nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2018‒05‒14
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Are consumers leaning towards hedonic, symbolic or functional attributes ? Brand benefits scale development and validation in emerging markets: case of Tunisia By Jérôme Lacoeuilhe; Selima Ben; Hager Turki; Samy Belaid
  2. Pre-release leaks as one-time incentives for switching to unauthorised sources of cultural content By Wojciech Hardy
  3. How Redeployable are Patent Assets? Evidence from Failed Startups By Carlos J. Serrano; Rosemarie Ziedonis
  4. Academic Inventors and the Antecedents of Green Technologies. A Regional Analysis of Italian Patent Data. By Quatraro, Francesco; Scandura, Alessandra

  1. By: Jérôme Lacoeuilhe (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12); Selima Ben (Nova Southeastern University); Hager Turki (IHEC - Institut des Hautes Etudes Commerciales [Carthage] - Université de Carthage); Samy Belaid
    Abstract: Branding is an important part of consumer decision making whether domestically or internationally. Brand choices are the reflection of consumers’ motivations. Given the importance of branding to international marketers, its role has been studied in different markets developed as well as developing economies. However, most of the studies have focused on developed economies without taking into consideration the value of branding in less developed economies. The North African Market is a market that has been neglected in such research. This study seeks to understand brands benefits in the Tunisian market. The purpose of this study is to develop a psychometric scale measuring brand benefits in Tunisia. The scale development is based on Churchill’s paradigm. Results show that brand benefits converge towards a two-factor structure consisting in a functional and symbolic factor. Since the choice of a brand reflects the motivations an individual seeks to satisfy through its possession, marketing managers could use such a scale to measure the benefits associated with the brands they commercialize in a north-african environment.
    Abstract: Que ce soit au plan national ou international, les marques jouent un rôle important dans le processus de choix du consommateur. Les choix de marques reflètent les bénéfices du consommateur. Vu l’importance que revêt la marque pour les praticiens du marketing au plan international, son rôle a été étudié tant dans les économies développées que dans celles en développement. Cependant, la plupart des études se sont focalisées sur les économies développées sans englober l’intérêt de la marque dans les pays les moins développés. Le marché nord-africain fait partie des marchés laissés à l’écart par ces recherches. La présente étude vise à appréhender les bénéfices rattachés aux marques sur le marché tunisien. Le but de cette étude consiste à développer une échelle psychométrique de mesure des bénéfices rattachés aux marques en Tunisie. Le développement de cette échelle s’appuie sur le paradigme de Churchill. Les résultats montrent que les bénéfices reliés aux marques convergent vers une structure à deux facteurs – les facteurs fonctionnels et symboliques. Dans la mesure où le choix d’une marque reflète les aspirations qu’une personne cherche à satisfaire au travers de sa possession, les gestionnaires en marketing pourraient utiliser cette échelle pour mesurer les bénéfices associés aux marques qu’ils commercialisent dans un contexte nord-africain.
    Keywords: Utilitaire ,Échelle ,Fonctionnel ,Symbolique ,Marque ,Bénéfices ,Affectif ,Expérientiel ,Économies
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Wojciech Hardy
    Abstract: Pre-release leaks of cultural content incentivise consumers to look for unauthorised sources. I find that such events may induce some television viewers to switch to unauthorised sources to gain access even to content that had not been leaked. To demonstrate that this is the case, I use a unique dataset on a sample of TV shows aired around the time of a pre-release leak of a very popular TV show (Game of Thrones). The results of a difference-in-differences analysis indicate that the leaked TV show lost viewership for both the leaked episodes and those that followed. Moreover, the event also had negative effects for other TV shows that may share an audience with the leaked show. Finally, my results for the shows with a shared audience are corroborated by evidence of an increase in Google searches for phrases including the show names and the words “watch online”, after the leak. I argue that the one-time incentive to use unauthorised sources caused some viewers to engage in unauthorised consumption even of shows not affected directly by the leak. These conclusions are consistent with the existence of one-time costs of switching channels of content acquisition.
    Keywords: file-sharing, copyright, intellectual property rights, tv, piracy, Game of Thrones
    JEL: D12 K42 L82 O34 Z11
    Date: 2018–04
  3. By: Carlos J. Serrano; Rosemarie Ziedonis
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial firms are important sources of patented inventions. Yet little is known about what happens to patents “released” to the market when startups fail. This study provides a first look at the frequency and speed with which patents originating from failed startups are redeployed to new owners, and whether the value of patents is tied to the original venture and team. The evidence is based on 1,766 U.S. patents issued to 285 venture capital-backed startups that disband between 1988 and 2008 in three innovation-intensive sectors: medical devices, semiconductors, and software. At odds with the view that the resale market for patented inventions is illiquid, we find that most patents from these startups are sold, are sold quickly, and remain “alive” through renewal fee payment long after the startups are shuttered. The patents tend to be purchased by other operating companies in the same sector and retain value beyond the original venture and team. We do find, however, that the patents and people sometimes move jointly to a new organization following the dissolution of the original venture, and explore the conditions under which such co-movement is more likely. The study provides new evidence on a phenomenon—of active markets for buying and selling patents—underexplored in the literature and consequential for both entrepreneurial and established firms.
    JEL: G24 G33 L14 L26 O16 O3
    Date: 2018–04
  4. By: Quatraro, Francesco; Scandura, Alessandra (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This work investigates the generation of green technologies (GTs) in Italian NUTS 3 regions across time, by focusing on the knowledge generation mechanisms underlying the creation of green patents. Firstly, we hypothesize that inventions in non-green technological domains positively influence the generation of GTs, because the latter occur as the outcome of a recombination process among a wide array of technological domains. Secondly, we hypothesise that the involvement of academic inventors in patenting activity bears positive effects on the generation of GTs, because they are able to manage the recombination across different technological domains. Thirdly, we explore the interaction effect between academic inventors’ involvement and non-green technologies to investigate whether the former are especially relevant in presence of higher or lower levels of the latter. We estimate zero-inflated negative binomial, spatial durbin and logistic regressions on a dataset of 103 Italian NUTS 3 regions for which we collected patent and regional data for the time span 1998-2009. The results suggest that both academic inventors and spillovers from polluting technologies bear positive direct effects on the generation of GTs; moreover, we find that academic inventors compensate for low levels of spillovers.
    Date: 2018–04

This nep-ipr issue is ©2018 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.