nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2018‒01‒29
seven papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Patent Protection, Optimal Licensing, and Innovation with Endogenous Entry By Suzuki, Keishun
  2. The artificial patents in the PATSTAT database: how much do they matter when computing indicators of internationalisation based on worldwide priority patents? By Patricia Laurens; Lionel Villard; Antoine Schoen; Philippe Larédo
  3. The Use and Misuse of Patent Data: Issues for Corporate Finance and Beyond By Josh Lerner; Amit Seru
  4. Estimating territorial business R&D expenditures using corporate R&D and patent data By Petros Gkotsis; Hector Hernandez; Antonio Vezzani
  5. Measuring Inventive Performance with Patent Data: an Application to Low Carbon Energy Technologies By Clément Bonnet
  6. Impacts of product, store and retailer perceptions on consumers’ relationship to terroir store brand By Jérôme Lacoeuilhe; Didier Louis; Cindy Lombart
  7. Are brand benefits perceived differently in less developed economies ? A scale development and validation By Jérôme Lacoeuilhe; Selima Ben Mrad; Samy Belaïd; Maria Petrescu

  1. By: Suzuki, Keishun
    Abstract: How does patent policy affect innovation when patent licensing is crucial for firms? To address this question, the present paper incorporates voluntary patent licensing between an innovator and followers, which has been discussed in the literature of industrial organization, into a dynamic general equilibrium model. Unlike in existing studies, both the licensing fee and the number of licensees are endogenously determined by the innovator’s maximization and the free-entry condition. Using this model, we show that strong patent protection does not enhance innovation, economic growth, and welfare. Furthermore, the extended analysis provides a policy implication that the effect of patent policy depends on how difficult further innovation is without patent licensing of the current leading technology.
    Keywords: innovation, patent protection, optimal patent licensing, endogenous market structure.
    JEL: L24 O31 O34
    Date: 2017–11–15
  2. By: Patricia Laurens (LISIS - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences, Innovations, Société - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - ESIEE Paris - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Lionel Villard (ESIEE Management - ESIEE Management); Antoine Schoen (Technique Innovation et Organisation (TIO) - LATTS - Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Philippe Larédo (Technique Innovation et Organisation (TIO) - LATTS - Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper proposes to broaden by more than 10%-compared with the current practice-the set of applications for priority patents, which is used to compute worldwide patent indicators. This extension is made possible thanks to the inclusion in the corpus of documents used for the calculation of indicators of the first filing patent applications that are designated as " artificial priority patents " in the PATSTAT database and currently discarded for the production of indicators. This research aims to show how adding these " artificial " patent applications can modify the value of the worldwide patent indicators. Artificial patent applications have never been used before because they contain very scarce information in their original state. We present a methodology we have developed to, first, replenish the artificial patents with information retrieved from close patents belonging to the same INPADOC family. Then, we study in details a range of indicators characterising the trends in the internationalisation of corporate R&D inventive activities. We provide evidence that the internationalisation pattern can be modified when including replenished artificial corporate patents in the indicator calculation. At the world level, incorporating artificial priority patents does not affect the trends over time, nor introduce any significant changes in the values of the indicators. However, analyses performed at a smaller scale, such as the firms' continent level or the firms' sector, show significant changes of the level of the intercontinental internationalisation in particular for the US firms.
    Keywords: R&D,technology,patents,internationalisation,indicators
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Josh Lerner; Amit Seru
    Abstract: Patents and citations are powerful tools for understanding innovative activity inside the firm, and are increasingly use in corporate finance research. But due to the complexities of patent data collection and the changing spatial and industry composition of innovative firms, biases may be introduced. We highlight several patent-level biases induced by truncation of reported patent awards and citations, affecting estimates of time trends and patterns across technology classes and regions. We then introduce measures of patent and citation biases. When aggregated at the firm level, these survive popular methods of adjustment and are correlated with firm-level characteristics. We show that these issues can lead to problematic – and ex ante predictable – inferences, using several examples from prominent streams of finance literature that use patent data. We suggest a number of concrete steps that researchers can employ to avoid biased inferences.
    JEL: G30 O34
    Date: 2017–11
  4. By: Petros Gkotsis (European Commission - JRC); Hector Hernandez (European Commission - JRC); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This note describes a methodology to estimate territorial business R&D expenditure funded by the business sector, using R&D and patent data from top R&D investing companies. Since company data are available with a short delay, the aim is to provide timeliness estimations for business R&D in anticipation of its publication by official statistics. The estimation is made for worldwide industrial R&D expenditures, breaking down figures for main world regions and focusing on the EU and its top member states. The industrial coverage comprises main innovative industries, focusing on manufacturing and knowledge intensive services.
    Keywords: industrial R&D, innovation, BERD, estimation
  5. By: Clément Bonnet
    Abstract: We estimate an index that measures the quality of the patented inventions related to Low Carbon Energy Technologies (LCETs) and delivered in seven countries during 1980-2010. This quality index is built using a Latent Factor Model (LFM) that synthesizes the information contained in patent documents. We capture a unique measure of patents quality, defined here as the economic value that is imputable to the technological advance resulting from the patented invention. A robust measure of the inventive performance of each country in the LCETs is obtained using the quality index. Several insights are derived from this measure about the technical advantages of countries and the dynamics of technologies' quality.
    Keywords: Patent data, Energy technologies, Latent factor model, Low carbon innovation
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Jérôme Lacoeuilhe (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12 - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée); Didier Louis (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - UN - Université de Nantes); Cindy Lombart (Audencia Recherche - Audencia Business School)
    Abstract: This research shows that consumers' relationship to terroir store brand, measured through attachment and two facets of brand loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) is respectively influenced by their perceptions of the product, retailer and store. More specifically, the perceived authenticity of the products of the terroir store brand and its perceived value have a positive and significant influence on the attachment and behavioral loyalty of the regular buyers of this store brand and a positive and significant influence on the attachment of its occasional buyers. Trust in the retailer has a positive and significant impact on the behavioral loyalty of the regular buyers of this terroir store brand while perceived image of the store has only a positive and significant impact on the attitu-dinal loyalty of its occasional buyers.
    Keywords: Authenticity,Loyalty,Attachment,Terroir,Trust,Image,Store brand
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Jérôme Lacoeuilhe (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12 - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée); Selima Ben Mrad (Nova Southeastern University); Samy Belaïd (Ecole de Management de Normandie); Maria Petrescu (Nova Southeastern University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale measuring consumers’ brand benefits in less developed economies. Based on the literature, items have been generated in qualitative and quantitative studies and tested by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The findings show that brand benefits converge into a two-factor structure (functional and symbolic) instead of three (functional, experiential and symbolic). These findings can be justified by the fact that consumers in developing economies do not have as much experience with brands as the ones from developed economies. The results also relate to previous literature findings on the topic of utilitarian and affective brand relationships. This scale can be used to advance the domain of brand benefits in a cross-cultural environment and can be employed by marketers when businesses plan to brand their products in developed economies.
    Keywords: Functional,Utilitarian,Symbolic,Affective,Measurement scale,Brand benefits,Less developed economies,Experiential
    Date: 2017

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