nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2015‒03‒22
seven papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. Incongruities of real and intellectual property: Economic concerns in patent policy and practice By Jeitschko, Thomas D.
  2. Technological Development and Software Piracy By Romeu, Andrés; Martinez-Sanchez, Francisco
  3. Patent Purchase as a Policy for Pharmaceuticals By Ben van Hout; Jolian McHardy; Aki Tsuchiya
  4. Taxation and the International Mobility of Inventors By Ufuk Akcigit; Salomé Baslandze; Stefanie Stantcheva
  5. Decomposition analysis of green chemical technology inventions from 1971 to 2010 in Japan By Fujii, Hidemichi; Shirakawa, Seiji
  6. Analysis of Specific Legal and Trade-related Issues in a Possible PH-EU Economic Partnership: The Philippine Constitution, Competition Policy, Government Procurement, Intellectual Property Rights, Dispute Settlement, and Trade Remedies By Barcenas, Lai-Lynn Angelica B.
  7. The Coexistence of PDO and Brand Labels: The Case of the Ready-sliced Parma Ham By Arfini, Filippo; Pazzona, Marina

  1. By: Jeitschko, Thomas D.
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Romeu, Andrés; Martinez-Sanchez, Francisco (Fundamentos del Análisis Económico)
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the differences in piracy rates from one country to another. Like previous papers on the topic, we find that more developed countries have lower incentives for pirating. Unlike previous papers, we find that the piracy rate is positively correlated with the tax burden rate but negatively correlated with the domestic market size and exports over GDP. We also separate the impacts of education and R&D on piracy, and find two effects with opposite signs. Moreover, we find that those countries with smaller, more efficient bureaucracies are likely to protect intellectual property more effectively. Finally, we show that the spread of access to the Internet is negatively correlated with the software piracy rate.
    Keywords: piracy rate, education, R&D, quality bureaucracies, intellectual property, Internet
    JEL: D12 R23
    Date: 2015–03
  3. By: Ben van Hout (Health Economics and Decision Science, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield); Jolian McHardy (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield); Aki Tsuchiya (Health Economics and Decision Science, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: We consider a proposal for pharmaceutical patenting policy: namely, for society to grant and purchase the patent of the first of a new class of drug, instead of purchasing the drug, and award no further patents to runner-up drugs, producing or licensing production with price set to maximise welfare subject to cover costs. It is often observed that when the first of a new class of drugs is patented, it does not necessarily halt the development of a second and a third drug of the same class. The result may be a number of rugs with similar efficacy at similar prices well above the production costs. Where this happens, society could substantially reduce the cost of duplicated R&D and the price of the drug by buying the first patent. This would benefit more patients and produce larger health gains. Under this policy social welfare is increased, the winner is fully compensated, while the runner-up firm incurs possible losses - but there are viable conditions under which firms would not lose on average. We take a drug life-cycle approach to the welfare gains of a patent purchase policy. The results are generated based upon a number of stylised facts regarding R&D in the pharmaceutical industry.
    Keywords: Patent Purchase; Pharmaceuticals; Life-Cycle; Welfare
    JEL: D4 L5 O3
    Date: 2015–03
  4. By: Ufuk Akcigit (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and NBER); Salomé Baslandze (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania); Stefanie Stantcheva (Department of Economics, Harvard University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of top tax rates on inventors' mobility since 1977. We put special emphasis on”superstar" inventors, those with the most and most valuable patents. We use panel data on inventors from the United States and European Patent Offices to track inventors' locations over time and combine it with international effective top tax rate data. We construct a detailed set of proxies for inventors' counterfactual incomes in each possible destination country including, among others, measures of patent quality and technological fit with each potential destination. We find that superstar top 1% inventors are significantly affected by top tax rates when deciding where to locate. The elasticity of the number of domestic inventors to the net-of-tax rate is relatively small, between 0.04 and 0.06, while the elasticity of the number of foreign inventors is much larger, around 1.3. The elasticities to top net-of-tax rates decline as one moves down the quality distribution of inventors. Inventors who work in multinational companies are more likely to take advantage of tax differentials. On the other hand, if the company of an inventor has a higher share of its research activity in a given country, the inventor is less sensitive to the tax rate in that country.
    Keywords: Taxation, Migration, International Mobility, Superstars, Innovation, Patents, Invention Patents, Invention.
    JEL: F22 H24 H31 J44 J61 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2015–02–16
  5. By: Fujii, Hidemichi; Shirakawa, Seiji
    Abstract: Green chemistry plays an important role in achieving sustainable development. This study examines the determinant factors for technology invention related to green chemistry in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. Our main findings are that the number of green chemical technologies applied to production processes have increased because of the scale-up of overall research activities and increased priority. Additionally, the number of patent applications for green chemical technology-related product design and renewable energy increased mainly because of increased research priority. The differences in determinants among types of green chemical technology inventions are useful for formulating an effective policy to promote innovation in green chemical technology.
    Keywords: green chemistry, decomposition analysis, patent, research and development, Japan
    JEL: O3 O31 O34
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Barcenas, Lai-Lynn Angelica B.
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the Philippines` defensive and offensive interests in a free trade agreement with the European Union in the areas of competition policy, government procurement, intellectual property rights, dispute settlement, and trade remedies. It examines these interests in accordance with the mandate of the Philippine Constitution, and the Philippine position vis-a-vis the goals and strategies of the European Union with respect to its trade relations with its trading partners.
    Keywords: Philippines-EU free trade agreement, trade negotiations, Philippine Constitution, competition, government procurement, intellectual property rights, dispute settlement, anti-dumping, countervailing measures, safeguards
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Arfini, Filippo; Pazzona, Marina
    Abstract: The general purpose of the paper is to investigate consumer's attitude towards high quality agri-food products. The research analyses PDO labelled products packaged by law in the production area. Within the same area, the Producers' Group imposes the use of the Consortium label as a quality sign. As consequence, collective labels as well are find on a product packaging, by virtue of the fact that not only they graphically and symbolically represent quality, but they also inform customers about the properties of a specific PDO good. Moreover, on the same package other labels (industrial and private ones) are displayed on the same package. At this purpose, the research analysis of the customers' perception of such particular labels combination focusing the case of the ready-sliced Parma ham. The analysis gives the opportunity of evaluating, from an economic perspective, aspects related to the use of multi-labelling strategy.
    Keywords: PDO, labels, consumer willingness to pay, Quality perception, Agribusiness, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2014–10

This nep-ipr issue is ©2015 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.