nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2016‒04‒30
five papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. An ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities’ Crosswalk for USPC and CPC Patent Classifications with an Application Towards Industrial Technology Composition By Nathan Goldschlag; Travis J. Lybbert; Nikolas J. Zolas
  2. The role of technological trajectories in catching-up-based development: An application to energy efficiency technologies By Zhong, Sheng; Verspagen, Bart
  3. Employee-Based Brand Equity: Why Ankara University, TÖMER Brand is So Strong? By Dilber Ulas; Arcan Tuzcu; Esra Satıcı
  4. The patenting performance of second-generation immigrants in Sweden: differentiated by parents’ region of origin By Zheng, Yannu
  5. On regional innovator networks as hubs for innovative ventures By Uwe Cantner; Tina Wolf

  1. By: Nathan Goldschlag; Travis J. Lybbert; Nikolas J. Zolas
    Abstract: Patents are a useful proxy for innovation, technological change, and diffusion. However, fully exploiting patent data for economic analyses requires patents be tied to measures of economic activity, which has proven to be difficult. Recently, Lybbert and Zolas (2014) have constructed an International Patent Classification (IPC) to industry classification crosswalk using an ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities’ approach. In this paper, we utilize a similar approach and apply it to new patent classification schemes, the U.S. Patent Classification (USPC) system and Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) system. The resulting USPC-Industry and CPC-Industry concordances link both U.S. and global patents to multiple vintages of the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS), International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), Harmonized System (HS) and Standard International Trade Classification (SITC). We then use the crosswalk to highlight changes to industrial technology composition over time. We find suggestive evidence of strong persistence in the association between technologies and industries over time.
    Date: 2016–03
  2. By: Zhong, Sheng (UNU-MERIT); Verspagen, Bart (UNU-MERIT & SBE, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We argue that the analysis level of a technological trajectory is very suitable to analyse the decisions of firms in latecomer countries with regard to the technological area that they should focus on. Technological trajectories are the main focal points along which technological innovation develops, and they are more detailed than the common sectors, like electronics of pharmaceuticals, that are used in the analysis of catching-up based growth. We present a collection of methods that has been proposed in the literature to identify technological trajectories. These methods use patent citation networks, and are applied to two separate fields in energy efficiency technologies. We identify the relevant technological trajectories, and analyse how the main countries active in these fields can be classified as either latecomer or incumbent countries. We then present a measure for how much patents from a particular country contribute to the main technological trajectories in the field, and to what extent they are derived from these trajectories. We use an explorative regression model to establish that latecomer countries tend to contribute to a lesser extent than incumbents to the main technological trajectories in the fields we investigate.
    Keywords: technological trajectories, patent citation networks, latecomer innovation strategy
    JEL: O31 O33 O47
    Date: 2016–03–29
  3. By: Dilber Ulas (Ankara University, Faculty of Political Sciences); Arcan Tuzcu (Ankara University, Faculty of Political Science); Esra Satıcı (Republic of Turkey, General Directorate of Highways)
    Abstract: Ankara University TÖMER (Ankara University Turkish and Foreign Languages Research and Application Center) has been established as “Turkish Education Center†in 1984 for the purpose of performing service on the issue of teaching foreign students a large number of languages, primarily the Turkish language. As from the date TÖMER has started its activities until today, numerous public and private qualified establishments wishing to benefit from the value carried by the name TÖMER, sought for using this name. Ankara University, is the pioneer establishment which is the creator of the name TÖMER and which contributed that name in gaining dignity and value. In order to protect this name Ankara University, for the registration of TÖMER brand name made an application to Turkish Patent Institute on 25.05.2010, the form of “Ankara University TÖMER 1984†has been registered on 19.07.2013 and the name TÖMER has been registered on 13.08.2013. With the completion of the registration process, the rights of usage of TÖMER brand name has been solely pertained to Ankara University. TÖMER has spreaded to countrywide with nine branches and one entity established abroad, continue their education and research activities. TÖMER gives Turkish courses in Ankara (Kızılay and YeniÅŸehir), Istanbul (Taksim and Kadıköy), İzmir, Antalya, Adana, Bursa and Samsun branches. Also TOMER provides contribution to foreign language teaching field in Turkey. The employees skills and knowledge which provide the competitive advantage for an organisation. The aim of this study is to understand how TÖMER brand is interpreted from the employee’s ideas, feelings, emotions in relation to brand experience. In order to investigate employee based brand equity, focus group has been conducted. For this reason the strengths and weaknesses of TÖMER revealed through SWOT analysis in focus groups using six branch of TÖMER. We analyzed data by grouping respondents’ answers, classified answers into categories and prepared a report. Thus, the tools enabling the elimination of the weaknesses for decision makers, and enabling the use of strengths more effectively as a competitive tool, could be developed.
    Keywords: employee based brand equity, brand loyalty, brand identity, SWOT, focus group.
    JEL: M31
  4. By: Zheng, Yannu (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: Children of immigrants inherit human capital attainment from their parents that impact on their innovative performance. Some of this stem from their migrant parents’ positive and negative selection traits, part from their physical or cognitive proximity of country of origin to the host society. In this paper, I examine how second-generation immigrants (with at least one foreign-born parent), taking into consideration their parents’ region of origin, perform in inventive activity compared with native Swedes (with two native-born parents) and how this is related to their parents’ background. The study is based on a new Swedish database of inventors, which matched with the entire population between 1985 and 2007. The results show that, in terms of probability of becoming an inventor and number of forward citations to their patents, second-generation immigrants with non-Nordic European backgrounds perform better than native Swedes. Their better performance is related to the positive selection of their foreign-born parents and a certain distance of proximity to Sweden. The study indicates that there is a trade-off effect between the selection and proximity of foreign-born parents on second-generation immigrants’ patenting performance, but that differs between groups. For second-generation immigrants with other Nordic backgrounds, their less well performance is mainly attributed to their lower education level, which is further related to their less positively selected parents. However, for second-generation immigrants with one native-born parent and one parent from another non-European country, their large distance of proximity to Sweden seems to impede their performance.
    Keywords: Native Swedes; Foreign-born; Innovation; Human capital; Selection
    JEL: J15 J24 N30 O31
    Date: 2016–04–08
  5. By: Uwe Cantner (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Tina Wolf (University of Southern Denmark, Odense)
    Abstract: At least since Schumpeter published his work 'The Theory of Economic Development' (1912), a wide body of literature has focused on the evolutionary process behind firm growth and survival. Recently a growing interest is devoted to the variable 'location' as a critical factor, shaping firm performance. However, less attention has been paid to the region-specific characteristics that may play a relevant role in determining the growth and survival of a firm. Some works see university-based knowledge spillovers as one such factor (Audretsch and Lehmann 2005, Cassia et al. 2009). This paper extends this approach to the regional innovator network, promoting region-specific knowledge spillovers. Two data bases are applied. First, patent data delivers the innovator network for Thuringia. The second data base contains firm specific information on innovative ventures founded in Thuringia in the period between 1990 and 2006. The results show that the firm's individual probability to be innovative and connected to the innovator network positively influences the chances of this firm to survive.
    Keywords: Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Networks, Inventor, Patents, Survival
    JEL: L26 D85 P25 O31
    Date: 2016–04–15

This nep-ipr issue is ©2016 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.