to analyze a citation network with multiple citing opportunities for separate parties, thereby providing a new perspective on the notion of breadth in citation impact.
    Date: 2018–07
  3. By: Antonin Bergeaud; Yoann Potiron; Juste Raimbault
    Abstract: In this paper, we extend some usual techniques of classification resulting from a largescale data-mining and network approach. This new technology, which in particular is designed to be suitable to big data, is used to construct an open consolidated database from raw data on 4 million patents taken from the US patent office from 1976 onward. To build the pattern network, not only do we look at each patent title, but we also examine their full abstract and extract the relevant keywords accordingly. We refer to this classification as semantic approach in contrast with the more common technological approach which consists in taking the topology when considering US Patent office technological classes. Moreover, we document that both approaches have highly different topological measures and strong statistical evidence that they feature a different model. This suggests that our method is a useful tool to extract endogenous information.
    Keywords: Patents, Semantic Analysis, Network, Modularity, Innovation, USPTO
    JEL: O3 O39
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Michael Webb; Nick Short; Nicholas Bloom; Josh Lerner
    Abstract: Patenting in software, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence has grown rapidly in recent years. Such patents are acquired primarily by large US technology firms such as IBM, Microsoft, Google, and HP, as well as by Japanese multinationals such as Sony, Canon, and Fujitsu. Chinese patenting in the US is small but growing rapidly, and world-leading for drone technology. Patenting in machine learning has seen exponential growth since 2010, although patenting in neural networks saw a strong burst of activity in the 1990s that has only recently been surpassed. In all technological fields, the number of patents per inventor has declined near-monotonically, except for large increases in inventor productivity in software and semiconductors in the late 1990s. In most high-tech fields, Japan is the only country outside the US with significant US patenting activity; however, whereas Japan played an important role in the burst of neural network patenting in the 1990s, it has not been involved in the current acceleration. Comparing the periods 1970-89 and 2000-15, patenting in the current period has been primarily by entrant assignees, with the exception of neural networks.
    JEL: L86 O34
    Date: 2018–07
  5. By: Stefano Breschi; Francesco Lissoni; Ernest Miguelez
    Abstract: Based on an original dataset linking patent data and biographical information for a large sample of US immigrant inventors with Indian names and surnames, specialized in ICT technologies, we investigate the rate and determinants of return migration. For each individual in the dataset, we both estimate the year of entry in the United States, the likely entry channel (work or education), and the permanence spell up to either the return to India or right truncation. By means of survival analysis, we then provide exploratory estimates of the probability of return migration as a function of the conditions at migration (age, education, patenting record, migration motives, and migration cohort) as well as of some activities undertaken while abroad (education and patenting). We find both evidence of negative self-selection with respect to educational achievements in the US and of positive self-selection with respect to patenting propensity. Based on the analysis of time-dependence of the return hazard ratios, return work migrants appear to be negatively self-selected with respect to unobservable skills acquired abroad, while evidence for education migrants is less conclusive.
    JEL: F22 O15 O31
    Date: 2018–07
  6. By: Almeyda-Ibáñez, Marta; George, Babu P.
    Abstract: Tourism is a promise and destinations communicate the credibility of that promise by means of destination brands. Branding has become a key tool for tourism destinations to make explicit the complexity of experiences to be expected by tourists visiting a destination. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of various issues associated with tourism destination branding. It brings together a wide range of debates in the generic marketing literature, places them alongside the nuances of tourism, and thereby identifies unique challenges of branding in tourism destination contexts. Finally, a case study of USP based national tourism branding campaigns in the Caribbean is presented.
    Keywords: Destination management; branding; brand equity; measurement; unique selling proposition; challenges
    JEL: L83 M31
    Date: 2017–03–27

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