nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2017‒09‒24
six papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Text matching to measure patent similarity By Sam Arts; Bruno Cassiman; Juan Carlos Gomez
  2. Cover Version and Copyright: Based on Copyright (Amendment) Bill 2014 of Hong Kong By Bei, Jing
  3. Wholesale Pricing with Incomplete Information about Private Label Products By Johannes Paha
  4. The competitive market value of copyright in music: a digital gordian knot By Boyer, Marcel
  5. The three legged stool of music value : hertzian siriusxm spotify By Boyer, Marcel
  6. The economics of private copying By Boyer, Marcel

  1. By: Sam Arts; Bruno Cassiman; Juan Carlos Gomez
    Abstract: We propose using text matching to measure the technological similarity between patents. Technology experts from different fields validate the new similarity measure and its improvement on measures based on the United States Patent Classification System, and identify its limitations. As an application, we replicate prior findings on the localization of knowledge spillovers by constructing a case-control group of text-matched patents. We also provide open access to the code and data to calculate the similarity between any two utility patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office between 1976 and 2013, or between any two patent portfolios.
    Keywords: text mining, matching, patent, patent classification, technological similarity
    Date: 2017–08
  2. By: Bei, Jing
    Abstract: Huge controversy has arisen since the Copyright (Amendment) Bill 2014 of Hong Kong, dubbed “Internet Article 23” by netizens, appeared in public view again, which was not adopted in the end. One of the concerns commonly raised by end users was whether uploading cover version (which refers to “online posting of earnest performance of copyright works” according to the Government’s definition) would attract legal liability under the Bill. It intends to first give an overview of the legal framework concerning cover version issue under Hong Kong copyright law. It then considers why such issue has provoked intensive discussion in a political context. The article argues in conclusion that both the Government and public institutions can further their role in supporting creative and social innovation in music industry in the digital environment.
    Keywords: Copyright (Amendment) Bill 2014,earnest performance,cover version,copyright,legislation
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Johannes Paha (Justus-Liebig-University Giessen)
    Abstract: This article provides a theoretical model analyzing wholesale pricing tariffs set by a monopolistic manufacturer for its branded product that is sold to final customers by a monopolistic retailer. The bargaining power of the downstream retailer is strengthened by offering also a vertically differentiated private label product whose production costs are known only incompletely to the upstream manufacturer. The model shows that the manufacturer can avoid double marginalization and implement the full information outcome by combining a quantity discount with a market-share discount where only a retailer with a strong private label retroactively receives an allowance. Under these circumstances it is unprofitable for the manufacturer to impose exclusive dealing on the retailer.
    Keywords: Branded Products, Incomplete Information, Market-Share Discounts, Private Label Products, Wholesale Pricing
    JEL: D42 D82 L15 L42
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Boyer, Marcel
    Abstract: Pricing copyrighted works or assets so that creators are fairly compensated, while users can benefit from the digital economy given the information good character of such works has always been a difficult task. Doing it in the digital era is even more challenging. Striking that balance and determining the proper royalty level and the efficient rate base require that the competitive market value of such copyright in musical works and sound recordings be ascertained. I review some of the challenges and pitfalls in adequately framing the issues, and review an approach to infer the competitive market value of music in commercial terrestrial/Hertzian radio, satellite radio and interactive music streaming services from choices of operators in those industries. The resulting royalty formulas and payments are embedded into and discussed through the economics of public policy towards culture (the elephant in the room). An Appendix presents the main characteristics of music copyright structures in different jurisdictions.
    Keywords: Music copyrights; Hertzian radio; Satellite radio; SiriusXM ; Music streaming services; Pandora; Spotify; Cultural public policy
    Date: 2017–09
  5. By: Boyer, Marcel
    Abstract: Pricing copyrighted works or assets has always been a difficult task given the information good character of such works. Doing it in the digital era is even more challenging. This paper proposes an approach to infer the respective competitive market value of copyrights in music from choices made by operators of Hertzian radio, satellite radio (SiriusXM), and interactive music streaming services (Spotify). Although the inferred music values are rather similar, they need not be equal or even close as business models and cost structures differ significantly between those music delivery technologies. Nevertheless the results suggest that rightsholders are significantly shortchanged and poorly served by the current copyright pricing framework.
    Keywords: Copyright; Copyright value; Hertzian radio; SiriusXM; Spotify
    Date: 2017–09
  6. By: Boyer, Marcel
    Abstract: I review private copying laws and practices in different jurisdictions, with a particular emphasis on the methodology followed in France to determine rightsholders’ compensation for the private copying of their copyrighted works in different repertoires namely audio, video, still pictures, and printed material. I discuss the economics of copyright compensation in the digital era and offer some comments on particularly important issues met in private copying.
    Keywords: Value of copyrights ; copyright exceptions; private copying; information goods; digital era
    Date: 2017–09

This nep-ipr issue is ©2017 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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