nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2015‒09‒18
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Gender Gap in Patenting Activities: Evidence from Iran By Mojgan Samandar Ali Eshtehardi; Seyed Kamran Bagheri
  2. Fresh Brain Power and Quality of Innovation in Cities: Evidence from the Japanese patent database By HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
  3. Global brands the new global badge of real estate service quality? By É. D'Arcy; S. Roulac
  4. Dead Poet's Property - How Does Copyright Influence Price? By Xing Li; Megan MacGarvie; Petra Moser

  1. By: Mojgan Samandar Ali Eshtehardi; Seyed Kamran Bagheri
    Abstract: This study investigated gender differences in innovative behaviour and technological change in Iran by using data on patents granted to Iranians in Iran and their demographic characteristics. Descriptive analysis was used to compare gender involvement and cooperation in patent activities. In addition, an econometric analysis was employed to investigate the statistical significance of the gender differences. The results showed that although females have participated much less than males, the percentage of female inventors has an upward trend over the study period; that might be mainly due to higher womenùs propensity to engage in team-collaboration that has increased over time. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the probability of female involvement in innovative activities was significantly higher when a state-run company or university was involved while it was lower in the case of private institutions involvement. Compared to other technological sectors, in IPC section D (TEXTILES; PAPER) there was a higher male inter-gender collaboration in favour of significantly higher female participation and contribution. Moreover, after section D, in IPC section A (HUMAN NECESSITIES) the probability of female presence as patentees was higher compared to other sectors. Moreover, unequal geographical distribution among provinces was detected. Potential factors contributing to this disparity remain an open question for further studies.
    Keywords: Gender gap, Patent, Iran, Technological change
    Date: 2015–05–09
  2. By: HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether freshness of knowledge increases the quality of innovation by using the Japanese patent database. Agglomeration is generally believed to foster the creation of new knowledge through knowledge spillover, such as active face-to-face communication; however, expansion of common knowledge within research communities may discourage high-quality innovation. Taking this into consideration, we attempt to examine the turnover effects of knowledge workers across cities by looking at the interregional migration of university graduates. We find that the quality of innovation as measured by the number of patent citations tends to be higher in cities with bigger migration flows of university graduates. More importantly, we find that metabolizing agglomeration plays an important role for high-quality innovative activities.
    Date: 2015–09
  3. By: É. D'Arcy; S. Roulac
    Abstract: This paper examines the strategic implications for the future of real estate services (RES) of the creation of global real estate service brands as a result of a long-standing process of internationalisation in this sector. This process has had two distinct phases; an initial period of consolidation from 1997 which resulted in the evolution of embryonic global service delivery platforms and a second phase of consolidation post the global financial crises where the creation of truly global brands was a key driving force. The analysis examines how a strong brand image has created new intangible assets for the sectors principal global delivery platforms and thus has altered the competitive landscape in the sector on a number of levels. It also considers brand image as a proxy for service quality and reputation and how branding in the sector has displaced the role of professional bodies and affiliations as badges of service quality. It concludes with an assessment of the prospects for further consolidation in the sector creating fewer but potentially stronger global brands.
    Keywords: Global Brands; Internationalisation; Real Estate Services
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2015–07–01
  4. By: Xing Li; Megan MacGarvie; Petra Moser
    Abstract: This article exploits a differential increase in copyright under the UK Copyright Act of 1814 - in favor of books by dead authors – to examine the influence of longer copyrights on price. Difference-in-differences analyses, which compare changes in the price of books by dead and living authors, indicate a substantial increase in price in response to an extension in copyright length. By comparison, placebo regressions for books by dead authors that did not benefit from the extension indicate no differential increase. Historical evidence suggests that longer copyrights increase price by improving publishers’ ability to practice intertemporal price discrimination.
    JEL: K00 N33 O3
    Date: 2015–09

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