nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2016‒02‒29
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. IPR protection and optimal entry modes of multinationals By Banerjee, Tanmoyee; Biswas, Nilanjana
  2. Employer branding for SMEs: Attracting graduating students in IT industry By Komulainen, Ruey
  3. Drug patenting in India: looking back and looking forward By Bhaven N. Sampat; Kenneth C. Shadlen
  4. Measuring creativity: Learning from innovation measurement By Stéphane Lhuillery; Julio Raffo; Intan Hamdan-Livramento

  1. By: Banerjee, Tanmoyee; Biswas, Nilanjana
    Abstract: The present paper develops a model to analyze the relationship between modes of entry of a Multinational Corporation (MNC) in a vertically differentiated market in a Less Developed Country (LDC) to the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protection policy adopted by the LDC government. The MNC has two options of entry: fragment production structure and shift assembling unit to LDC, or shift entire production to LDC with full technology transfer. The MNC incurs investment to control the copying of the original product by a commercial pirate in the two modes of entry. The results show that the optimal anti-copying investment is inversely related with the IPR protection rate chosen by the LDC government. The government may or may not monitor in equilibrium. However, government monitoring may not result in complete deterrence of piracy. Further, the MNC shifts complete production to LDC with full technology transfer if the transport-cost of sending semi-finished product from developed country to LDC is above a critical level, otherwise a fragmented mode of entry takes place with assembly-line FDI in LDC.
    Keywords: assembly line FDI,FDI with technology transfer,piracy,IPR protection
    JEL: L11 O33 O34 O38
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Komulainen, Ruey
    Abstract: Employer Branding has been an emerging topic in HRM for less than two decades. The concept of Employer Branding is a popular recruitment strategy used by large companies or MNCs. However, researches on the effectiveness of Employer Brand-ing for SMEs are very limited. Thus, this research aims to study the role of Employer Branding in SMEs, especially IT SMEs in Finland. This research focused on the perspectives of graduating students, the prospective employees of SMEs, as the main research targets. The theoretical framework is developed using concepts of Marketing (Lievens and Highhouse (2003)) and Strategic HRM (Barney 1991) and how they are connected within Employer Branding. Quantitative survey is utilised and 181 good responses were collected. The empirical findings suggest that employer branding has positive influence on students' decision to apply for a job in SMEs but on the contrary, the correlation between instrumental and symbolic values of the employer branding to the attitude of the prospective student employees is weak. The study suggests that although Employer Branding is a widely used approach to attract prospective employees by large companies, this concept may not be as effective if applied by the SMEs in the Finnish IT industry.
    Keywords: IT SMEs,Employer Branding,graduating students
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Bhaven N. Sampat; Kenneth C. Shadlen
    JEL: L81
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Stéphane Lhuillery (ICN Business School & BETA-CNRS 7522, Nancy, France.); Julio Raffo (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.); Intan Hamdan-Livramento (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.)
    Abstract: There is a growing interest in broadening the measurement scope of innovation and considering “creative” activities, meaning that the usual indicators of innovation satisfy neither scholars nor policy makers. Conceptually, there is not much difference between innovative and creative activity: but to what extent are current measures that capture innovation relevant for creativity? Can the new measures for creativity benefit from the experience accumulated through R&D and innovation? Our article provides insights and lessons learned from using measures of innovative activities for scholars who are interested in capturing creative activities. We underscore the difficulties faced when measuring innovation and draw some parallels of these difficulties with the efforts undertaken to measure creativity.
    Keywords: innovation metrics; creativity measurement; patents; copyrights.
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2016–02

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