nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2015‒06‒27
nine papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Appropriability Mechanisms, Innovation and Productivity:Evidence from the UK By Hall, Bronwyn H.; Sena, Vania
  2. Infringement of Intellectual Property in Innovation Partnerships By Schubert, Torben
  3. The Use of Patent Statistics for International Comparisons and Analysis of Narrow Technological Fields By Ivan Haščič; Jérôme Silva; Nick Johnstone
  4. Licensing Innovations: The Case of the Inside Patent Holder By Fan, Cuihong; Jun, Byoung Heon; Wolfstetter, Elmar G.
  7. Towards an employer brand - An evidence-based approach to develop an employer brand: A case study of a Berlin-based business incubator in the online and mobile gaming industry By Fischer, Ingo; Kieler, Julia
  8. Examining the Relationship between Risk Aversion and Behavioral Loyalty in the presence of Brand Affects and Attitudinal Loyalty as mediator: Evidence from Emerging Market By Muhammad Irfan Tariq
  9. Fashion Marketing in Social Media: Using Instagram for Fashion Branding By dilek çukul

  1. By: Hall, Bronwyn H. (University of California at Berkeley and University of Maastricht; NBER, IFS London, and NIESR); Sena, Vania (Essex Business School, University of Essex)
    Abstract: We use an extended version of the wellestablished Crepon, Duguet and Mairesse model (1998) to model the relationship between appropriability mechanisms, innovation and firmlevel productivity. We enrich this model in several ways. First, we consider different types of innovation spending and study the differences in estimates when innovation spending (rather than R&D spending) is used to predict innovation in the CDM model. Second, we assume that a firm simultaneously innovates and chooses among different appropriability methods (formal or informal) to protect the innovation. Finally, in the third stage, we estimate the impact of the innovation output conditional on the choice of appropriability mechanisms on firms’ productivity. We find that firms that innovate and rate formal methods for the protection of Intellectual Property (IP) highly are more productive than other firms, but that the same does not hold in the case of informal methods for the protection of a firm’s IP, except possibly for large firms as supposed to SMEs. We also find that this result is strongest for firms in the services, trade, and utility sectors, and negative in the manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: productivity; innovation; intellectual property; appropriability; patents; CDM
    JEL: L25 O30 O34
    Date: 2015–06–18
  2. By: Schubert, Torben (CIRCLE, Lund University & Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe, Germany)
    Abstract: Using data from the German Community Innovation Survey (CIS) from 2008 we analyze whether innovation partnering increases the risk of experiencing infringement of intellectual property (IP). The results show that depending on types of IP innovation partnerships increase the risk of infringement by up to 37% compared to the average risk in the sample. The results suggest that this massive increase can be reduced by intellectual property rights and contracts to govern the partnerships. Yet we show that formal protection mechanisms do not eliminate the sources of opportunistic infringement, since that infringement in innovation partnerships more commonly relates to the infringement of formally unprotected intellectual property, such as tacit knowledge and know-how.
    Keywords: infringement; intellectual property; innovation; partnerships; alliances; protection
    JEL: O32 O34
    Date: 2015–06–21
  3. By: Ivan Haščič; Jérôme Silva; Nick Johnstone
    Abstract: Patent data provide an increasingly used means to analyse innovation performance worldwide including in countries with incomplete data coverage, such as some developing countries. This paper discusses the specific issues associated with using patent data for measuring and analysing innovation in narrow technological fields, such as many environment-related technologies. To improve cross-country comparability of patent statistics, the paper advocates the use of indicators based on patent family size because they are more flexible and can be adapted to various applications. The paper also examines certain idiosyncratic characteristics of patent databases and proposes approaches to mitigate potential biases in empirical cross-country analyses. While doing so is particularly important for analyses of narrow technological fields such as many environment- and climate-related technologies, some of these issues are relevant for patent analysis more broadly.
    Keywords: innovation, indicators, environmental technologies
    JEL: O3 O31 O34 Q2 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2015–06–24
  4. By: Fan, Cuihong; Jun, Byoung Heon; Wolfstetter, Elmar G.
    Abstract: The present paper reconsiders the inside innovators’ licensing problem under incomplete information. Employing an optimal mechanism design approach, we show that, contrary to what is claimed in the literature, the optimal mechanism may prescribe fixed fees, royalty rates lower than the cost reduction, and even negative royalty rates.
    Keywords: Innovation; licensing; industrial organization.
    JEL: D21 D43 D44 D45
    Date: 2015–05–21
  5. By: Sevgi Ay Öztürk (Anadolu University); Fatma Zeynep Özata (Anadolu University); Feyza A (Anadolu University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences)
    Abstract: Foreign branding as a product naming strategy is very popular. (Batra et. all 2000; Ling 2008). There is an emerging stream of research which empirically examines the effect of foreign branding on consumers’ product evaluations and attitudes. (Li, Murray 2001). However how the foreign brand names effect brand personality is not studied. A brand personality is “a set of human characteristics associated with a brand” (Aaker 1997). Favorable brand personality can enhance brand attitudes, consumer-brand relationships and purchase intentions (Freling, Crosno, Henard 2011). Therefore, studying the effect of foreign brand names on brand personality will contribute to the relevant literature. In this research we have made an attempt to analyze the effect of foreign brand naming on brand personality, attitudes and purchase intention. As a foreign brand name we have chosen English and English sounded words. The desire of consumers for westernization in developing countries (Stanlaw 1987) effected this decision. English, serving as the language of modernity, progress and globalization (Piller 2003) associates with a more urban, cosmopolitan, and upper class way of life and increases the prestige associated with a product (Friedrich 2002; Griffin, 1997; Haarmann 1989). Products with a foreign brand name will be evaluated as having a foreign country origin and improves the brands’ desirability for symbolic, status and enhancing reasons in addition to suggesting overall quality for the developing country’ consumers (Batra 2000) So we hypothesized that; use of English and English sounded brands will differentiate the perception of brand personality, will create more favorable attitude and increase product purchase intentions. We have chosen blue jean and café as products for analysis because of the prevalence of foreign brand names on both categories. Three group of participants were shown a blue jean image created by an advertisement agency for the purposes of this research but the brand names appeared on the blue jean image were different for each group as; Turkish, English and English sounded. Since the consumer may perceive brand personality differently depending on their culture (Lee, Kang 2013 ) we used the scale developed for Turkish consumers (Aksoy, Özsomer 2007) to measure brand personality. The same study is replicated for cafe. For the blue jean product significant differences were found between the Turkish and English/English sounded brands in terms of brand personality perception, attitudes and intention to purchase. For the café category use of local or English brand didn’t make difference on purchase intention.
    Keywords: Foreign branding, Brand personality, Brand names, Brand attitudes, Purchase intention
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2015–06
  6. By: Chihcheng Lo (Department of Industrial Technology and Education, National Changhua University of Education)
    Abstract: This paper examines the evolution and stages of Intellectual property rights (hereafter as IPRs) regimes since 1980s by investigating historical and quantitative data of IPRs. We explore how policy network of IPRs responds the development of industries, the evolution of innovation systems, and international IPRs harmonization and in turn affect the profile of IPRs policy. Theoretically, we will identify the determination of institutional voids and ask how Taiwanese industries face the issues related to appropriability regimes and in turn affect the development of innovation system and IPRs policy. The perspective of policy network is used to explore the whole structure of IPRs policy making and justify the role of state and industries in the relative evolution process. We used different types of IPRs data and historical archives to examine how the evolution of IPRs are established to build market, seek innovation chance, to network resources, and finally legitimately ensure approrpriability amongst industries from closed to open innovation regime reach out beyond institutional voids. To sum up, this study regards IPRs regime as a striking case study to demonstrate the effect of institutional voids on the governance choice of policy network. Empirical results will demonstrate that the innovation activity processed by industries is increased only when the appropriability strategies are resumed to catch up with new market created by institutional voids. This would allow us to better assess the global optimality of the array of international IPRs harmonisation currently in use around the world and their interplay. Finally this outcome of this paper have implications of IPRs policy for policy makers in the developing countries.
    Keywords: Appropriability regime; policy network; institutional voids;Intellectual property right harmonization
    JEL: F42 H11
    Date: 2015–06
  7. By: Fischer, Ingo; Kieler, Julia
    Abstract: This paper analyses and lays the ground for the development of an employer brand that is designed to help a Berlin-based business incubator to attract and retain tech talent. The company case exemplifies which elements are necessary to develop an employer brand and how distinguishing characteristics of an employer brand may look like. It gets clear that an one-size-fits-all approach is not effective.
    Abstract: Diese Studie analysiert und konzipiert die Entwicklung einer Arbeitgebermarke als Instrument zur Rekrutierung und Bindung von Softwareentwicklern für einen Berliner Inkubator in der Online- und Mobile-Gaming Branche. Die Studie macht anhand eines Praxisfalls deutlich, welche Elemente benötigt werden, um zu einer Arbeitgebermarke zu gelangen, wie diese Elemente evidenzbasiert entwickelt werden können und welche differenzierenden Kernelemente eine Arbeitgebermarke umfassen kann. Es wird deutlich, dass eine One-size-fits-all Lösung nicht zielführend wäre.
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Muhammad Irfan Tariq (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Vehari Campus)
    Abstract: The Purpose of this study was to determine the effect of risk aversion on behavioral loyalty in telecom sector of Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents using different mobile phone brands on five-point likert scale. Overall 300 filled useable questionnaires were used for data analysis. Data was analyzed through SPSS 21 and AMOS 18. The outcome of various path analyses such as confirmatory factor analysis and Structural Equation Modeling suggest that Risk aversion has direct and positive effect Attitudinal Loyalty; while it has no direct effect on behavioral loyalty Although Risk Aversion has indirect effect on behavioral loyalty through brand affects and attitudinal loyalty as mediator. Different factors are investigated and studies in this study which connects risk aversion with behavioral loyalty. As a result research endeavors to fill the gap about the lack of academic literature on risk aversion and behavioral loyalty relationship in Pakistani context. The results suggest that practitioners may need to be responsive of Loyalty programs as a key indicator in strengthening customer relationship management. The study proposed theoretical implications for Risk aversion and customer loyalty construct. The study will further help practitioners as well as academicians to formulize novel theories to understand consumers’ behavior.
    Keywords: Risk aversion, behavioral loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, brand affects, customer relationship management
    Date: 2015–06
  9. By: dilek çukul (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: Social media has become an important tool for the business of marketers. Increasing exposure and traffics are the main two benefits of social media marketing. Most marketers are using social media to develop loyal fans and gain marketplace intelligence. Marketers reported increased benefits across all categories since 2013 and trademarks increased the number of loyal fans and sales [1]. Therefore, 2013 was a significant year for social media. Feeling the power of Instagram may be one of the most interesting cases. Social media is an effective key for fashion brands as they allow them to communicate directly with their consumers, promote various events and initiatives, and build brand awareness. As the increasing use of visual info graphic and marketing practices in social media, trademarks has begun to show more interest in Instagram. There is also no language barriers in Instagram and provides visuals which are very crucial for fashion industry. The purpose of this study is to determine and contrast the content sharing types of 10 well-known fashion brands (5 Turkish brands and 5 international brands), and to explain their attitude in Instagram. Hence, the content of Instagram accounts of those brands were examined according to post type (photo/video), content type (9 elements), number of likes and reviews, photo type (amateur/professional), shooting place (studio/outdoor/shops/etc.), and brand comments on their posts. This study provides a snapshot of how fashion brands utilize Instagram in their efforts of marketing.
    Keywords: Social media, instagram, social media marketing, fashion brand
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2015–06

This nep-ipr issue is ©2015 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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