nep-ipr New Economics Papers
on Intellectual Property Rights
Issue of 2014‒01‒17
six papers chosen by
Giovanni Ramello
Universita' del Piemonte Orientale Amedeo Avogadro

  1. Trademark or patent? The effects of market structure, customer type and venture capital financing on start-ups' IP decisions By de Vries, A.G.B.; Pennings, H.P.G.; Block, J.H.
  2. Cooperating with the Competition: Efficient Patent Pooling and the Choice of a New Standard By Gallini, Nancy
  3. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents By Chang, C-L.; McAleer, M.J.; Tang, J-T.
  4. Do Inventors Talk to Strangers? On Proximity and Collaborative Knowledge Creation By Riccardo Crescenzi; Max Nathan; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
  5. Extracting Value through Technology and Service Platforms: The Case of Licensing, Services and Royalties By Kalm, Matias; Seppälä, Timo; Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki
  6. Inter-format competition among retailers: The role of private label products in market delineation By Haucap, Justus; Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Klein, Gordon J.; Rickert, Dennis; Wey, Christian

  1. By: de Vries, A.G.B.; Pennings, H.P.G.; Block, J.H.
    Abstract: We analyze the initial intellectual property (IP) right of 4,703 start-up entrants in the US, distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. The results show that start-ups are more likely to file for a trademark instead of a patent when entering into more competitive market structures. Further, we find that start-ups with a focus on distribution that serves end-consumers are more likely to file for a trademark and that start-ups that operate upstream and sell to other businesses are more likely to file for a patent. Lastly, the external influences on a start-up‟s management, such as the involvement of a venture capitalist (VC), affect IP applications. The increased incentive of VC-backed start-ups to become operational on the market makes them more likely to file initial IP in the form of a trademark rather than a patent. Among other factors, we control for R&D and advertising intensity in the industry and distinguish between more technical and more service-driven industries.
    Keywords: competition, intellectual property, patents, trademarks, venture capital
    JEL: D21 L10 L20 M00 O34
    Date: 2013–04–09
  2. By: Gallini, Nancy
    Abstract: I examine the private and social efficiency of patent pools in a setting in which owners of intellectual property (IP), are both vertically and horizontally related. The relationship is vertical through the ownership of complementary IP and horizontal in that at least one member owns a competing product. For this hybrid structure – referred to as overlapping ownership – I analyze the interplay between two organizational decisions: the standard-setting process in which participants choose a product type (indexed by its differentiation from the current standard), and the subsequent patent pooling decision. Consumers can be better off with patent pooling as a result of lower prices (the complements effect) and greater product variety (the differentiation effect), even when a pool member is also a competitor of the new standard. However, in comparing new product collaborations across ownership regimes, consumers prefer those that admit no overlapping ownership. These results yield insights for antitrust rules promoting efficient IP agreements.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property, Industrial Organization, Patent Pools, Standards, Antitrust
    JEL: L2 L44
    Date: 2014–01–06
  3. By: Chang, C-L.; McAleer, M.J.; Tang, J-T.
    Abstract: With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibly invested in international cooperation, learning, innovation, technology diffusion and knowledge. In this paper, we use a panel data set of 40 countries from 1981 to 2008 and a negative binomial model, using a novel set of cross-border patents and joint patents as proxy variables for technology diffusion, in order to investigate such diffusion. The empirical results suggest that, if it is desired to shift from foreign to domestic technology, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for business enterprises and higher education, exports and technology. If the focus is on increasing bilateral technology diffusion, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for higher education and technology.
    Keywords: R&D, cross-border patent, exports, imports, international technology diffusion, joint patent, negative binomial panel data
    JEL: F14 F21 O30 O57
    Date: 2013–07–01
  4. By: Riccardo Crescenzi; Max Nathan; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
    Abstract: This paper investigates how physical, organisational, institutional, cognitive, social, and ethnic proximities between inventors shape their collaboration decisions. Using a new panel of UK inventors and a novel identification strategy, this paper systematically explores the net effects of all these 'proximities' on co-patenting. The regression analysis allows us to identify the full effects of each proximity, both on choice of collaborator and on the underlying decision to collaborate. The results show that physical proximity is an important influence on collaboration, but is mediated by organisational and ethnic factors. Over time, physical proximity increases in salience. For multiple inventors, geographic proximity is, however, much less important than organisational, social, and ethnic links. For inventors as a whole, proximities are fundamentally complementary, while for multiple inventors they are substitutes.
    Keywords: Innovation, patents, proximities, cities, regions, knowledge spillovers, collaboration, ethnicity
    JEL: O31 O33 R11 R23
    Date: 2014–01
  5. By: Kalm, Matias; Seppälä, Timo; Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki
    Abstract: Technology and service platforms are becoming even more important to firms and countries as software built on these platforms is integrated into physical end-products and services across business environments. We find two especially significant topics to explore. First, there is a clear motivation to increase understanding of how platform-based business models integrate with the value-adding activities of firms, which then foster a country’s economic development. Second, there is lack of knowledge on how value is created, captured and distributed in young and growing firms through intangible assets, i.e., tacit and non-tacit knowledge. This brief discusses these topics.
    Date: 2014–01–07
  6. By: Haucap, Justus; Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Klein, Gordon J.; Rickert, Dennis; Wey, Christian
    Abstract: This paper analyses the extent of inter-format retail competition between supermarkets, discounters and drugstores in Germany, using data from the German market for diapers. We estimate a random coefficient logit model at the individual household level. Based on consumer substitution patterns, we calculate manufacturers' and retailers' estimated marginal costs and margins and, based on these margins, apply standard market delineation techniques which suggest that the strongest substitution patterns are between the leading manufacturer brand and private labels sold at drugstores and discounters. This finding contrasts with recent speculations by competition authorities that private label products may belong to a different antitrust market than manufacturers' brands. --
    Keywords: Discrete Choice,Demand Estimation,Market Delineation,Grocery Retail Markets,Antitrust
    JEL: L1 L4 L8 C5
    Date: 2013

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