nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2015‒05‒02
six papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. PATSTAT revisited By Tarasconi, Gianluca; Kang, Byeongwoo
  2. The Climate Policy Hold-Up: Green Technologies,Intellectual Property Rights, and the Abatement Incentives of International Agreements By Goeschl, Timo; Perino, Grischa
  3. Innovation and Collaboration Patterns between Research Establishments By INOUE Hiroyasu; NAKAJIMA Kentaro; SAITO Yukiko
  4. World Corporate Top R&D Investors: Innovation and IP bundles By Hélène Dernis; Mafini Dosso; Fernando Hervas; Valentine Millot; Mariagrazia Squicciarini; Antonio Vezzani
  5. Intellectual Property Protection in India and Implications for Health Innovation: Emerging Perspectives By Basant, Rakesh; Srinivasan, Shuchi
  6. The European Pharmaceutical Industry in a Global Economy: what drives EU exports of pharmaceuticals? By Ludivine Blanc

  1. By: Tarasconi, Gianluca; Kang, Byeongwoo
    Abstract: This study provides a comprehensive summary of and guidance for using the EPO Worldwide Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT), one of the most widely used patent databases for researchers. We highlight the three most important issues that PATSTAT users must consider when performing patent data analyses and suggest ways to deal with those issues. Although PATSTAT is chosen in this study, the issues that we discuss are also applicable to other patent databases.
    Keywords: Developed countries, Europe, Patents, Intellectual property, Information technology, Information retrieval, PATSTAT, Patent data analysis, Innovation studies
    JEL: O39 Y20 Z00
    Date: 2015–04
  2. By: Goeschl, Timo; Perino, Grischa
    Abstract: The success of global climate policies over the coming decades depends on the diffusion of 'green' technologies. This requires that international environmental agreements (IEAs) and trade-related intellectual property rights (TRIPs) interact productively.Using a simple and tractable model, we highlight the strategic reduction in abatement commitments on account of a hold-up effect. In anticipation of rent extraction by the innovator signatories might abate less than non-signatories turning the IEA 'brown'. Self-enforcing IEAs have fewer signatories and diffusion can reduce global abatement under TRIPs. Countries hosting patent holders extract rents from TRIPs, but may be better off without them.
    Keywords: International climate policy; diffusion of innovations; intellectual property rights; hold-up problem.
    Date: 2015–04–20
  3. By: INOUE Hiroyasu; NAKAJIMA Kentaro; SAITO Yukiko
    Abstract: This study empirically investigates the determinants of the productivity of knowledge creation by collaboration. By using the Japanese patent database, we extracted establishment-level patent co-invention information and found the following results. First, we find an inverse U-shaped pattern in the relationship between the similarity of knowledge stocks and the quality of patents. That is, moderate diversity in knowledge stocks between establishments rather than extreme similarity or extreme diversity is important for knowledge creation. Second, focusing on the differences in technology class, we find an inverse U-shaped pattern except in the lowest technologies, and the peak of the inverse U-shape is larger in the higher technologies. This implies that the common knowledge between establishments is important in the higher technologies. Third, we find that the physical distance between collaborating establishments has a negative effect on the quality of patents.
    Date: 2015–04
  4. By: Hélène Dernis (OECD); Mafini Dosso (European Commission JRC-IPTS); Fernando Hervas (European Commission JRC-IPTS); Valentine Millot (OECD); Mariagrazia Squicciarini (OECD); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission JRC-IPTS)
    Abstract: This report presents original data and statistics on the innovation output of world top corporate R&D investors. Essentially descriptive in nature, it presents statistics about the technological profiles of companies, their trademark strategies for new products and services and about the extent to which these two forms of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are bundled to protect and appropriate the returns from investment in knowledge-based assets. The report provides interesting insights about the innovation strategies of this sample of world leading corporate R&D investors and opens the door to further research and analysis about companies' global strategies for knowledge development and exploitation. The main target audience of this report is the policy and research communities, as well as analysts with an interest in supporting evidence-based policy making in the area of innovation and industrial policies. This joint EC-OECD report builds on the efforts to collect up-to-date, reliable and comparable company data on the top corporate R&D investors worldwide carried-out by the European Commission since 2004 (the EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard publication) and on the solid knowledge and experience of the OECD in developing and providing robust and state of the art indicators on science, technology and industry (see for example OECD's STI Scoreboard publications).
    Keywords: Patent, Trademark, IP bundle, Scoreboard, Top corporate R&D investors
    Date: 2015–03
  5. By: Basant, Rakesh; Srinivasan, Shuchi
    Abstract: With the advent of TRIPS, the IP regimes have changed in most WTO member countries. India also came up with its own version of TRIPS compatible IP regime which has been hailed by some as a ‘model’ regime for developing countries, while others are not convinced that it will provide the right incentives for medical innovation and enhance access to healthcare. This paper undertakes a review of available studies to provide a perspective on the role of IP protection in developing healthcare innovations. Broadly, the relevant literature in the context of India has followed two strands: some studies focus on the implications of the new IP regime on access to healthcare, while others explore the implications of IP on innovation in general and medical innovation, in particular. Interestingly, the two strands do not converge. Moreover, many studies view IP driven innovations as a constraint on access, as these are expected to be monopolized by the IP owner. We argue that there is merit in viewing healthcare access and innovation as complementary processes. This is particularly the case when one defines ‘health innovation’ more broadly to include:(a) Product innovations in drugs; (b) Process innovations in pharmaceutical industry; (c) New drug delivery mechanisms , bio-enhancers and dosage forms; (d) Product innovations in medical equipment and devices; (e) Innovations in the delivery of health services; and (f) Policy innovations to enhance access to healthcare.
  6. By: Ludivine Blanc
    Abstract: The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most competitive sectors in the European Union. With its substantial investments in research and development, this industry represents a key asset for the European economy and a major source of growth and employment. However, despite the importance of the pharmaceutical sector for the European Union, few researchers have attempted to assess the determinants of the EU exports of pharmaceuticals. This paper aims at filling the aforementioned gap by examining what drives EU exports of pharmaceuticals. In order to tackle this question, this paper has derived hypotheses from the Gravity Model of Trade and the relevant academic literature on pharmaceuticals. Based on an econometric analysis, the research sheds light on the complex interaction of factors influencing the EU exports of pharmaceuticals. The paper finds that the protection of intellectual property in the receiving countries, their economic size, the importance of their health sector, and the quality of infrastructures constitute major drivers to the EU exports of pharmaceuticals. On the contrary, the research shows that transports costs as well as tariff barriers and non-tariff barriers tend to hinder the EU exports of pharmaceuticals.
    Keywords: pharmaceutical industry, exports, gravity model, intellectual property rights, non-tariff barriers, free trade agreements.
    JEL: F14 C23
    Date: 2015–04

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