nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2015‒03‒27
five papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Trends of Korean technology convergence research: the network analysis focusing on the patent co-classification in Korea and US By Yong-gook Bae; Young-Hyun Jin
  2. Public Health and Intellectual Property By Ricardo Sichel
  3. The relationship between Purchase Intention and Product Involvement: The role of Brand Attitude as a mediator on this relationship By Adnan Butt
  4. Possibilities of social networks usage in the process of brand value building and managing – results of survey focused on the customer's perceptions By Jana Majerová; Tomáš Klieštik, prof.
  5. Green Brands: An Avenue to the Creation of Economic Value? By Darryl Waldron

  1. By: Yong-gook Bae (Korea Institute of S&T Evaluation and Planning); Young-Hyun Jin (Korea Institute of S&T Evaluation and Planning)
    Abstract: The technological convergence, or the technological fusion, has become more important to create new technologies as well as new industries. As increasing of importance, we reviewed the IPC co-classification and citation information of the United States and Korean patents in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Network analysis methods and indexes including as a degree centrality and a betweenness centrality are used to analyze the characteristics of the technological convergence trends.Various networks were created based upon IPC co-classification and citation information in each country and year. In addition, IPC citation was utilized information between the patents which has different IPCs. Also, in the case of Korean patents, networks were created and analyzed to find the characteristics according to the types of institution such as university, public institution and business entity. Through the analysis, it was found that the trends and the uniqueness of the convergence researches. Those results shows the differences between two countries, the differences and changes between degree centrality and betweenness centrality, the differences between co-classification and citation. Also, it was found that the change according to each years from 2009 to 2011.
    Keywords: patent, convergence, technology, SNA
    JEL: D85 O32 O33
    Date: 2014–12
  2. By: Ricardo Sichel (Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office)
    Abstract: As a consequence of the growing life expectancy there is a growing cost for public health policy, since there is a growing number of degenerative diseases. There are new diseases appearing and also the necessity of new medicaments in order to grant a better life quality for the population. But the cost to acquire these new medicaments is increasing and that doesn’t happen to the income, especially in developing countries. In order to satisfy the necessities of the society, the pharmaceutical industry has been trying to develop researches. Under these conditions the public policies must be oriented, but not in order to hinder the technological development; and one of these possibilities is the patent system. It must also be considered that new diseases appear and that the immunological system must be strengthened as a consequence of an acquired resistance to virus and bacteria to the used medicaments. The constant evolution of the health condition and the need of security in the use of new medicaments, which also include its cost, consist in a frequent dilemma of the policy makers. It must be considered that the simple fact of importing technology does not mean the capacity to develop it, which has to be done by establishing adequate policies in order to fulfil the international completion. This question becomes delicate, when considering the case of pharmaceutical products, where the patent protection has the objective of market domination. We must also consider that technology transfer will be hindered if there is the possibility of losing markets, by the implementation made by the importer, in order to develop local technological procedures. Technology has its economic importance, which originated from its capacity to improve equilibrium between social and economical development. Technological policies are one of the most relevant bases for economical development. This analysis involves two questions: how can the legal system grant the improvement of the pharmaceutical industry, in order to implement the necessary innovation with the aim of assuring life quality? How assure that the State has the necessary means to implement health policies that assure the objective of the first question?
    Keywords: Patent Publich Health Research Development Welfare
    JEL: H51 K33 L38
    Date: 2014–10
  3. By: Adnan Butt (Iqra University)
    Abstract: This study tests the relationship between the product involvement (Pd. Inv) and purchase intention (PI) and the mediating role of Brand Attitude (BA) in the relationship between Product Involvement (Pd. Inv) and Purchase Intention (PI) by using a sample of 450 people. With reference to previous studies it has been observed that there is a strong relationship between Pd. Inv and Purchase Intention (PI), while a positive relationship is also found in Pd. Inv and Brand Attitude (BA). The researcher tries to find out the nature of the relationship between Brand Attitude (BA) and Purchase Intention (PI) and whether Brand Attitude (BA) mediates the relationship between Pd. Inv and Purchase Intention (PI) or not. A CFA test is performed to develop the model by using AMOS 18. The results of the study suggest that the relationship between the Pd. Inv and Purchase Intention (PI) is insignificant which is contrary to the results of the previous finding but it is found that Brand Attitude (BA) has a positive mediation effect on this relationship. It shows that when both the variables, Product Involvement and Brand Attitude (BA), are taken in consideration together Product Involvement would have a significant impact on the Purchase Intention (PI). It is also found that there is a significant relationship between Brand Attitude (BA) and Purchase Intention.
    Keywords: Product Involvement, Purchase Intention, Mediation and Brand Attitude
    JEL: M30
    Date: 2014–06
  4. By: Jana Majerová (University of Zilina in Zilina, Faculty of operation and economics of transport and communications, Department of economics); Tomáš Klieštik, prof. (University of Zilina in Zilina, Faculty of operation and economics of transport and communications, Department of economics)
    Abstract: Worldwide importance of brands has acquired a new dimension and an increasing emphasis putted on the marketing strategies of branding has become an imperative of the company’s success. One of the possible ways how to develop branding strategies is the e-marketing usage. The basic problem of the realized survey was the insufficient use of e-marketing in the context of branding. So, the aim of the survey was to obtain information about the specifics of Slovak customer's perception of branding activities, which is necessary to take into account in the process of implementation of foreign theoretical concepts formulated in the context of e-marketing implementation.Given the above, the aim of this paper is to present results of the questionnaire survey. But according to its limited extent, we focus only on the selected findings which form the basic framework for social networks usage in the context of branding in specific Slovak conditions. These are indicators of the following:•the communication policy has a significant impact on brand value perception, what implies the necessity of new trends (social networks usage also) monitoring and their application into praxis,•usage of the social networks is redeemable also by their nature, because they themselves represent the life style of user which plays a very important role in the process of customer’s identification with the brand identity,•social networks create a suitable environment for internet advertising which influences the customers mostly in the process of brand value creation,•social networks are suitable for propagation of messages concerning about brand's social responsible behavior, which has an impact on the perceived brand value.On the other hand we consider necessary to point out the findings which are able to disprove effectiveness of the social networks. These findings are as follows:•advertising is suitable tool of the marketing communication only in the first stages of the brand’s life cycle,•customer's trust into the communication activities of brands realized via social networks is still low.The whole text of the paper is focused on the justification of all mentioned findings in the context of the results of realized survey with acceptance of the specifics of Slovak customer's behavior.
    Keywords: brand, branding, brand value, e-marketing, communication policy, social networks
    JEL: M30
    Date: 2014–12
  5. By: Darryl Waldron (Trinity University)
    Abstract: Green Brands: An Avenue to the Creation of Economic Value? Abstract The research undertaken here attempts to test what in some quarters has become conventional wisdom that investment in green or sustainability branding necessarily leads to the creation of shareholder value, even though statistical evidence of such an a relationship has proven elusive. Here GreenBiz/Interbrand's 2012-2013 best global green brands data base was used to conduct a step-wise multiple regression analysis, where the rankings and selected financial metrics of Interbrand's top 50 global green brands were regressed on the market-to-book multiples of each brand in order to determine whether being a leading global green brand is indeed a statistically significant avenue to the creation of shareholder value. This is important research because of the attention GreenBiz/Interbrand's Best Global Green Brands attract and because of the potential such findings have for influencing the actions of private sector management, investors, government officials and researchers engaged in the study of branding.
    Keywords: Causality gap, macro-value drivers, micro-value drivers, triple bottom line, green performance elements, green perception elements, dynamic capabilities
    Date: 2014–06

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