nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2015‒05‒16
twelve papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents By Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Ju-Ting Tang
  3. The Legal Protection of GIs in TTIP: Is There an Alternative to the CETA Outcome By O'Connor, Bernard
  4. GIs, Food Safety, and Sustainability Challenges and Opportunities By Wirth, David
  5. When the Brand Refers to Me, I Prefer Going Green By Mattavelli, Simone; Perugini, Marco; Richetin, Juliette
  7. Geographical Indications in Progress…Do Latin America Countries Represent a Third Path of Development? By Sidali, Katia Laura; Granja, Nelson; Monteros, Alvaro; Wilson, Usiña
  8. Effectiveness of quality signalling: brand versus certification By Ding, Yulian; Veeman, Michele
  9. Branding cities as tourist destinations; the case of Slavonski Brod, Croatia By Biljana Lončarić
  10. The Increase of Competitiveness of Serbian Products in International Trade Through a System of Protecting Geographical Indications By Vasić, Aleksandra
  11. PDO's and PGI's Scope of Protection - The Polish Case of Wine Yeast By Wrobel, Agata; Lubasz, Dominik
  12. National Brands versus Private Labels versus Niche Products: a graphical representation of consumers' perception By Gaviglio, Anna; Demartini, Eugenio; Pirani, Alberto; Marescotti, Maria Elena; Bertocchi, Mattia

  1. By: Chia-Lin Chang (National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan); Michael McAleer (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan; Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Complutense University of Madrid, Spain); Ju-Ting Tang (National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan)
    Abstract: With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibly invested in international cooperation, learning, innovation, technology diffusion and knowledge. In this paper, we use a panel data set of 40 countries from 1981 to 2008 and a negative binomial model, using a novel set of cross-border patents and joint patents as proxy variables for technology diffusion, in order to investigate such diffusion. The empirical results suggest that, if it is desired to shift from foreign to domestic technology, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for business enterprises and higher education, exports and technology. If the focus is on increasing bilateral technology diffusion, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for higher education and technology.
    Keywords: International Technology Diffusion; Exports; Imports; Joint Patent; Cross-border Patent; R&D; Negative Binomial Panel Data
    JEL: F14 F21 O30 O57
  2. By: Elif Akagun Ergin (Cankaya University); Nilay Sahin (Cankaya University)
    Abstract: Brand extensions refer to use an established brand name in new product or product categories and are extensively applied as a marketing strategy. Brand extension success factors vary according to cultures. Consumers’ attitude towards extensions is modified on the basis of their cognitional reactions and relations between the parent brand and extended product and/or product categories. This study aims at conducting an exploratory research and revealing the relationship between the parent brand and the extended brand. More specifically, the impact of parent brand loyalty on the extension is explored. Therefore, the main objective is to evaluate the attitudes of consumers towards brand extensions through brand loyalty. The study analyzes consumers’ attitudes towards brand extensions specifically in food and textile industries. This is in particular to portray that consumers respond positively to brand extensions in various industries due to different motivations.During the methodology application process, in-depth interviews were carried out with 16 participants who were selected from employees working for public and private institutions in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The interviews were conducted in two stages. During the first stage, the interviews lasted approximately 45 minutes and consisted of open-ended questions about participants’ brand choices, reasons for choosing the brands they use. The goal was to evaluate their brand loyalty levels. In addition, the participants were provided with the definition of brand extension and their reactions towards extension were noted. In the second stage, the participants were asked to evaluate their attitudes towards brand extensions in food and textile industries along with the factors that have impact on their evaluations. The participants were specifically observed in terms of their approach to brand extensions where the extension was in a totally different sector from the parent brand. The results indicate that brand awareness has a significant impact on brand extensions with regards to quality and trust. However, this impact is at the highest level when the extension is within the same sector with the parent brand. Whenever the extension is in a different sector, consumers not only have negative attitudes toward that extension but also become suspicious about the parent brand. Thus, quality and trust are pivotal factors influencing consumers’ positive attitudes towards brand extensions.
    Keywords: brand extensions, consumers’ attitudes, quality, brand, trust.
    JEL: M30 M31 M39
  3. By: O'Connor, Bernard
    Abstract: The protection of European Geographical Indications has been a point of conflict between the European Union and the United States for many years. The essential difference is in how GIs should be protected, if they should be protected at all. The US considers that they can be protected as a sub-set of Trade Marks. The EU considers that GIs are a distinct form of Intellectual Property requiring a distinct system of law. The practical issue today is the extent to which EU GIs can be protected in the US. The US seeks to limit the availability of protection on the basis that many EU food names are descriptive of types of foods rather than names specifically linked to a particular origin. For the EU, protection of GIs is a reflection of the EU’s vast food culture and goes hand in hand with the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy. Protection of EU GIs in third countries is a quid pro quo for abandoning the management of production and protection of the EU market. It has not been possible to come to agreement in the WTO Doha Round. Can agreement be found in TTIP? This paper suggests that the solution must be rooted in intellectual property law rather than in agricultural policy
    Keywords: TTIP, GIs, CETA, Legal, Agricultural and Food Policy, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy, Public Economics,
    Date: 2015–04
  4. By: Wirth, David
    Abstract: This paper examines the legal and policy relationship reinforcement amongst international standards for GIs, food safety standards, and other claims of quality or safety. The paper addresses those relationships within the context of international trade agreements protecting GIs, such as the 1994 TRIPS Agreement, the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), and the chapter on intellectual property and geographical indications in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) currently under negotiation. Trade agreements also discipline food safety measures and non-GI indications of quality or safety such as “organic” and “GMO-free.” Accordingly, the paper also considers the extent to which international trade agreements such as the WTO Agreements on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards (SPS Agreement) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) might interact with the analysis.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–04
  5. By: Mattavelli, Simone; Perugini, Marco; Richetin, Juliette
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics,
    Date: 2015–03
  6. By: Zeynep Birce Ergor (Cankaya University); Elif Akagun Ergin (Cankaya University)
    Abstract: There is an increasing use of social media on a global scale and it has been causing organizations to restructure and adjust their marketing activities. The goal of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage makes it crucial to adapt to the ever-changing trends in the market. Social media contributes to this goal since it has a considerable impact on constructing the brand value for organizations. The social networks helps organizations to enhance the development of strong brands not only through promoting their products and services but also providing them the platform to build strong and reliable relationships with their customers. This paper aims to investigate the role of social media on brands by examining the active role of banks on social networks. For this purpose, the “tweets” of the five Turkish banks with the highest brand values in the banking sector have been analyzed by content analysis method. The sample banks are drawn from the Banker’s annual Top 500 Banking Brands 2014 report. Brand value is used as the selection criteria of the sample banks and “Twitter” social network is considered as the primary social media outlet. The data is composed of the “tweets” and gathered from the official Twitter accounts of the banks having the highest brand values in Turkey. The “retweets” and the texts sent by other Twitter users are excluded. The findings indicate that, the sample banks are active users of social media. They do not only use Twitter but also other social networks in addition to their official websites. In addition, the paper displays specific purposes the banks have for using social media sites.
    Keywords: Social media, Twitter, Turkish Banking Sector, Brand Value, Content Analysis
    JEL: M00 M31 M30
  7. By: Sidali, Katia Laura; Granja, Nelson; Monteros, Alvaro; Wilson, Usiña
    Abstract: Geographical Indications (GIs) are names of regions, specific places or, in exceptional cases, countries, used to describe an agricultural product or a foodstuff (EC 510/2006, Art. 2). They have received much attention in the last years not only at the European level, where they stem from, but also at different international forums such as at the World International Organization (WTO). Being a particular form of intellectual property these certifications schemes could have the potential to be applied also to non-agrifood commodities or even services. Furthermore, due to the severe menace of biodiversity loss caused by globalization, GIs could serve as a tool to promote biodiversity if linked to plant varieties menaced of disappearance or rare animal species. However, international negotiations to achieve these purposes are long and results are minimal (REF). For these reasons the purpose of this paper is to introduce a new stance to the topic of GIs borrowing from the Latin-american implementation of GIs which in some aspects can be considered quite innovative. In the remainder of this paper the authors will present a short description of GIs as they are discussed at different international forums. Further, the innovative implementation of GIs in Latin America will be illustrated by means of three examples: the Sombrero of Montecristi, the GIs of a Brasilian technology and science park (TSP) and the cacao Arriba. Eventually, some conclusions will be presented.
    Keywords: Geographical Indications, WTO, TRIPS, Local Culture, Biodiversity, Latin America, Niche Products, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–04
  8. By: Ding, Yulian; Veeman, Michele
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Production Economics,
    Date: 2015–03
  9. By: Biljana Lončarić (Tourist Bord of Slavonski Brod, Croatia)
    Abstract: The research problem – Despite the fact that the visual identity of Slavonski Brod is created in early 2011th, it is still not sufficiently recognizable among tourists. Research objectives – It is necessary to determine activities that have to be undertaken as components of an action plan for tourism development of Slavonski Brod within the branding strategy to make the city more recognizable in tourist markets. The purpose – The purpose of this paper is to support the thesis that tourist destinations branding is lengthy process that includes an evaluation of the image by the visitors, but also by the target market groups we aim at. Design – The special focus is given to review the issue of the process of determing the logo, slogan and visual identity of a destination. Methodology – The methodology of the research includes the examples of good practice, analysis of the existing strategic documents in the segment of tourist destinations branding and activities on branding Croatia and Slavonia, as well as Slavonski Brod as a tourist destination. It also includes primary research conducted by the Tourist Board of Slavonski Brod among the tourists and the locals, as well as the Tourist Board web visitors, city public institutions and tourism and hospitality sector. Approach – Synthesizing distinguishing elements on which one should build a long-term market recognition of Slavonski Brod, the Zagreb Institute for Tourism, during the development of tourism master plan, found that the tourist image of Slavonski Brod should be based on history and culture, friendly people, a characteristic atmosphere and natural features space. That was the starting point for the research of the Tourist Board of Slavonski Brod. Findings – In the past activities on the branding of the city of Slavonski Brod neither tourists nor the local population were dominated by negative associations. However, studies that were conducted among the various target groups during January and February 2014th showed that the practical application of the new visual identity of Slavonski Brod in tourism and hospitality sector was more or less absent, what is the reason why the city brand was not recognized by a sufficient number of tourists as well as users of services in this sector which resides outside the city. The originality – The paper defines the steps that should be undertaken to create the new logo and slogan in a tourist destination. The model of branding of the city of Slavonski Brod can be applied in surroundings.
    Keywords: Slavonski Brod, tourist brand, slogan, logo, visual identity, tourist destination
    JEL: L83
  10. By: Vasić, Aleksandra
    Abstract: This Article analyzes harmonization of regulations adopted by the Republic of Serbia in the field of protecting geographical indications with the EU relevant regulations. Full harmonization with the acquis communautaire should create a possibility for Serbia to sell its products on the World Market and to protect these brands legally. Serbia is rich in natural, agricultural and food products produced in undeveloped rural areas. However, unlike European producers, producers in Serbia have not sufficiently recognized their economic interest to protect their products with geographical indications and are less likely to use this type of protection. Therefore, we believe that an adequate system of protection harmonized with European and International Standards represents a significant economic potential for developing rural areas and can provide competitiveness of Serbian products labeled with geographical indications both on European and International Market.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–04
  11. By: Wrobel, Agata; Lubasz, Dominik
    Abstract: Bordeaux, Malaga, Tokay, Madeira and Portwein have become the heroes of another dispute concerning geographical indications. Wine yeasts’ manufacturers have been accused of infringing the reputation of registered designations of origin by marking their products with those well-known names. The case seems obvious, but in-depth analysis raises the question of what is the legitimate scope of protection of designations of origin and geographical indications? The Authors will aim at proving that the scope of the protection of geographical indications should not cause their total exclusion from public domain
    Keywords: Wine, Geographical Indications, Reputation, Comparable Product, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2015–04
  12. By: Gaviglio, Anna; Demartini, Eugenio; Pirani, Alberto; Marescotti, Maria Elena; Bertocchi, Mattia
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2015–03

This nep-ipr issue is ©2015 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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