nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2014‒12‒24
four papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  1. A Survey of the Economics of Patent Systems and Procedures By Eckert, Andrew; Langinier, Corinne
  2. Patents and the Global Diffusion of New Drugs By Cockburn, Iain M; Lanjouw, Jean O; Schankerman, Mark
  3. Intellectual Property By Michele Boldrin; David K Levine
  4. The diffusion of patented oil and gas technology with environmental uses: a forward patent citation analysis By Maria Teresa Costa; Nestor Duch-Brown

  1. By: Eckert, Andrew (University of Alberta, Department of Economics); Langinier, Corinne (University of Alberta, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The last several decades have seen increases in patenting activity worldwide, as well as growing issues related to patent quality. In response to these quality issues a recent patent literature has emerged, that investigates the behavior and incentives of patent examiners, applicants, and third parties. In this paper, we provide an overview of patent procedures, patent systems and a survey of the new economic literature on patent systems. Both theoretical and empirical papers are considered. Policy implications coming from this literature are presented.
    Keywords: patents; patent examination; patent systems; innovation; incentives
    JEL: K40 O31
    Date: 2014–09–01
  2. By: Cockburn, Iain M; Lanjouw, Jean O; Schankerman, Mark
    Abstract: This paper studies how patent rights and price regulation affect how fast new drugs are launched in different countries, using newly constructed data on launches of 642 new drugs in 76 countries for the period 1983-2002, and information on the duration and content of patent and price control regimes. Price regulation strongly delays launch, while longer and more extensive patent protection accelerates it. Health policy institutions, and economic and demographic factors that make markets more profitable, also speed up diffusion. The effects are robust to using instruments to control for endogeneity of policy regimes. The results point to an important role for patents and other policy choices in driving the diffusion of new innovations.
    JEL: I15 I18 K19 L65 O31 O33 O34 O38
    Date: 2014–09
  3. By: Michele Boldrin; David K Levine
    Date: 2014–12–01
  4. By: Maria Teresa Costa (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB); Nestor Duch-Brown (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB)
    Abstract: Relevant advances in the mitigation of environmental impact could be obtained by the appropriate diffusion of existing environmental technologies. In this paper, we look at the diffusion of knowledge related to environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry. To assess knowledge spillovers from oil and gas inventions as a measure of technology diffusion, we rely on forward patent citations methodology. Results show that there is a strong likelihood that the citing patent will be eventually linked to environmental technologies if the original oil and gas invention has already environmental uses. Moreover, both intra and intersectoral spillovers produce a "turnabout" effect, meaning that citing patents show the opposite quality level of the cited patent. Our results support the idea that more sector-specific environmental policies, with an emphasis on diffusion, would significantly improve the use of environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry.
    Keywords: Forward patent citations, petroleum industry, environmental and technology policies
    JEL: Q4 Q55 O31
    Date: 2014

This nep-ipr issue is ©2014 by Giovanni Ramello. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.