nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2016‒05‒28
three papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Knowledge creates markets: The influence of entrepreneurial support and patent rights on academic entrepreneurship By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Doherr, Thorsten; Hussinger, Katrin; Schliessler, Paula; Toole, Andrew A.
  2. Biases in Patent Examination and Firms’ Responses: Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry By Fei Yu; Yanrui Wu
  3. Intelligence and Crime: A novel evidence for software piracy By Salahodjaev, Raufhon; Odilova, Shoirahon; Andrés, Antonio R.

  1. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Doherr, Thorsten; Hussinger, Katrin; Schliessler, Paula; Toole, Andrew A.
    Abstract: We use an exogenous change in German Federal law to examine how entrepreneurial support and the ownership of patent rights influence academic entrepreneurship. In 2002, the German Federal Government enacted a major reform called Knowledge Creates Markets that set up new infrastructure to facilitate university-industry technology transfer and shifted the ownership of patent rights from university researchers to their universities. Based on a novel researcher-level panel database that includes a control group not affected by the policy change, we find no evidence that the new infrastructure resulted in an increase in start-up companies by university researchers. The shift in patent rights may have strengthened the relationship between patents on university-discovered inventions and university start-ups; however, it substantially decreased the volume of patents with the largest decrease taking place in faculty-firm patenting relationships.
    Keywords: intellectual property,patents,technology transfer,policy evaluation
    JEL: O34 O38
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Fei Yu (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China); Yanrui Wu (Business School, University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: Empirical analysis of matched patent application data in the world’s major patent offices has shown considerable variation in patent granting probability and examination duration across different countries. This phenomenon is attributed to institutional misclassifications or patent examiners’ mistakes by some authors. Others argued that cross-country heterogeneity could also be caused by deliberate manipulation of patent examination procedures with the goal to foster native inventors through oppressing foreign patent applicants. To explore whether manipulation exists, this study presents a case study of pharmaceutical patents granted by the US patent office and approved by the US FDA. Especially it focuses on the filing behavior of pharmaceutical companies in Korea, Japan and China. The regression results show that the granting ratio of the previous applications of a foreign company is correlated with the company’s probability of lodging a new patent application, which provides a supplementary evidence of the existence of the manipulated patent examination procedures.
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Salahodjaev, Raufhon; Odilova, Shoirahon; Andrés, Antonio R.
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to test the hypothesis that software piracy rats are lower in more intelligent nations. Thus, we econometrically estimate the effect of national IQ on software piracy rates, using data for 102 nations for the year 2011. Our findings offer strong support for the assertion that intelligence is inversely related to the software piracy rates. After controlling for the potential effect of outlier nations in the sample, software piracy rate declines by about 5.3 percentage points if national IQ increases by 10 points.
    Keywords: software piracy; IQ; intelligence; cross-country; institutions; copyright
    JEL: K2
    Date: 2016

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