nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2015‒10‒04
five papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Foreign Direct Investment and Intellectual Property Protection in Developing Countries: Theory and Evidence By Michael A. Klein
  2. IPR-beachheads. Babcock & Wilcox's business and innovation strategies in Spain By Saiz, Patricio
  3. Invention and diffusion of water supply and water efficiency technologies: insights from a global patent datase By Declan Conway; Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Nick Johnstone; Ivan HaÅ¡ÄiÄ
  4. Labor share decline and intellectual property products capital By Koh, Dongya; Santaeulàlia-Llopis, Raül; Zheng, Yu
  5. Labor Share Decline and the Capitalization of Intellectual Property Products By Yu Zheng; Raul Santaeulalia; Dongya Koh

  1. By: Michael A. Klein (Indiana University)
    Abstract: This paper theoretically and empirically analyzes the interaction of intellectual property policy among developing countries. I extend existing North-South product cycle models where innovation, foreign direct investment (FDI), and imitation are endogenous to include multiple Southern countries, which together constitute a developing region. I assume that a Northern firm that has invested in a Southern country faces the threat of imitation from all Southern countries within the region. In this way, the level of FDI in each Southern country depends upon the protection of intellectual property throughout the region. The model predicts that a unilateral strengthening of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in a Southern country is relatively ineffective at attracting FDI inflows. However, a uniform strengthening of IPRs throughout the developing region, such as the TRIPS agreement required, successfully stimulates FDI into all countries in the region. Using panel data ! from 47 developing countries from 1970-2010, I test the predictions of the model empirically. I provide evidence that the response of FDI to strengthened IPRs in a particular developing country depends upon the level of protection in neighboring developing countries. I argue that this analysis suggests a powerful justification of the TRIPS agreement as a harmonization of IPRs among developing countries, which successfully stimulates FDI inflows into developing countries in a way that a unilateral policy reform could not.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, Foreign Direct Investment, Developing Countries, TRIPS
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Saiz, Patricio (Departamento de Análisis Económico: Teoría Económica e Historia Económica. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)
    Abstract: During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, American corporations began their multinational expansion to Europe through direct investments in the most-developed economies. Being increasingly aware of scientific and technological knowledge business value, they also began to develop early IPR international protection strategies in order to defend their intangible assets abroad. Before World War II, many of these multinationals had also reached lagging peripheral countries, resulting in a complex European network of subsidiaries and affiliates that has been scarcely studied. This paper delves into the Babcock & Wilcox entrepreneurial conglomerate – one of the most interesting case studies of early multinational expansion – to analyze how it arrived and developed in Spain, what its business and innovation strategies in that market were, and the role of patent management in that process. Our findings reveal that corporate interests in patent capture, control, and administration not only shifted research and innovation handling within firms but also led to quick learning on how to successfully use IPRs as business, legal, and organizational tools for international expansion.
    Keywords: Babcock & Wilcox, patents, foreign investments, Spain
    JEL: F23 N84 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2015–05
  3. By: Declan Conway; Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Nick Johnstone; Ivan HaÅ¡ÄiÄ
    Abstract: This paper identifies over 50 000 patents filed worldwide in various water-related technologies between 1990 and 2010, distinguishing between those related to availability (supply) and conservation (demand) technologies. Patenting activity is analysed – including inventive activity by country and technology, international diffusion of such water-related technologies, and international collaboration in technology development. Three results stand out from our analysis. First, although inventive activity in water-related technologies has been increasing over the last two decades, this growth has been disproportionately concentrated on supply-side technologies. Second, whilst 80% of water-related invention worldwide occurs in countries with low or moderate water scarcity, several countries with absolute or chronic water scarcity are relatively specialized in water efficiency technologies. Finally, although we observe a positive correlation between water scarcity and local filings of water patents, some countries with high water availability, in particular Switzerland or Norway, nevertheless appear as significant markets for water-efficiency technologies. This suggests that drivers other than local demand, like regulation and social and cultural factors, play a role in explaining the global flows of technologies. And finally, the extent to which innovation is “internationalised†shows some distinct patterns relative to those observed for innovation in technologies in general.
    Date: 2015–05
  4. By: Koh, Dongya; Santaeulàlia-Llopis, Raül; Zheng, Yu
    Abstract: We study the behavior of the US labor share over the past 65 years. We find that intellectual property products (IPP) capital entirely accounts for the observed decline of the US labor share, which otherwise is secularly constant for structures and equipment capital. The decline of the labor share reflects that the US is undergoing a transition to a more IPP capital-intensive economy. This result has essential implications for the US macroeconomic model.
    Keywords: Labor Share, Intellectual Property Products, Capital, 1999- and 2013-BEA Revisions
    JEL: E01 E22 E25
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Yu Zheng (City University of Hong Kong); Raul Santaeulalia (Washington University in St Louis); Dongya Koh (University of Arkansas)
    Abstract: We study the behavior of the US labor share over the past 65 years using new data from the post-2013 revision of the national income and product accounts and the fixed assets tables capitalizing intellectual property products (IPP). We find that IPP capital entirely explains the observed decline of the US labor share, which otherwise is secularly constant over the past 65 years for structures and equipment capital. The labor share decline simply reflects the fact that the US economy is undergoing a transition toward a larger IPP sector.
    Date: 2015

This nep-ipr issue is ©2015 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.