nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2015‒07‒04
five papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. The Impact of Software Piracy on Inclusive Human Development: Evidence from Africa By Asongu, Simplice; Andrés, Antonio R.
  2. Patent Boxes Design, Patents Location and Local R&D By Annette Alstadsæter; Salvador Barrios; Gaëtan Nicodème; Agnieszka Maria Skonieczna; Antonio Vezzani
  3. The capability of the EU R&D Scoreboard companies to develop Advanced Manufacturing Technologies. An assessment based on patent analysis By Petros Gkotsis
  4. Measuring environmental innovation using patent data By Ivan Haščič; Mauro Migotto
  5. Assessing Customer Loyalty: A Literature Review By Moisescu, Ovidiu-Ioan

  1. By: Asongu, Simplice; Andrés, Antonio R.
    Abstract: This paper examines two dimensions of the software piracy-development nexus to complement existing formal literature. It empirically assesses the incidence of piracy on the Human Development Index (HDI) and its constituents and then the instrumentality of Intellectual Property Right (IPR) treaties (laws) in the linkages. An instrumental variable or Two-stage least squares is applied on panel of 11 African countries with data for the period 2000-2010. Three main findings are established: (1) software piracy has a negative incidence on inequality adjusted human development; (2) the unappealing effect of piracy on the HDI is fuelled by per capita economic prosperity and life expectancy components of human emancipation; (3) software piracy increases literacy. Two major policy implications have been retained from the findings. Firstly, adherence to international IPRs protection treaties (laws) may not impede per capita economic prosperity and could improve life-expectancy. Secondly, adoption of tight IPRs regimes may negatively affect human development by diminishing the literacy rate and restricting diffusion of knowledge.
    Keywords: Software piracy; Human development; Intellectual property rights; Panel data, Instrumental variables.
    JEL: K42 O34 O38 O47 O57
    Date: 2014–12–03
  2. By: Annette Alstadsæter (University of Oslo); Salvador Barrios (European Commission – Joint Research Center); Gaëtan Nicodème (European Commission); Agnieszka Maria Skonieczna (European Commission); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission – Joint Research Center)
    Abstract: Patent boxes have been heavily debated for their role in corporate tax competition.This paper uses firm-level data for the period 2000-2011 for the top 2,000 corporate R&D investors worldwide to consider the determinants of patent registration across a large sample of countries. Importantly, we disentangle the effects of corporate income taxation from the tax advantage of patent boxes. We also exploit a new and original dataset on patent box features such as the conditionality on performing research in the country and their scope. We find that patent boxes have a strong effect on attracting patents mostly due to their favourable tax treatment, especially so for high quality patents. Patent boxes with a large scope in terms of tax base definition have also stronger effects on the location of patents. The size of the tax advantage offered through patent box regimes are found to deter local innovative activities while R&D development conditions tend to attenuate this adverse effect. Our simulations show that on average countries imposing such development conditions tend to grant a tax advantage which is slightly larger than optimal from a local R&D impact perspective.
    Keywords: Corporate taxation, patent boxes, location, patents, R&D, nexus approach
    JEL: F21 F23 H25 H73 O31 O34
    Date: 2015–06
  3. By: Petros Gkotsis (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: In this report the main results of the study performed in the context of the Advanced Manufacturing for Competitiveness Project are presented. This project aims at developing and testing a methodology based on patent analysis to assess the capacity of the EU R&D Scoreboard companies to develop advanced manufacturing and key enabling technologies which are expected to have a major impact on the productivity, the efficiency, the profitability and the employment in major industrial sectors. The companies listed in the R&D Scoreboard hold a dominant position in KETs and AMT filings with about 61% of total KETs filings and 57% of total AMT filings in 2011. European companies hold almost 50% of the AMT related patent filings and about 50% of these are from Germany headquartered companies. Japanese based companies are responsible for 27% of the AMT filings worldwide and the US for about 24% of all transnational AMT patents. In KETs Japanese companies are dominating the scene, followed by Europe and the USA. Developing and patenting AMT and KETs related technologies seems to become more expensive over the time period under study as the decrease in the average patent intensity since 2004 shows. Larger firms have lower patent intensities than smaller ones and the patent intensity is higher in industry than in the service sector. European firms have the highest patent intensities followed by North American, Asian and companies from the rest of the world. R&D expenditures and patent filings are significantly positively correlated to the number of employees. This correlation is also observed in the case of firms who file AMT patents, larger firms are thus filing more AMT related patents compared to smaller ones. With regard to employment growth, however, we find no significant effect of KETs or AMT filings. The largest shares of KETs related filings are found in the Electronic & Electrical Equipment and Chemicals sectors. Firms in the Electronic & Electrical Equipment sector are also responsible for the largest shares of filings in AMT. Large shares, however, can also be found in the Industrial Engineering sector followed by the Automobiles & Parts and General Industrials sectors.
    Keywords: manufacturing, patent
    Date: 2015–05
  4. By: Ivan Haščič; Mauro Migotto
    Abstract: This paper refines indicators to measure innovation in environment-related technologies, drawing on recent methodological advances that allow a more accurate assessment of environment-related innovation in a broader range of countries and covering a greater variety of the relevant technologies. Three indicators are discussed in the paper: an indicator of technology development (a measure of inventive activity) in over 80 specific environmental technologies; an indicator of international collaboration in technology development (a measure of co-invention); and an indicator of technology diffusion (a measure of market protection). These indicators provide a range of tools for assessing innovative performance in country and policy studies. The indicators are based on patent data because they have a number of attractive properties compared to other alternatives: they are widely available, quantitative, commensurable, output-oriented and capable of being disaggregated – an important advantage when analysing environmental technologies. At the same time, not all innovations or inventions are patented, and measuring the number of patents by itself does not provide an indication of their relative importance and impact. Techniques have been developed to overcome these limitations, yet it is important to carefully interpret patent-based indicators.
    Keywords: innovation, indicators, environmental technologies
    JEL: O3 O31 O34 O38 Q2 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2015–06–26
  5. By: Moisescu, Ovidiu-Ioan
    Abstract: In the contemporary market context, characterized by increasing competition and a rapidly changing marketing environment, customer loyalty has become an extremely valuable business intangible asset, being essential for any business strategy. Moreover, brand loyalty, as a constituent of brand equity, has been intensively researched as a key issue in the marketing literature of the last decades. The current paper is part of a larger study directed at analyzing the impact of perceived CSR on customer loyalty. Considering this larger study’s purpose, it is important that, before anything else, the theories and methodologies related to assessing perceived CSR and, respectively, customer loyalty be reviewed. This paper focuses on customer loyalty, by reviewing some of the most relevant scientific approaches regarding the methodologies that can be applied when customer loyalty must be assessed.
    Keywords: customer; brand; loyalty; assessment; trust; commitment
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2014–12

This nep-ipr issue is ©2015 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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