nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2016‒11‒20
seven papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Access to medicines and incentives for innovation: The balance struck in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) on intellectual property (patent and data exclusivity) protection for pharmaceutical products By Artecona, Raquel; Plank-Brumback, Rosine M.
  2. Patents, exhibitions and markets for innovation in the early twentieth century: Evidence from Turin 1911 International Exhibition By Domini, Giacomo
  3. Patent Assertion Entities in Europe: Their impact on innovation and knowledge transfer in ICT markets By Nikolaus Thumm; Garry Gabison
  4. Identifying the Gender of PCT inventors By Gema Lax Martínez; Julio Raffo; Kaori Saito
  5. Estimating territorial business R&D expenditures using corporate R&D and patent data By Petros Gkotsis; Hector Hernandez; Antonio Vezzani
  6. Formal and informal appropriation mechanisms: the role of openness and innovativeness By Zobel, Ann-Kristin; Lokshin, Boris; Hagedoorn, John
  7. You are judged by the company you keep : reputation leverage in vertically related markets By Choi, Jay Pil; Peitz, Martin

  1. By: Artecona, Raquel; Plank-Brumback, Rosine M.
    Abstract: This study addresses the balance struck under the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) between the right to health and access to medicines and the need to maintain the economic incentives to spur innovation and research and development through intellectual property protection. The analysis focuses on the patent and data-related intellectual property protection provisions of the TPPA, specifically regarding pharmaceutical (small-molecule and biologic) products, including on patent duration, linkage and term extensions as well as clinical test data protection and market exclusivity. Special attention is paid to the United States and its negotiating position with respect to those aspects of intellectual property rights, as it has been and remains the world’s principal demandeur for high intellectual property rights (IPR) standards in trade agreements, including the TPPA.
    Date: 2016–11
  2. By: Domini, Giacomo (UNU-MERIT, and University of Siena)
    Abstract: This work contributes to the recent literature on international exhibitions, and on the use of data from these events as a proxy for innovation in economic history. In particular, it investigates the nature of international exhibitions, the role they played in the early twentieth century, the reasons why economic agents attended them, the relationship between exhibition data and patent data, and their suitability for measuring innovation. To do so, it makes an in-depth analysis of the International Exhibition held in Turin in 1911, and it matches a new database, built from the catalogue of this event, with data about patents granted in Italy. It is found that exhibiting and patenting did mostly occur separately, as exhibitions mainly worked as markets for products, which attracted firms, while patents were primarily taken out by individuals, most of whom might not be interested in that function. Yet, the presence is observed of a qualified niche of independent inventors, using the exhibition as a market for ideas, i.e. to advertise their findings to a selected public of potential investors, buyers or licensees.
    Keywords: patents, inventions, international exhibitions, markets for innovation, Italy
    JEL: N74 O31 O33
    Date: 2016–11–01
  3. By: Nikolaus Thumm (European Commission - JRC); Garry Gabison (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Patent assertion has become a common practice in shaping the balance between technology creation and technology dissemination in the Information and Communication Industry (ICT). The importance of this practice for the functioning of ICT markets has given rise to new entities that enforce patents but do not utilise the patented technology, commonly referred to as patent assertion entities (PAEs). This study provides an overview of patent assertion practices and of PAEs in Europe, taking into consideration their impact on innovation and technology transfer in European ICT markets.
    Keywords: Patenting, patent assertion entities, patent trolls, innovation
    Date: 2016–10
  4. By: Gema Lax Martínez (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.); Julio Raffo (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.); Kaori Saito (World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the gender of inventors in international patent applications. We compile a worldwide gender-name dictionary, which includes 6.2 million names for 182 different countries to disambiguate the gender of PCT inventors. Our results suggest that there is a gender imbalance in PCT applications, but the proportion of women inventors is improving over time. We also find that the rates of women participation differ substantially across countries, technological fields and sectors.
    Keywords: patent gender gap; gender innovation metrics; patents; gender-name dictionary.
    JEL: J16 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2016–11
  5. By: Petros Gkotsis (European Commission - JRC); Hector Hernandez (European Commission - JRC); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This note describes a methodology to estimate territorial business R&D expenditure funded by the business sector, using R&D and patent data from top R&D investing companies. Since company data are available with a short delay, the aim is to provide timeliness estimations for business R&D in anticipation of its publication by official statistics. The estimation is made for worldwide industrial R&D expenditures, breaking down figures for main world regions and focusing on the EU and its top member states. The industrial coverage comprises main innovative industries, focusing on manufacturing and knowledge intensive services.
    Keywords: industrial R&D, innovation, BERD, estimation
    Date: 2016–11
  6. By: Zobel, Ann-Kristin (Dept. of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zürich); Lokshin, Boris (School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University); Hagedoorn, John (UNU-MERIT, and Royal Holloway University of London)
    Abstract: This paper analyses how firms' degree of openness and innovativeness influence their use of formal and informal appropriation mechanisms. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, and design rights are formal appropriation mechanisms. Secrecy, lead-time, and complexity are examples of informal appropriation mechanisms. Both external search breadth and depth are positively associated with firms' use of informal appropriation mechanisms, while only external search breadth is positively associated with formal appropriation mechanisms. Firms' degree of radical (incremental) innovation orientation is negatively (positively) associated with their use of formal appropriation mechanisms. Analysis of the joint impact of openness and innovativeness, suggests that for radical innovators it is external search breadth (rather than depth) that has a positive association with the use of informal appropriation mechanisms. In contrast, for radical innovators external search depth (rather than breadth) is associated with the use of formal appropriation mechanisms. For incremental innovators, external search breadth (rather than depth) is associated with the use of both formal and informal appropriation mechanisms.
    Keywords: Appropriation Mechanisms, Formal Appropriation, Informal Appropriation, External Search Openness, Incremental Innovators, Radical Innovators
    JEL: O34 O31 O32 K11
    Date: 2016–10–26
  7. By: Choi, Jay Pil; Peitz, Martin
    Abstract: This paper analyzes a mechanism through which a supplier of unknown quality can overcome its asymmetric information problem by selling via a reputable downstream firm. The supplier`s adverse-selection problem can be solved if the downstream firm has established a reputation for delivering high quality vis-à-vis the supplier. The supplier may enter the market by initially renting the downstream firm`s reputation. The downstream firm may optimally source its input externally, even though sourcing internally would be better in terms of productive efficiency. Since an entrant in the downstream market may lack reputation, it may suffer from a reputational barrier to entry arising from higher input costs.
    Keywords: Adverse Selection , Certification Intermediaries , Incumbency Advantage , Experience Goods , Outsourcing , Branding , Barriers to Entry
    JEL: D4 L12 L4 L43 L51 L52
    Date: 2016

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