nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2015‒04‒25
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. The nature of innovative activity and the protection of intellectual property: a post TRIPS perspective from Asia By Kamal Saggi; Difei Geng
  2. A time to nourish? Evaluating the impact of innovative public procurement on technological generality through patent data By RAITERI Emilio
  3. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents By Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Ju-Ting Tang
  4. How inventor royalty shares affect patenting and income in Portugal and Spain By Pere Arqué-Castells; Rui M Cartaxo; Jose García-Quevedo; Manuel Mira Godinho

  1. By: Kamal Saggi (Vanderbilt University); Difei Geng (Vanderbilt University)
    Abstract: This paper examines trends in innovative activity in several major Asian countries during 1997-2011 as measured by their filings and grants of various types of intellectual property (IP). By almost all measures, there has been a remarkable increase in innovative activity in China. In fact, in 2011 China accounted for roughly 25% of global patent applications. However, several indirect measures suggest that the quality of this newly created Chinese IP is not (yet) world class. For example, relative to residents of other major Asian countries and the United States, Chinese residents tend to file IP applications in foreign markets at a much lower rate. Similarly, the ratio of royalty payments earned by Chinese residents to the number of patents granted to them is fairly low by international standards. Finally, the ratio of patent to utility model applications (typically granted for relatively minor innovations) in China is also relatively small.
    Keywords: innovation, protection of intellectual property, patents, trademarks, industrial designs, TRIPS, Asia
    JEL: O3 O5
    Date: 2014–05–27
  2. By: RAITERI Emilio
    Abstract: Innovative public procurement has been increasingly considered as a form of public support to innovative activities from both scholars and policy makers. Economic historians suggested an even more fundamental role for procurement in setting the pace of technological change, reporting how defense-related procurement had a major impact for the emergence of many general purpose technologies (GPT) developed in the United States in the 20th century. Conceiving the arrival of a GPT as a process unfolding in time, the paper surmises that procurement might represent one of the most important element in creating the right soil to \"cultivate\" a technology that has the potential to reach high levels of pervasiveness. To test this hypothesis I make use of patent data and patent citations. Citations allow to identify the connection between innovations related to public procurement and their technological antecedents and to measure the generality of the patents. Grounding on these two considerations, I hypothesize that receiving a citation from a patent related to public procurement raises the generality level of the cited patent. I design a quasi-experiment in which I compare the change in the generality level over time, between a group of treated and a group of control patents. A patent is assigned to the treatment group if it receives a citation from a patent related to public procurement. Results suggest a positive and significant impact of innovative public procurement upon the generality of a patent. Public demand seems to have crucial importance in increasing the pervasiveness of a technology, calling for Schumpeterian demand policies.
    Keywords: Economics of Innovation, General Purpose Technologies, Public Procurement, Patent Data, Technology Policy
    JEL: O30 H57 O33 O38 C21
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Chia-Lin Chang (National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan); Michael McAleer (Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain); Ju-Ting Tang (National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan)
    Abstract: With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibly invested in international cooperation, learning, innovation, technology diffusion and knowledge. In this paper, we use a panel data set of 40 countries from 1981 to 2008 and a negative binomial model, using a novel set of cross-border patents and joint patents as proxy variables for technology diffusion, in order to investigate such diffusion. The empirical results suggest that, if it is desired to shift from foreign to domestic technology, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for business enterprises and higher education, exports and technology. If the focus is on increasing bilateral technology diffusion, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for higher education and technology.
    Keywords: International Technology Diffusion, Exports, Imports, Joint Patent, Cross-border Patent, R&D, Negative Binomial Panel Data
    JEL: F14 F21 O30 O57
    Date: 2013–07–22
  4. By: Pere Arqué-Castells (Northwestern University & IEB); Rui M Cartaxo (Universidade de Lisboa, UECE); Jose García-Quevedo (University of Barcelona & IEB); Manuel Mira Godinho (Universidade de Lisboa and UECE)
    Abstract: Portuguese and Spanish universities have adopted well-defined royalty sharing schedules during the last fifteen years. We investigate whether these inventor royalty shares have been effective at stimulating inventors’ efforts and ultimately improving university outcomes. We base our empirical analysis on university-level data as well as on new self-collected surveys completed by inventors and Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs). Econometric evidence from the university-level dataset indicates that royalty shares have no impact on patenting or licensing income. The same result emerges from the inventors’ survey, with most respondents claiming to be largely unaffected by royalty sharing. Evidence from both the TTO and inventors’ surveys suggests that inventors do not react to royalty sharing because of the poor commercial prospects of their inventions, which means there is little income to be shared. These poor prospects appear to reflect the fact that the TTOs do not focus sufficiently on commercializing inventions and inventors are unable to produce potentially licensable inventions.
    Keywords: Patents, IPR, university, knowledge transference
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2015

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